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1.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001138, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396408

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nocturia has been reported as a risk factor for mortality; however, evidence is limited and has a high risk of bias. We evaluated the association between nocturia and mortality using longitudinal data from the general Japanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Nagahama Cohort Project, a longitudinal, general population cohort study. Nocturia was measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score. Mortality data were obtained from the Basic Resident Register in Nagahama City. We used Cox proportional hazard models and time-varying covariates at baseline and 5-year follow-up to analyze the association between nocturia and mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed 9,762 participants (median age, 56.8 years; male, 32.8%). The prevalence rates of nocturnal voiding at 0, 1, 2, and ≥3 times were 44.3%, 39.1%, 11.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. A total 263 participants died; the follow-up assessment was performed 3,224 (standard deviation [SD], 537) days after baseline. According to multivariable Cox proportional hazard regressions, mortality increased dose-dependently with the nocturnal voiding frequency as follows: hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 for 1 time (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.09); HR of 1.85 for 2 times (95% CI, 1.23-2.77); and HR of 2.06 (95% CI, 1.28-3.32) for ≥3 times in comparison with 0 times (P for trend = 0.00084). In the time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression, the association was still significant (P for trend = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS: According to this longitudinal study with a low incidence of missing data and high representation of the general population, nocturia is associated with mortality.

2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(5): 855-862, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Napabucasin is a cancer stemness inhibitor that targets a number of oncogenic pathways, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phase 1/2 studies suggest tolerability and anti-tumor activity in various types of cancer; a Phase 3 study of napabucasin plus standard therapy in colorectal cancer is ongoing. This is a Phase 1 dose-escalation study in patients with advanced solid tumors, and the first study of napabucasin in Japanese patients. METHODS: Patients received napabucasin 480, 960, or 1440 mg daily in 28-day cycles until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary objectives were to determine dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of napabucasin. Blood samples were taken for PK analysis on Days 1, 2, 8, and 15 of Cycle 1, and Days 29 and 30 of Cycle 2. Secondary objectives were to assess napabucasin antitumor activity, and the relationship between biomarkers and antitumor activity. JapicCTI-No: JapicCTI-132152. RESULTS: Enrolled were 14 patients (480 mg [n = 3], 960 mg [n = 4], 1440 mg [n = 7]). One patient experienced a DLT (Grade 3, anorexia). MTD was 1440 mg/day. Most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (n = 9), nausea (n = 4), vomiting (n = 3), and anorexia (n = 3). Napabucasin showed a similar PK profile to previous studies and no abnormal accumulation was observed. Following treatment, two patients had stable disease; the remaining 12 had progressive disease. CONCLUSION: Napabucasin was well-tolerated at doses up to 1440 mg/day in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors; the PK profile was comparable to that reported previously.

3.
Gastric Cancer ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in cancer treatment but the effect remains unknown in metastatic gastric cancer (mGC). This study aimed to compare the tumor shrinkage by palliative RT for mGC patients with or without previous exposure to anti-PD-1 therapy. METHODS: Data of 36 mGC patients who had received palliative RT from April 2013 to May 2019 were analyzed. Primary tumor responses were evaluated through a volumetric measurement-based method using computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic responses were evaluated in patients who underwent endoscopy before and after RT. Tumor microenvironment (TME) immune status was investigated by analyzing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Among 36 patients, 18 had previous exposure to anti-PD-1 before RT showing no significant differences in baseline characteristics with the other 18 patients without exposure to anti-PD-1 treatment. Tumor responses were observed in 28% (5/18) and none (0/18) in the anti-PD-1-exposed vs. naïve group, respectively (P = 0.045). Five out of eight patients in the anti-PD-1-exposed group, who underwent endoscopy after RT showed partial response, but none in the anti-PD-1-naïve patients showed response (P = 0.026). Increase in the CD8+ T cell/effector regulatory T cell ratio in TILs after anti-PD-1 therapy was noted in three responders to RT, but not in the other three non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Prior exposure to anti-PD-1 therapy increases tumor response to RT. Immune profiling suggests that anti-PD-1 therapy may enhance the efficacy of RT by immunoactivation in the TME.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 63-71, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The variability of definitions for time-to-event (TTE) end-points impacts the conclusions of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). The Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer (DATECAN) initiative aims to provide consensus definitions for TTE end-points used in RCTs. Here, we formulate guidelines for adjuvant colon cancer RCTs. METHODS: We performed a literature review to identify TTE end-points and events included in their definition in RCT publications. Then, a consensus was reached among a panel of international experts, using a formal modified Delphi method, with 2 rounds of questionnaires and an in-person meeting. RESULTS: Twenty-four experts scored 72 events involved in 6 TTE end-points. Consensus was reached for 24%, 57% and 100% events after the first round, second round and in-person meeting. For RCTs not using overall survival as their primary end-point, the experts recommend using disease-free survival (DFS) rather than recurrence-free survival (RFS) or time to recurrence (TTR) as the primary end-point. The consensus definition of DFS includes all causes of death, second primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), anastomotic relapse and metastatic relapse as an event, but not second primary non-CRCs. Events included in the RFS definition are the same as for DFS with the exception of second primary CRCs. The consensus definition of TTR includes anastomotic or metastatic relapse, death with evidence of recurrence and death from CC cause. CONCLUSION: Standardised definitions of TTE end-points ensure the reproducibility of the end-points between RCTs and facilitate cross-trial comparisons. These definitions should be integrated in standard practice for the design, reporting and interpretation of adjuvant CC RCTs.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156744

