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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of preoperative renal dysfunction and long-term outcomes following lung cancer surgery. METHODS: Using the Japanese Lung Cancer Registry data, we retrospectively examined 16,377 patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer during 2010. Patients' renal function status was categorized as follows: serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL (control, n = 16,169), serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL with no dialysis (nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, n = 113), and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease (n = 95). The association of patients' characteristics with overall survival was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rates in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease were significantly worse than that in the control group (52.9% and 57.5% vs 78.0%; P < .001 for both comparisons), but were comparable to the reported 5-year overall survival rates in the natural history of end-stage renal disease (∼60%) and moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (∼50%). Cancer causes not related to lung cancer accounted for 62.2% of deaths in dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease, which was more frequent than that in the control group (P = .002). Dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for overall survival after lung cancer surgery (hazard ratio, 2.05 [P < .001] and hazard ratio, 2.04 [P = .001], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative renal dysfunction may be adversely associated with overall survival after lung cancer surgery. Our findings could aid patients to set proper expectation of the risks and benefits about surgery for lung cancer.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine antibody responses in healthcare workers who receive the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and identify factors that predict the response. METHODS: We recruited healthcare workers receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at the Chiba University Hospital COVID-19 Vaccine Center. Blood samples were obtained before the 1st dose and after the 2nd dose vaccination, and serum antibody titers were determined using Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2S, an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. We established a model to identify the baseline factors predicting post-vaccine antibody titers using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Two thousand fifteen individuals (median age 37-year-old, 64.3% female) were enrolled in this study, of which 10 had a history of COVID-19. Before vaccination, 21 participants (1.1%) had a detectable antibody titer (≥0.4 U/mL) with a median titer of 35.9 U/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 7.8 - 65.7). After vaccination, serum anti-SARS-CoV-2S antibodies (≥0.4 U/mL) were detected in all 1774 participants who received the 2nd dose with a median titer of 2060.0 U/mL (IQR 1250.0 - 2650.0). Immunosuppressive medication (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), time from 2nd dose to sample collection (p < 0.001), glucocorticoids (p = 0.020), and drinking alcohol (p = 0.037) were identified as factors predicting lower antibody titers after vaccination, whereas previous COVID-19 (p < 0.001), female (p < 0.001), time between 2 doses (p < 0.001), and medication for allergy (p = 0.024) were identified as factors predicting higher serum antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that healthcare workers universally have good antibody responses to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The predictive factors identified in our study may help optimize the vaccination strategy.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether the surgical correction of chest deformity is associated with the growth of the lung parenchyma after surgery for pectus excavatum. METHODS: Ten patients with pectus excavatum who were treated by the Nuss procedure were examined. The preoperative and postoperative computed tomography (2.5 ± 1.2 years after surgery) scans were performed, and the Haller index, lung volume and lung density were analyzed using a three-dimensional image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm, Japan). The radiological lung weight was calculated as follows: lung volume (ml) × lung density (g/ml). RESULTS: The average age of the 10 patients (men 8; women 2) was 13.8 years (range: 6-26 years). The Haller index was significantly improved from the preoperative value of 5.18 ± 2.20 to the postoperative value of 3.68 ± 1.38 (P = 0.0025). Both the lung volume and weight had significantly increased by 107.1 ± 19.6% and 121.6 ± 11.3%, respectively, after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: A significant increase in the weight of the lung after surgical correction suggests that the growth of the lung parenchyma is associated with the correction of chest deformity in younger patients with pectus excavatum.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13526, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188146

RESUMO

Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is known to influence a poor patient outcome, even in patients presenting with early-stage disease. However, the pre-operative diagnosis of STAS remains challenging. With the progress of radiomics-based analyses several attempts have been made to predict STAS based on radiological findings. In the present study, patients with NSCLC which is located peripherally and tumors ≤ 2 cm in size on computed tomography (CT) that were potential candidates for sublobar resection were enrolled in this study. The radiologic features of the targeted tumors on thin-section CT were extracted using the PyRadiomics v3.0 software package, and a predictive model for STAS was built using the t-test and XGBoost. Thirty-five out of 226 patients had a STAS histology. The predictive model of STAS indicated an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.77. There was no significant difference in the overall survival (OS) for lobectomy between the predicted-STAS (+) and (-) groups (p = 0.19), but an unfavorable OS for sublobar resection was indicated in the predicted-STAS (+) group (p < 0.01). These results suggest that radiomics with machine-learning helped to develop a favorable model of STAS (+) NSCLC, which might be useful for the proper selection of candidates who should undergo sublobar resection.

