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1.
Plant Physiol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983053

RESUMO

Light affects many physiological and developmental processes of plants by regulating the expression and activity of light responsive proteins. Among them, phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and hypocotyl growth. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood, especially in woody plants, such as apple (Malus × domestica). In this study, we identified a light responsive PIF protein, MdPIF7, in apple and investigated the molecular mechanism of its regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth. We found that overexpression of MdPIF7 decreased anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic apple materials and promoted hypocotyl elongation in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Further investigation showed that MdPIF7 functioned by interacting with B-box 23 (MdBBX23), a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth inhibition in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis, and attenuating the transcriptional activation of MdBBX23 on LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (MdHY5). In addition, MdPIF7 interacted with basic region leucine zipper 44 (MdbZIP44) and ethylene response factor 38 (MdERF38), two positive regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and it negatively regulated MdbZIP44- and MdERF38-promoted anthocyanin accumulation by interfering with the interaction between MdbZIP44/MdERF38 and MdMYB1. Taken together, our results reveal that MdPIF7 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple and hypocotyl growth in ectopically expressed Arabidopsis through MdPIF7-MdBBX23-MdHY5 and MdPIF7-MdbZIP44/MdERF38-MdMYB1 modules. Our findings enrich the functional studies of PIF proteins and provide insights into the molecular mechanism of PIF-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis and hypocotyl growth.

2.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 23(1): 16-31, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633738

RESUMO

Several MYB transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant resistance to environmental stressors. However, the mechanism governing the involvement of MYBs in regulating tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance in plants is still unclear. In this study, we found that not only is Nicotiana benthamiana MYB4-like involved in defence against TMV, but also that the ethylene pathway participates in MYB4L-mediated resistance. Transcription of NbMYB4L was up-regulated in N. benthamiana infected with TMV. Silencing of NbMYB4L led to intensified TMV replication, whereas overexpression of NbMYB4L induced significant resistance to TMV. Transcription of NbMYB4L was greater in 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC, ethylene precursor)-pretreated plants but lower when the ethylene signalling pathway was blocked during TMV infection. Gene expression analysis showed that the transcription of NbMYB4L was largely suppressed in ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3-like 1(EIL1)-silenced plants. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) experiments indicated that NbEIL1 could directly bind to two specific regions of the NbMYB4L promoter. Furthermore, a luciferase assay revealed that NbEIL1 significantly induced the reporter activity of the MYB4L promoter in N. benthamiana. These results point to NbEIL1 functioning as a positive regulator of NbMYB4L transcription in N. benthamiana against TMV. Collectively, our work reveals that EIL1 and MYB4L constitute a coherent feed-forward loop involved in the robust regulation of resistance to TMV in N. benthamiana.

3.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837323

RESUMO

Apple necrotic mosaic virus (ApNMV) is highly associated with the occurrence of apple mosaic disease in China. However, ApNMV-host interactions and defence mechanisms of host plants against this virus are poorly studied. Here, we report that nitrate treatment restrains ApNMV genomic RNA accumulation by destabilizing viral replication protein 1a through the MdBT2-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. MdBT2, a nitrate-responsive BTB/TAZ domain-containing protein, was identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen of an apple cDNA library using viral protein 1a as bait, and 1a was further confirmed to interact with MdBT2 both in vivo and in vitro. It was further verified that MdBT2 promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of viral protein 1a through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in an MdCUL3A-independent manner. Viral genomic RNA accumulation was reduced in MdBT2-overexpressing transgenic apple leaves but enhanced in MdBT2-antisense leaves compared to the wild type. Moreover, MdBT2 was found to interfere with the interaction between viral replication proteins 1a and 2apol by competitively interacting with 1a. Taken together, our results demonstrate that nitrate-inducible MdBT2 functions as a limiting factor in ApNMV viral RNA accumulation by promoting the ubiquitination and degradation of viral protein 1a and interfering with interactions between viral replication proteins.