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the association between molecular subtypes of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and the efficacy of standard chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with AGC who received systemic chemotherapy from October 2015 to July 2018 with available molecular features were analyzed. We investigated the efficacy of standard first- (fluoropyrimidine + platinum ± trastuzumab) and second-line (taxanes ± ramucirumab) chemotherapy, and subsequent anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with four molecular subtypes: MMR-D (mismatch repair deficient), EBV+, HER2+, and all negative. RESULTS: 410 patients were analyzed: MMR-D 5.9%, EBV+ 4.1%, HER2+ 13.7%, and all negative 76.3%. In 285 patients who received standard first-line chemotherapy, the median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 4.2, 6.0, 7.5, and 7.6 months and the objective response rates (ORR) were 31%, 62%, 60%, and 49% in MMR-D, EBV+, HER2+, and all-negative subtypes, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed shorter PFS in MMR-D versus all-negative patients [HR, 1.97; 95% CIs, 1.09-3.53; P = 0.022]. In second-line setting, there were no significant differences in efficacy. In 110 patients who received anti-PD-1 therapy, median PFS times were 13.0, 3.7, 1.6, and 1.9 months and the ORRs were 58%, 33%, 7%, and 13%, respectively. Twelve patients with MMR-D received subsequent anti-PD-1 therapy and showed longer PFS compared with that in 10 (83%) patients who received earlier-line chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: MMR-D might result in shorter PFS with first-line chemotherapy for AGC. Subsequent anti-PD-1 therapy achieved higher ORR and longer PFS than prior chemotherapy in most patients with MMR-D, supporting the earlier use of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

6.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 86: 101993, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199197

RESUMO

Regorafenib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) approved for the treatment of refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) previously treated with imatinib and sunitinib, and unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following progression on sorafenib. Regorafenib was initially approved for mCRC based on improved overall survival (OS) in the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 CORRECT trial, which was confirmed in an expanded population of Asian patients in the randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 CONCUR trial. Approvals in GIST, and more recently in HCC, were based on the results from the randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 GRID and RESORCE trials, respectively. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the clinical evidence for approval of regorafenib in mCRC, GIST, and HCC, present emerging evidence of regorafenib activity in other tumor types (namely, gastroesophageal cancer, sarcomas, biliary tract cancer, and glioblastoma), and discuss trials in progress within the context of regorafenib's mechanism of action. We describe recent advances and key lessons learned with regorafenib, including the importance of managing common drug-related toxicities using dose-optimization strategies, the search for biomarkers to predict response to treatment, and highlight some of the unaddressed questions and future directions for regorafenib across tumors.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The influence of the transcriptional and immunologic context of mutations on therapeutic outcomes with targeted therapy in cancer has not been well defined. BRAF V600E-mutant (BM) colorectal cancer comprises two main transcriptional subtypes, BM1 and BM2. We sought to determine the impact of BM subtype, as well as distinct biological features of those subtypes, on response to BRAF/MEK/EGFR inhibition in patients with colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Paired fresh tumor biopsies were acquired at baseline and on day 15 of treatment from all consenting patients with BM colorectal cancer enrolled in a phase II clinical trial of dabrafenib, trametinib, and panitumumab. For each sample, BM subtype, cell cycle, and immune gene signature expression were determined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and a Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine association with progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Confirmed response rates, median PFS, and median overall survival (OS) were higher in BM1 subtype patients compared with BM2 subtype patients. Evaluation of immune contexture identified greater immune reactivity in BM1, whereas cell-cycle signatures were more highly expressed in BM2. A multivariate model of PFS incorporating BM subtype plus immune and cell-cycle signatures revealed that BM subtype encompasses the majority of the effect. CONCLUSIONS: BM subtype is significantly associated with the outcome of combination dabrafenib, trametinib, and panitumumab therapy and may serve as a standalone predictive biomarker beyond mutational status. Our findings support a more nuanced approach to targeted therapeutic decisions that incorporates assessment of transcriptional context.