5.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(10): 1421-1431, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Currently, inhaled nitric oxide (NO) therapy for lung transplantation is not covered by public health insurance in Japan. In this study, we evaluated the perioperative use and safety of inhaled NO therapy for lung transplantation. METHODS: Data regarding the duration of treatment and adverse events of inhaled NO therapy were collected for all lung transplantations performed from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019, at nine lung transplant facilities in Japan. RESULTS: During the study period, lung transplants were performed in 357 patients, among whom inhaled NO therapy was administered to 349 patients (98%). The median initial and median maximum inhaled NO doses were 10 and 20 ppm, respectively. Inhaled NO therapy was introduced during surgery and continued postoperatively in 313 patients (90%) for a median of 4 days. Significant improvements in oxygenation and decreases in pulmonary arterial pressure were observed in patients receiving inhaled NO therapy. Side effects of inhaled NO therapy, such as methemoglobinemia, were observed in 15 patients (4%), with a significant incidence in patients aged < 18 years. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO therapy was performed in almost all patients who underwent lung transplantation in Japan and showed reasonable efficacy. Therefore, public health insurance coverage for inhaled NO therapy during lung transplantation is recommended.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão , Óxido Nítrico , Administração por Inalação , Humanos , Japão , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(2): 395-404, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle injection (EBUS-TBNI) is a novel technique for treating peribronchial targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate preliminary feasibility of thrombolysis of pulmonary emboli via EBUS-TBNI. METHODS: Yorkshire pigs (30-48 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Pre-formed autologous clots were injected sequentially into bilateral lower pulmonary arteries in bilateral models (PE1 and PE2, respectively) or into 1 side in unilateral models using a 21-gauge EBUS-TBNA needle under EBUS guidance. In the bilateral model, 2 hours after clot injection either 25 mL of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA; 1mg/mL) or distilled water were administered into each embolus via 25-gauge EBUS-TBNA needle. In the unilateral model, 25 mg t-PA was administered intravenously. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously, and clot dissolved volume was evaluated by EBUS 30 minutes post-treatment administration. RESULTS: All clots (6.1 ± 1.7 mL) were successfully injected as documented by EBUS Doppler imaging. Clot injection in the bilateral model (n = 6) increased pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg: Baseline 19.2 ± 5.9 vs PE1: 26.7 ± 9.1, P = .005 vs PE2 29.9 ± 7.1, P = .0007). After t-PA TBNI in the bilateral model (n = 6), pulmonary arterial pressure at 30 minutes post-injection showed improvement (mm Hg: PE2 29.9 ± 7.1 vs post-t-PA 24.4 ± 3.9, P = .0283). Treatment with t-PA TBNI demonstrated superior clot dissolution at 30 minutes post-treatment (dissolved mm3: t-PA TBNI 625.4 ± 156.6 vs t-PA intravenously: 181.6 ± 94.3, P = .0003 vs distilled water TBNI 42.5 ± 33.0, P < .0001). There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-guided transbronchial thrombolysis may be a feasible approach for treating central pulmonary emboli.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Suínos
7.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe our ongoing multicenter, prospective, single-arm, phase II trial of neoadjuvant concurrent chemo-immuno-radiation therapy followed by surgical resection and adjuvant immunotherapy for resectable stage IIIA-B (discrete N2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (registered at the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center, Clinical Trials Information-195069). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Key inclusion criteria include (1) clinical T1-3/T4 (tumor size) N2 stage IIIA-B NSCLC, and (2) pathologically confirmed N2 without extranodal invasion (based on diagnostic imaging). Patients will receive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (carboplatin [area under the curve = 2] and paclitaxel [40 mg/m2] on days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29, with involved-field radiation therapy [RT] [dose 50 Gy] on days 1-25) and neoadjuvant immunotherapy (durvalumab [1500 mg] on days 1 and 29). Surgical resection with mediastinal lymph node dissection is performed within 2 to 6 weeks after RT. Consolidation therapy with durvalumab is administered for up to 1 year after surgery. The primary endpoint is major pathologic response (MPR) (≤10% residual viable tumor) according to the central pathological assessment. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The sample size is planned to be 31 patients based on the exact binomial distribution with a 1-sided significance level of 5% and a power of 80%, and assuming a threshold MPR rate of 40% and an expected MPR rate of 65%. CONCLUSION: This trial will help establish a novel treatment strategy for resectable N2-positive NSCLC.