4.
Physiol Plant ; : e13596, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761393

RESUMO

Sugars are essential regulatory molecules involved in plant growth and development and defense response. Although the relationship between sugars and disease resistance has been widely discussed, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. Ring rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea), which severely affects fruit quality and yield, is a destructive disease of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The present study found that the degree of disease resistance in apple fruit was closely related to glucose content. Therefore, the gene encoding a hexokinase, MdHXK1, was isolated from the apple cultivar 'Gala', and characterized during the defense response. Overexpression of MdHXK1 enhanced disease resistance in apple calli, leaves and fruits by increasing the expression levels of genes related to salicylate (SA) synthesis (PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4, PAD4; PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE, PAL; and ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1, EDS1) and signaling (PR1; PR5; and NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1, NPR1) as well as increasing the superoxide (O2- ) production rate and the hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content. Overall, the study provides new insights into the MdHXK1-mediated molecular mechanisms by which glucose signaling regulates apple ring rot resistance.

5.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 236, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719676

RESUMO

Nitrate is a major nitrogen resource for plant growth and development and acts as both a crucial nutrient and a signaling molecule for plants; hence, understanding nitrate signaling is important for crop production. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been demonstrated to be involved in nitrate signaling, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown in apple. In this study, we found that exogenous ABA inhibited the transport of nitrate from roots to shoots in apple, and the transcription of the nitrate transporter MdNRT1.5/MdNPF7.3 was noticeably reduced at the transcriptional level by ABA, which inhibited the transport of nitrate from roots to shoots. Then, it was found that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdABI5 bound directly to the ABRE recognition site of the MdNRT1.5 promoter and suppressed its expression. Overexpression of MdABI5 inhibited ABA-mediated transport of nitrate from roots to shoots. Overall, these results demonstrate that MdABI5 regulates the transport of nitrate from roots to shoots partially by mediating the expression of MdNRT1.5, illuminating the molecular mechanism by which ABA regulates nitrate transport in apple.

6.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111024, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620429

RESUMO

Fruit coloration is an appearance trait that directly affects the commercial value and market competitiveness of apples. The red color of apple fruit is mainly affected by anthocyanin accumulation, and the synthesis of anthocyanin is affected by various factors. The critical roles of hormones and environmental factors during apple anthocyanin biosynthesis are described. This review also elaborates the specific mechanisms of the responses of internal genes to stress and changes in anthocyanin when apples are exposed to different environmental stressors. This study provides direction for future research on apple anthocyanin and is a reference for anthocyanin studies in other species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética
7.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555166

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of cold stress response, but its molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the APETALA2/ethylene responsive factor (AP2/ERF) family protein MdABI4 positively regulates ABA-mediated cold tolerance in apple. We found that MdABI4 interacts with MdICE1, a key regulatory protein involved in the cold stress response, and enhances the transcriptional function of MdICE1 on its downstream target gene MdCBF1, thus improving ABA-mediated cold tolerance. Apple jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 negatively modulate MdABI4-improved cold tolerance by interacting with the MdABI4 protein. Further research showed that MdJAZ1 and MdJAZ2 interfere with the interaction between the MdABI4 and MdICE1 proteins. Together, our data revealed that MdABI4 integrates jasmonic acid (JA) and ABA signals to delicately modulate cold tolerance through the JAZ-ABI4-ICE1-CBF regulatory cascade in apple. These findings will provide insights into the crosstalk between JA and ABA signals in the cold stress response.

8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 390-399, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404010

RESUMO

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.