9.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(3): 403-417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of novel antitumor agents and accompanying biomarkers has improved survival across several tumor types. Previously, we published provisional clinical opinion for the diagnosis and use of immunotherapy in patients with deficient DNA mismatch repair tumors. Recently, efficacy of tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors against neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) fusion gene-positive advanced solid tumors have been established as the second tumor-agnostic treatment, making it necessary to develop the guideline prioritized for these patients. METHODS: Clinical questions regarding medical care were formulated for patients with NTRK-positive advanced solid tumors. Relevant publications were searched by PubMed and Cochrane Database. Critical publications and conference reports were added manually. Systematic reviews were performed for each clinical question for the purpose of developing clinical recommendations. The committee members identified by Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO) and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other related factors. Thereafter, a peer review by experts nominated from JSCO, JSMO, and Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, and the public comments among all Societies' members was done. RESULTS: The current guideline describes 3 clinical questions and 15 recommendations for whom, when, and how NTRK fusion should be tested, and what is recommended for patients with NTRK fusion-positive advanced solid tumors. CONCLUSION: In the NTRK guideline, the committee proposed 15 recommendations for performing NTRK testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitors.

10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(2): 217-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel therapeutic agents have improved survival outcomes in patients with advanced solid tumors. In parallel, the development of predictive biomarkers to identify patients who are likely to benefit from a certain treatment has also contributed to the improvement of survival. Recently, clinical trials have reported the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) advanced solid tumors. In Japan, a PD-1 inhibitor for dMMR advanced solid tumors, regardless of the primary tumor site, has been approved. However, there are some issues related to administering immune checkpoint inhibitors in the clinical practice setting, making it necessary to develop the guidelines. METHODS: Clinical questions (CQs) regarding medical care were formulated for patients with dMMR advanced solid tumors, and evidence to the CQs was collected by manual search to prepare recommendations. Then, the committee members voted to determine the level of each recommendation considering the strength of evidence, expected risks and benefits to patients, and other factors. RESULTS: The current guideline, which we consider a provisional clinical opinion at this point, describes the 11 requirements to be considered in terms of patients for whom dMMR testing is recommended, the timing and methods of dMMR testing, and clinical care systems required to perform dMMR testing properly and to administer immune checkpoint inhibitors safely. CONCLUSION: This provisional clinical opinion proposes the requirements for performing dMMR testing properly to select patients who are likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors and administering them safely.

11.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(1): 1-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203527

RESUMO

The number of deaths from colorectal cancer in Japan continues to increase. Colorectal cancer deaths exceeded 50,000 in 2016. In the 2019 edition, revision of all aspects of treatments was performed, with corrections and additions made based on knowledge acquired since the 2016 version (drug therapy) and the 2014 version (other treatments). The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum guidelines 2019 for the treatment of colorectal cancer (JSCCR guidelines 2019) have been prepared to show standard treatment strategies for colorectal cancer, to eliminate disparities among institutions in terms of treatment, to eliminate unnecessary treatment and insufficient treatment and to deepen mutual understanding between healthcare professionals and patients by making these guidelines available to the general public. These guidelines have been prepared by consensuses reached by the JSCCR Guideline Committee, based on a careful review of the evidence retrieved by literature searches and in view of the medical health insurance system and actual clinical practice settings in Japan. Therefore, these guidelines can be used as a tool for treating colorectal cancer in actual clinical practice settings. More specifically, they can be used as a guide to obtaining informed consent from patients and choosing the method of treatment for each patient. Controversial issues were selected as clinical questions, and recommendations were made. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of the evidence and a classification of recommendation categories based on the consensus reached by the Guideline Committee members. Here, we present the English version of the JSCCR guidelines 2019.