8.
Respir Investig ; 59(4): 559-563, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883090

RESUMO

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) occurring after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematologic malignancies is a progressive and refractory disease, and lung transplantation (LTx) seems to be the only promising treatment. We report two cases of BOS after HSCT, which showed distinct clinical courses and were successfully treated with LTx. The respiratory symptoms and function of the two patients progressively deteriorated to a critical level during the waiting period. In one patient, recurrent and intractable pneumothoraxes consistent with thoracic air-leak syndrome (TALS) occurred, which were associated with pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis. TALS could accelerate clinical deterioration, thus permitting a shorter waiting period for LTx.

9.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(8): 1214-1221, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The innovation of novel systemic chemo/immunotherapy for metastatic head and neck cancer might contribute to prognostic improvement. We aimed to clarify the recent characteristics and outcomes of pulmonary metastasectomy for head and neck cancer. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy from January 2011 to December 2016 were included. The clinicopathological factors and survival were assessed by retrospective chart reviews. RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 39 months (range, 7-94 months). The median age was 66 years (range, 20-89 years), and 23 males were included. The primary tumor locations were as follows: pharynx (n = 12), nasal/paranasal cavity (n = 5), larynx (n = 4), and others (n = 4). The 5-year overall survival rate was 49%. In the univariate analysis, a history of local recurrence before pulmonary metastasis was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis. In 90% of patients with recurrence after pulmonary metastasectomy, the site of recurrence was the lung. Eight patients achieved long-term survival without any evidence of recurrence (median: 45 months). Molecular targeting chemotherapy and immune-checkpoint inhibitors were used in five patients with systemic recurrence after pulmonary metastasectomy, leading to preferable survival. CONCLUSIONS: In the current era of advances in systemic chemotherapy and immunotherapy, surgical indication has not changed for resectable pulmonary metastases and selected patients can still benefit from pulmonary metastasectomy. Further investigation is needed to clarify the significance of systemic therapy in patients with pulmonary metastasis of head and neck cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Metastasectomia , Idoso , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a need for educational materials and methods that can replace clinical clerkships (CCs) for online simulated clinical practice (online-sCP). This study evaluates the impact of using simulated electronic health records (sEHR) for inpatients, and electronic problem-based learning (e-PBL) and online virtual medical interviews (online-VMI) for outpatients, for an online-sCP using a learning management system (LMS) and online meeting system facilitated by a supervising physician. METHODS: The sEHR was reviewed by medical students and subsequently discussed with a supervising physician using an online meeting system. In the e-PBL, medical students reviewed the simulated patients and discussed on the LMS. For the online-VMI, a faculty member acted as an outpatient and a student acted as the doctor. Small groups of students discussed the clinical reasoning process using the online meeting system. A mixed-method design was implemented. Medical students self-assessed their clinical competence before and after the online-sCP. They answered questionnaires and participated in semi-structured focus group interviews (FGIs) regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the practice. RESULTS: Forty-three students completed the online-sCP during May and June 2020. All students indicated significant improvement in all aspects of self-evaluation of clinical performance after the online-sCP. Students using sEHR reported significant improvement in writing daily medical records and medical summaries. Students using e-PBL and online-VMI reported significant improvement in medical interviews and counseling. Students also indicated CCs as more useful for learning associated with medical interviews, physical examinations, and humanistic qualities like professionalism than the online-sCP. Eight FGIs were conducted (n = 42). The advantages of online-sCP were segregated into five categories (learning environment, efficiency, accessibility, self-paced learning, and interactivity); meanwhile, the disadvantages of online-sCP were classified into seven categories (clinical practice experience, learning environment, interactivity, motivation, memory retention, accessibility, and extraneous cognitive load). CONCLUSIONS: Online-sCP with sEHR, e-PBL, and online-VMI could be useful in learning some of the clinical skills acquired through CC. These methods can be implemented with limited preparation and resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estágio Clínico , Competência Clínica , Educação à Distância , Pandemias , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Documentação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Anamnese , Registros Médicos , Simulação de Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoavaliação (Psicologia)
11.
Int J Cancer ; 148(12): 3008-3018, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533494