Assuntos
Dedos de Zinco CYS2-HIS2 , Malus , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 159, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193837

RESUMO

Jasmonic acid (JA) plays an important role in regulating leaf senescence. However, the molecular mechanisms of leaf senescence in apple (Malus domestica) remain elusive. In this study, we found that MdZAT10, a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor (TF) in apple, markedly accelerates leaf senescence and increases the expression of senescence-related genes. To explore how MdZAT10 promotes leaf senescence, we carried out liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening. We found that MdABI5 physically interacts with MdZAT10. MdABI5, an important positive regulator of leaf senescence, significantly accelerated leaf senescence in apple. MdZAT10 was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of MdABI5 for MdNYC1 and MdNYE1, thus accelerating leaf senescence. In addition, we found that MdZAT10 expression was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which accelerated JA-induced leaf senescence. We also found that the JA-responsive protein MdBT2 directly interacts with MdZAT10 and reduces its protein stability through ubiquitination and degradation, thereby delaying MdZAT10-mediated leaf senescence. Taken together, our results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which MdZAT10 positively regulates JA-induced leaf senescence in apple.

10.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1127-1139, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973072

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to mediate ABA response. The plant hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically regulate various aspects of plant growth and development. However, the association between BR and ABA signaling is less clear. Here, we identified MdBZR1 in apple (Malus domestica) and demonstrated that it was activated by BRs and could respond to ABA treatment. Overexpression of MdBZR1 in apple calli and Arabidopsis reduced ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that MdBZR1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. Subsequently, we found that MdBZR1 directly bound to the promoter region of MdABI5 and suppressed its expression. MdABI5 was significantly induced by ABA treatment. And overexpression of MdABI5 in apple calli increased sensitivity to ABA. Ectopic expression of MdABI5 in Arabidopsis inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. In addition, overexpression of MdBZR1 partially attenuated MdABI5-mediated ABA sensitivity. Taken together, our data indicate that MdBZR1 directly binds to the promoter of MdABI5 and suppresses its expression to antagonistically mediate ABA response. Our work contributes to the functional studies of BZR1 and further broadens the insight into the between BR and ABA signaling.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Salino/genética
11.
Mol Plant ; 14(9): 1454-1471, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022440

RESUMO

Although taste is an important aspect of fruit quality, an understanding of its genetic control remains elusive in apple and other fruit crops. In this study, we conducted genomic sequence analysis of 497 Malus accessions and revealed erosion of genetic diversity caused by apple breeding and possible independent domestication events of dessert and cider apples. Signatures of selection for fruit acidity and size, but not for fruit sugar content, were detected during the processes of both domestication and improvement. Furthermore, we found that single mutations in major genes affecting fruit taste, including Ma1, MdTDT, and MdSOT2, dramatically decrease malate, citrate, and sorbitol accumulation, respectively, and correspond to important domestication events. Interestingly, Ma1 was identified to have pleiotropic effects on both organic acid content and sugar:acid ratio, suggesting that it plays a vital role in determining fruit taste. Fruit taste is unlikely to have been negatively affected by linkage drag associated with selection for larger fruit that resulted from the pyramiding of multiple genes with minor effects on fruit size. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the genetic basis of fruit quality and its evolutionary roadmap during apple domestication, pinpointing several candidate genes for genetic manipulation of fruit taste in apple.

12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 338-347, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906121

RESUMO

Cuticular wax is synthesized from intracellular lipids that are exported by epidermal cells, and plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) play an important role in this process. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored LTPs (LTPGs) are a large subgroup within the LTP family and function in lipid transport and wax formation. Although LTPG family members have been identified in several plant species, the LTPG gene family of apple (Malus domestica) remains uncharacterized. In this paper, we identified 26 potential LTPG genes by searching apple whole-genome annotation files using "GPI-anchored" and "lipid transferase" as keywords. Twenty of the 26 putative LTPG genes were confirmed as MdLTPG family members based on their subcellular localization predictions. The MdLTPGs were divided into four classes based on phylogenetic analysis and functional domain prediction. One member of each class was analyzed for subcellular localization, and all identified members were located on the plasma membrane. Most MdLTPG genes were induced by abiotic stress treatments such as low temperature, NaCl, and ABA. Finally, the MdLTPG17 protein was shown to interact with the lysine-rich arabinogalactan protein MdAGP18 to perform its function in wax transport during plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Malus , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Plant J ; 106(5): 1414-1430, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759251