12.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(2): 122-128, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) is a standard treatment for resected colon cancer; however, in patients with moderate renal impairment, the incidence of CAPOX-related adverse events (AEs) and the rate of early discontinuation are higher than in patients with no or mild renal impairment. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the impact of baseline renal function on the safety and discontinuation of adjuvant CAPOX therapy started with the standard dose of capecitabine in elderly patients with colon cancer. METHODS: Data from patients aged ≥65 years old who received CAPOX at the standard starting dose as adjuvant therapy for stage II/III colon cancer were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups based on their renal function: CLcr-H (patients with a creatinine clearance [CLcr] ≥50 ml/min) and CLcr-L (CLcr <50 ml/min), and AEs and discontinuations were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 189 patients were assessed (CLcr-H group = 137 and CLcr-L group = 52). No patients experienced grade 4 AEs. The incidence of grade 3 CAPOX-related AEs was higher in the CLcr-L group (42.3%) than in the CLcr-H group (31.3%). The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment within four cycles due to AEs was also higher in the CLcr-L group (21.1%) than in the CLcr-H group (2.9%). Multivariate analysis identified that CLcr <50 ml/min was the only significant risk factor for CAPOX therapy discontinuation due to AEs (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the tolerability of adjuvant CAPOX therapy was decreased in elderly patients with impaired renal function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry number UMIN000016446.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 11-19, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: KEYNOTE-164 (NCT02460198) evaluated the antitumor activity of pembrolizumab in previously treated, metastatic, microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This phase II open-label study involved 128 centers worldwide. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years and had metastatic MSI-H/dMMR CRC treated with ≥ 2 prior lines of standard therapy, including fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan with or without anti-vascular endothelial growth factor/epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (cohort A) or ≥ 1 prior line of therapy (cohort B). MSI-H/dMMR status was assessed locally. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 2 years until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. The primary end point was objective response rate by RECIST version 1.1 by independent central review. Secondary end points were duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, safety, and tolerability. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with MSI-H/dMMR CRC (61 in cohort A, 63 in cohort B) enrolled. At data cutoff, median follow-up was 31.3 months (range, 0.2-35.6 months) for cohort A and 24.2 months (range, 0.1-27.1 months) for cohort B. Objective response rate was 33% (95% CI, 21% to 46%) and 33% (95% CI, 22% to 46%), respectively, with median duration of response not reached in either cohort. Median PFS was 2.3 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 8.1 months) and 4.1 months (95% CI, 2.1 to 18.9 months). Median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 21.4 months to not reached) and not reached (95% CI, 19.2 months to not reached). Treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 10 patients (16%) in cohort A and 8 (13%) in cohort B, with the most common occurring in ≥ 2 patients being pancreatitis, fatigue, increased alanine aminotransferase, and increased lipase (2 patients each; 3%) in cohort A. CONCLUSION: Pembrolizumab is effective with a manageable safety profile in patients with MSI-H/dMMR CRC.

14.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(1): e28-e36, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum LacdiNAc-glycosylated prostate-specific antigen (LDN-PSA) and LDN-PSA density together with PSA and PSA density (PSAD) were measured as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer (PCa). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 150 patients with PCa without hormonal therapy and 41 patients without PCa obtained from the Kyoto University Hospital between 2012 and 2017. LDN-PSA levels were measured through a WFA-anti-PSA antibody sandwich immunoassay using a highly sensitive surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) system. Diagnostic performance of serum LDN-PSA and LDN-PSAD was evaluated by measuring the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: The AUCs of LDN-PSA, LDN-PSAD, and PSAD levels (0.780, 0.848, and 0.835, respectively) detected in patients with PCa were significantly higher (P = .0001, P < .0001, and P < .0001, respectively) than that of PSA (0.590). Moreover, among 143 patients with PCa who received radical prostatectomy (RP), the AUCs of LDN-PSA, LDN-PSAD, and PSAD levels (0.750, 0.812, and 0.769, respectively) detected in patients with a pathologic Gleason grade group ≥ 2 were significantly higher (P = .0170, P = .0028, and P = .0003, respectively) than that of PSA (0.578). In the group comprising 35 patients who received RP with a Gleason grade group 1-graded biopsy, the LDN-PSA, LDN-PSAD, and PSAD levels were significantly different (P = .0097, P = .0024, and P = .0312, respectively). However, PSA alone could not discriminate cases with adverse features (P = .454). CONCLUSIONS: LDN-PSAD is a potential marker for detecting PCa and selecting candidates for RP.