RESUMO

Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at higher risk of developing lung cancers including squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), which typically carries a poor prognosis. Although the molecular basis of cancer development subsequent to IPF has not been fully investigated, we recently reported two epigenetic phenotypes characterized by frequent and infrequent DNA hypermethylation in SCC, and an association of the infrequent hypermethylation phenotype with IPF-associated SCCs. Here, we conducted targeted exon sequencing in SCCs with and without IPF using the Human Lung Cancer Panel to investigate the genetic basis of IPF-associated SCC. SCCs with and without IPF displayed comparable numbers of total mutations (137 ± 22 vs 131 ± 27, P = .5), nonsynonymous mutations (72 ± 14 vs 69 ± 16, P = .5), indels (3.0 ± 3.5 vs 3.0 ± 3.9, P = 1) and synonymous mutations (62 ± 9.1 vs 60 ± 12, P = .5). Signature 1 was the predominant signature in SCCs with and without IPF. SETD2 and NFE2L2 mutations were significantly associated with IPF (44% vs 13%, P = .03 for SETD2; 38% vs 10%, P = .04 for NFE2L2). MYC amplification, assessed by copy number variant analysis, was also significantly associated with IPF (18.8% vs 0%, P = .04). Mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A were observed relatively frequently in SCCs with frequent hypermethylation (P = .02 for TP53 and P = .06 for CDKN2A). Survival analysis revealed that the SETD2 mutation was significantly associated with worse prognosis (P = .04). Collectively, we found frequent involvement of SETD2 and NFE2L2 mutations and MYC amplification in SCCs with IPF, and an association of a SETD2 mutation with poorer prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Exoma , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
12.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(6): 913-923, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of vascular remodelling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. Hence, defining the origin of cells constituting intractable vascular lesions in PAH is expected to facilitate therapeutic progress. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the origin of intractable vascular lesions in PAH rodent models via bone marrow (BM) and orthotopic lung transplantation (LT). METHODS: To trace BM-derived cells, we prepared chimeric rats transplanted with BM cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. Male rats were transplanted with lungs obtained from female rats and vice versa. Pulmonary hypertension was induced in the transplanted rats via Sugen5416 treatment and subsequent chronic hypoxia (Su/Hx). RESULTS: In the chimeric Su/Hx models, GFP-positive cells were observed in the pulmonary vascular area. Moreover, the right ventricular systolic pressure was significantly lower compared with wild-type Su/Hx rats without BM transplantation (P = 0.009). PAH suppression was also observed in rats that received allograft transplanted BM transplantation. In male rats that received LT and Su/Hx, BM-derived cells carrying the Y chromosome were also detected in neointimal occlusive lesions of the transplanted lungs received from female rats. CONCLUSIONS: BM-derived cells participate in pulmonary vascular remodelling in the Su/Hx rat model, whereas BM transplantation may contribute to suppression of development of PAH.

13.
Surg Today ; 51(8): 1276-1284, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576927

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was performed to compare the outcome of lung transplantation (LT) for idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with that of LT for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: We reviewed, retrospectively, all adult patients who underwent LT for IPPFE or IPF in Japan between 1998 and 2018. RESULTS: There were 100 patients eligible for this study (31 with IPPFE and 69 with IPF). Patients with IPPFE tended to have a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than those with IPF (median, 16.7 vs. 22.6 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01). However, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed no significant difference in overall survival between the groups. The BMI did not increase in patients with IPPFE, even 1 year after LT (pretransplant, 16.5 ± 3.2 kg/m2 vs. 1 year post-transplant, 15.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2; P = 0.08). The percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) 1 year after LT was significantly lower in the IPPFE group than in the IPF group (48.4% ± 19.5% vs. 68.6% ± 15.5%, respectively; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite extrapulmonary problems such as a flat chest, low BMI, and associated restrictive impairment persisting in patients with IPPFE, patient survival after LT for IPPFE or IPF was equivalent.