15.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(2): 129-137, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693138

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: S-1 plus oxaliplatin appears effective in chemo-naïve patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, comprehensive safety and efficacy data for S-1 plus oxaliplatin is limited for patients with impaired renal function. METHODS: We retrospectively extracted data from advanced gastric cancer patients with normal renal function (normal group, CLcr ≥ 60 ml/min), who were treated with standard doses of S-1 (80 mg/m2) plus oxaliplatin (100 mg/m2), and patients with impaired renal function (impaired group, CLcr < 60 ml/min) who were treated with standard or reduced doses of S-1 (60 mg/m2 or 40 mg/m2) plus standard doses of oxaliplatin. Treatment efficacy and safety between the groups were compared. RESULTS: Data from 100 normal patients and 42 patients with impaired renal function were extracted. Baseline characteristics differed significantly between the two groups, including age (median, 64 vs 72 years, P < 0.0001) and body surface area (median, 1.68 vs 1.51 m2, P < 0.0001). In the impaired group, 66.6% (28/42) started with a reduced dose. Within the impaired group, more patients had a reduced initial S-1 dose when CLcr <50 ml/min (77.3%). The median progression-free and overall survival between the normal and impaired groups was 6.1 vs 5.7 months (P = 0.698) and 16.1 vs 18.5 months (P = 0.638), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: S-1 plus oxaliplatin in advanced gastric cancer patients with impaired renal function appears safe and has demonstrated efficacy given appropriate dose modification.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 122(3): 413-420, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour microenvironments can differ according to intratumoural locations. We investigated the immune status at different locations in primary tumours and its clinical significance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: The number of CD8+ tumour-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and PD-1+ TIICs, and PD-L1 expression on tumour cells (PD-L1TC) were immunohistochemically examined in the surface (Surf), centre (Cent) and invasive front (Inv) of tumours surgically resected from 192 patients with ESCC. RESULTS: The PD-L1+ rate was lower in Inv than in Cent (12.0% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.012), although the numbers of CD8+ TIICs and PD-1+ TIICs were comparable among intratumoural locations. High numbers of CD8+ and PD-1+ TIICs and positive PD-L1TC were related to better overall survival (OS) only in Surf and Cent (CD8: P = 0.012 in Surf, 0.018 in Cent, and 0.165 in Inv; PD-1: P = 0.028 in Surf, 0.021 in Cent, and 0.208 in Inv; and PD-L1: 0.044 in Surf, 0.026 in Cent, and 0.718 in Inv). Positive PD-L1TC in Surf and/or Cent but not in Inv demonstrated a strong tendency toward better OS (P = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS: Immune microenvironments according to the intratumoural location have different effects on the survival of patients with ESCC.