14.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(7): 4081-4088, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The risk factors for skeletal-related events (SREs) among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients during treatment with bone-modifying agents (BMAs) are not yet well-understood. METHODS: The medical records of 238 consecutive NSCLC patients treated with BMAs, including zoledronic acid and denosumab, at the Chiba University Hospital from 2012 to 2016 were reviewed in the present study. SREs were defined as either pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, the need for bone irradiation or surgery, or hypercalcemia. The risk factors for earlier occurrence of the first SRE from the time of the first bone metastasis diagnosis after the initiation of BMA treatment were identified. RESULTS: Of the 238 included patients, 92% (n = 220) had a performance status (PS) of 0-2 at diagnosis of bone metastasis. Forty-eight (20%) patients developed at least one SRE. The most common first SRE was the need for bone irradiation surgery (n = 27, 56%). Significant risk factors included poor PS (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.36; p = .024), male sex (HR: 2.17; p = .022), and the use of zoledronic acid (HR: 1.91; p = .032). The overall survival (OS) from the first bone metastasis diagnosis was 394 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 331-465). The OS of patients with PS 3 and 4 at the diagnosis of bone metastasis (median: 36 days; 95% CI: 13-50) was significantly (p < 0.0001) shorter than that of patients with PS 0-2 (median: 411 days; 95% CI: 354-558) (HR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.62-7.35). CONCLUSIONS: Careful observation is needed for patients with the identified risk factors, which include poor PS and male sex, despite the BMA treatment.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Espontâneas/complicações , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Compressão da Medula Espinal/complicações , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico
15.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(5): 843-849, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intrathoracic negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been introduced as a novel therapeutic device for the management of empyema. NPWT is expected to reduce the empyema cavity more rapidly than standard treatments; however, no objective analysis of the function of NPWT has yet been conducted. The study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of NPWT in the management of thoracic empyema. METHODS: Ten patients with stage II or III thoracic empyema treated with NPWT were retrospectively analyzed. The volume of the empyema cavity was measured, and the volume change after the administration of NPWT was calculated. A comparison with the institutional historical controls was also performed. RESULTS: The patients had initially undergone fenestration of the chest wall for empyema, and eight had bronchopleural fistula and required procedures to close the fistula. The mean duration of NPWT was 71.1 days (4-190 days). The mean volume of the empyema cavity decreased from 230.2 ml (42.8-788.4 ml) to 78.5 ml (5.2-185.3 ml) by applying NPWT (P = 0.02), and the mean % decrease was 58.7% (0-87.9%). Ultimately, the empyema cavity was able to be cleaned in nine, including seven who were cured by subsequent thoracoplasty and two who were cured without thoracoplasty. The current study group had a tendency toward an early cure with less chest wall destruction, a less hospital stay after open window thoracotomy compared to historical control. CONCLUSIONS: NPWT enables the effective volume reduction and cleaning of the empyema cavity and achieves an early cure and reduced destruction of the chest wall.


Assuntos
Fístula Brônquica , Empiema Pleural , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Fístula do Sistema Respiratório , Fístula Brônquica/terapia , Empiema Pleural/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Surg Today ; 51(8): 1268-1275, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between the number of certified general thoracic surgeons (GTSs) and the mortality after lung cancer surgery, based on the data from the National Clinical Database (NCD). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics and operative and postoperative data of 120,946 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery in one of the 905 hospitals in Japan. The number of GTSs in each hospital was categorized as 0, 1-2, or 3 or more. Multivariable analysis was applied to adjust the patients' preoperative risk factors, as identified in a previous study. We calculated 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the mortality rate based on the odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: The patients' characteristics were distributed almost uniformly regardless of the number of GTSs. Crude mortality according to the number of GTSs of 0, 1-2, or 3 or more was 0.9%, 0.8%, and 0.7%, respectively (p = 0.03). However, after adjustment, the ORs for 1-2 and 3 or more GTSs (reference: 0) were 0.86 (p = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.67-1.10) and 0.84 (p = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.64-1.09), respectively. The number of GTSs did not have a significant association with mortality. Similar results were observed for patients in the lobectomy cohort. CONCLUSION: Low surgical mortality was consistent, regardless of the number of GTSs in each hospital.