17.
ESMO Open ; 4(6): e000590, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798981

RESUMO

Background: BRAF V600E mutations are associated with aggressive biology and limited response to standard chemotherapy, especially during second-line and beyond therapies. BRAF V600E mutant and wild-type colorectal cancers (CRCs) differ in their expression profiles, and preclinical evidence suggests that microtubule inhibitors have an antitumour effect on xenograft models of BRAF V600E mutant CRCs. Eribulin has the best growth inhibitory activity in vitro of the microtubule inhibitors. Also, we have evidenced a hint of activity for patients with BRAF V600E mutant metastatic CRC (mCRC) with tumour shrinkage following eribulin treatment. Trial design: The BRAVERY study is a multicentre phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eribulin in patients with BRAF V600E mutant mCRC detected in either tumour tissues (primary analysis part) or circulating tumour DNA assays (liquid biopsy part). Key eligibility criteria are refractoriness and intolerance to at least one regimen (including irinotecan or oxaliplatin) containing fluoropyrimidine and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1. Eribulin is to be administered intravenously at a dose of 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 and repeated every 21 days. The primary endpoint is the confirmed objective response rate (ORR) by investigator's assessment. We calculated the sample size of the primary analysis part at 27 patients using a two-stage design with 25% ORR deemed promising and 5% unacceptable (one-sided α, 0.05; ß, 0.1). Secondary endpoints include disease control rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and adverse events. Moreover, we will collect pretreated tissue and serial blood samples for biomarker analyses, focusing on gene expression associated with BRAF mutant-like CRC to find predictive markers and acquired gene alterations to detect resistance mechanisms to eribulin. We initiated patient enrolment in March 2018, completed the primary analysis on May 2019, and are currently continuing with the liquid biopsy part. Trial registration number: UMIN000031221 and 000031552.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1253, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous phase I/II C-TASK FORCE study of trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab for patients with heavily pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) showed promising activity with an acceptable toxicity profile. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab compared with trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated mCRC in clinical settings. METHODS: Records of patients with mCRC refractory to standard therapies who initiated trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab from January 2016 to March 2018 or trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy from June 2014 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed at our institution. RESULTS: Totally, 60 patients received trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab and 66 received trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy. All patients had previously received standard chemotherapy. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.3-5.1] in the trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab group and 2.2 months (95% CI, 1.8-2.6) in the trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy group [hazards ratio (HR) 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.99]. PFS rate at 16 weeks was 46.6% for the trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab group and 33.9% for the trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy group. Although a relatively higher incidence of grade ≥ 3 neutropenia was observed in the trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab group than that in the other group (50.0% vs. 40.9%, p = 0.371), the incidence of febrile neutropenia was not high (3.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.444). CONCLUSIONS: In real-world settings, trifluridine/tipiracil plus bevacizumab prolonged PFS and helped achieve higher 16-week PFS rate compared with trifluridine/tipiracil monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated mCRC with manageable toxicities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uracila/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000683, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the association between nocturia and depressive symptoms has been demonstrated, the causal direction remains unclear. We investigated the directional association between nocturia and depressive symptoms using longitudinal data from the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This longitudinal analysis was conducted as part of the Nagahama Cohort Project, a population based cohort study, with baseline and 5-year followup investigations. Nocturnal voiding frequency and mental health were measured with self-report questionnaires, the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and the 5-item Mental Health Inventory. Logistic regression analyses and a cross-lagged panel analysis were performed to analyze the bidirectional association between nocturia and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: With 9,764 participants at baseline, data from 8,285 were used in this analysis. Median age at baseline was 57.3 years and the proportion of men was 32.0%. New onset depressive symptoms and nocturia were observed among 369 and 793 participants, respectively. In adjusted logistic regression analyses we observed a clear dose-relationship between baseline nocturnal voiding frequency and new onset depressive symptoms (p for trend <0.001) and a weak association between baseline 5-item Mental Health Inventory and new onset nocturia (p for trend=0.0087). In a cross-lagged panel analysis the path coefficient from nocturnal voiding frequency to 5-item Mental Health Inventory (ß=-0.06, p <0.001) was stronger than that from 5-item Mental Health Inventory to nocturnal voiding frequency (ß=-0.02, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study demonstrated a bidirectional association between nocturia and depressive symptoms. The cross-lagged path coefficient suggested that nocturia could more likely be a cause than a result of depressive symptoms.

20.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 65(10): 413-419, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697887

RESUMO

Peritoneal dissemination or metastasis is a relatively rare presentation of renal cell carcinoma. We report four cases of advanced renal cell carcinoma with peritoneal metastases treated with nivolumab. Three cases showed an objective response in the metastatic lesions including peritoneal sites. After nivolumab administration, the computed tomography scan showed a transient enlargement of peritoneal lesions in two cases, which could be considered as pseudoprogression. Temporal changes of neutrophil-tolymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and eosinophil ratio during the clinical course reflected the treatment effect of nivolumab in these patients, indicating that these could be potential biomarkers of the response. To our knowledge, this is the first case series showing therapeutic activity of nivolumab against peritoneal metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Humanos , Nivolumabe , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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