17.
Surg Today ; 51(3): 415-421, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The sampling and accurate diagnosis of lymph nodes during the clinical history of lung cancer are essential for selecting the appropriate treatment strategies. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in patients with previously treated lung cancer. METHODS: Patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA after treatment for lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. We classified the patients into two groups; Group 1 (G1): Indicated to have a recurrence of new lesions after radical surgery or chemo/radiotherapy with a curative intent; and Group 2 (G2): Indicated to have residual tumor cells after undergoing primary treatment for chemo/radiotherapy or re-staging after induction therapy prior to surgery. RESULTS: Seventy previously treated lung cancer cases (G1, n = 52; G2, n = 18) were enrolled. Thirty-two cases (61.5%) had recurrent disease in G1, and 9 cases (50.0%) had nodal metastasis in G2. The diagnostic accuracy was 95.2% in G1 and 88.9% in G2. Twenty-four cases were examined for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, and 9 (37.5%) cases had mutations, including two cases with a T790M mutation. Furthermore, in one case, a re-biopsy revealed that the initial adenocarcinoma had transformed into small cell lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Performing EBUS-TBNA during lung cancer treatment showed a high diagnostic yield. Samples obtained by EBUS-TBNA were helpful in determining when to perform repeat biomarker testing as well as for making pathological re-evaluations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Receptores ErbB , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia
18.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(2): 274-281, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to predict the WHO malignancy grade, initial staging, and invasive potential of thymic epithelial tumors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients with thymic epithelial tumors who were evaluated by PET/CT before surgery and underwent surgical resection. We analyzed the relationship of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) with the WHO histological classification, tumor invasion, TNM classification, and the Masaoka-Koga classification. RESULTS: There were differences of SUVmax of the FDG-PET between thymic carcinoma (9.09 ± 3.34) and thymoma (4.86 ± 2.45; p < 0.01), thymic carcinoma (9.09 ± 3.34) and high-grade thymoma (6.01 ± 2.78; p < 0.01), and high-grade thymoma (6.01 ± 2.78) and low-grade thymoma (4.06 ± 1.86; p < 0.01). The cut-off value for the SUVmax was 7.40 and 5.40, and the sensitivity/specificity for predicting the histologic subtype of each group was 0.72/0.79 and 0.61/0.85, respectively. According to T classification, SUVmax was significantly higher in T3 (8.31 ± 2.57) than in T1a (4.45 ± 2.06; p < 0.01). Regarding Masaoka-Koga classification and WHO histological classification, a significantly higher SUVmax was detected in patients with stage III and IV disease than in those with stage I and II diseases (p < 0.01). The cut-off value for SUVmax was 5.40 in Masaoka-Koga stage and 5.60 in the WHO classification; the sensitivity/specificity for predicting the histologic subtype was 0.85/0.80 and 0.89/0.78, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is a useful tool to predict aggressiveness of thymic epithelial tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares , Neoplasias do Timo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/cirurgia
19.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(2): 515-518, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037823

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The removal rates of tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) by simultaneous plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) are not clear. CASE SUMMARY: We evaluated the removal rates of TAC and MPA by PE and CHDF started simultaneously 5 hours after administration in a lung transplant patient. TAC was not removed. MPA was transferred into the PE effluent, but the total amount in the effluent was only 1% of the dosage. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: TAC and MPA were less likely to be removed by PE and CHDF initiated 5 hours after administration.

20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(1): 269-276, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To elucidate the clinical, pathologic, and prognostic impacts of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and mutation subtypes in early-stage lung cancer, the study investigators conducted a retrospective analysis of the Japanese Joint Committee of Lung Cancer Registry database (a nationwide database for patients with surgically resected lung cancer; n = 18,973). METHODS: Of 13,951 patients classified as having nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer in the database, 5780 patients (41.0%) had been tested for an EGFR mutation and were included in this study. RESULTS: An EGFR mutation was detected in 2410 patients (41.7%), and the presence of an EGFR mutation was significantly correlated with clinicopathologic factors such as the presence of ground-glass opacity (P < .001) and better prognosis. Analysis of initial recurrence sites identified significantly higher frequencies of brain and adrenal gland metastases in patients with and without an EGFR mutation, respectively. Of 2410 patients with EGFR mutations, 983 (40.8%) had an exon 19 deletion (Exon 19 Del), 1170 (48.5%) had an L858R mutation, and 257 (10.7%) had other EGFR mutations. A higher smoking rate was found in patients with other EGFR mutations (P = .02). In the comparison of Exon 19 Del and L858R, we found that Exon 19 Del correlated with younger age (P < .001), a higher rate of pure solid tumors (P < .001), advanced pathologic stage (trend P < .001), and poorer recurrence-free survival (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the clinicopathologic and prognostic impacts of EGFR mutation status, tumors with Exon 19 Del have a more aggressive phenotype and patients have a poorer prognosis than with L858R in early-stage lung cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Genes erbB-1/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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