RESUMO

Jasmonate (JA) induces the biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. MdMYB9 is essential for modulating the accumulation of both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin in apple, but the molecular mechanism for induction of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by JA is unclear. In this study, we discovered an apple telomere-binding protein (MdTRB1) to be the interacting protein of MdMYB9. A series of biological assays showed that MdTRB1 acted as a positive modulator of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation, and is dependent on MdMYB9. MdTRB1 interacted with MdMYB9 and enhanced the activation activity of MdMYB9 to its downstream genes. In addition, we found that the JA signaling repressor MdJAZ1 interacted with MdTRB1 and interfered with the interaction between MdTRB1 and MdMYB9, therefore negatively modulating MdTRB1-promoted biosynthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. These results show that the JAZ1-TRB1-MYB9 module dynamically modulates JA-mediated accumulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin. Taken together, our data further expand the functional study of TRB1 and provide insights for further studies of the modulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by JA.

14.
Plant Physiol ; 186(1): 750-766, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764451

RESUMO

Nitrate acts as a vital signal molecule in the modulation of plant growth and development. The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) is also involved in this process. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how nitrate and GA signaling pathway work together in regulating plant growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that a nitrate-responsive BTB/TAZ protein MdBT2 participates in regulating nitrate-induced plant growth in apple (Malus × domestica). Yeast two-hybridization, protein pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that MdBT2 interacts with a DELLA protein MdRGL3a, which is required for the ubiquitination and degradation of MdRGL3a proteins via a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MdBT2 partially rescued growth inhibition caused by overexpression of MdRGL3a in Arabidopsis. Taken together, our findings indicate that MdBT2 promotes nitrate-induced plant growth partially through reducing the abundance of the DELLA protein MdRGL3a.

15.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 22, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518703

RESUMO

Nitrogen is an important factor that affects plant anthocyanin accumulation. In apple, the nitrate-responsive BTB/TAZ protein MdBT2 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis. In this study, we found that MdBT2 undergoes posttranslational modifications in response to nitrate deficiency. Yeast two-hybrid, protein pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that MdBT2 interacts with MdGRF11, a 14-3-3 protein; 14-3-3 proteins compose a family of highly conserved phosphopeptide-binding proteins involved in multiple physiological and biological processes. The interaction of MdGRF11 negatively regulated the stability of the MdBT2 protein via a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway, which increased the abundance of MdMYB1 proteins to activate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. Taken together, the results demonstrate the critical role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of nitrate deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Our results provide a novel avenue to elucidate the mechanism underlying the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to nitrate deficiency.

16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(6): 1869-1884, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459386

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant growth, development and metabolism. Due to its lack of solubility and low bioavailability in soil, Fe levels are usually far below the optimum amount for most plants' growth and development. In apple production, excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer may cause iron chlorosis symptoms in the newly growing leaves, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. In this study, low nitrate (NO3 - , LN) application alleviated the symptoms of Fe deficiency and promoted lower rhizosphere pH, which was beneficial for root Fe acquisition. At the same time, LN treatment increased citrate and abscisic acid accumulation in roots, which promoted Fe transport from root to shoot and maintained Fe homeostasis. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis showed that nitrate application caused differential expression of genes related to Fe uptake and transport, as well as transcriptional regulators. In summary, our data reveal that low nitrate alleviated Fe deficiency through multiple pathways, demonstrating a new option for minimizing Fe deficiency by regulating the balance between nutrients.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Nitratos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is a key negative regulator in photoperiod response. However, the biological function of COP1-interacting protein 1 (CIP1) and the regulatory mechanism of the CIP1-COP1 interaction are not fully understood. RESULTS: Here, we identified the apple MdCIP1 gene based on the Arabidopsis AtCIP1 gene. Expression pattern analysis showed that MdCIP1 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of apple, and responded to stress and hormone signals at the transcriptional level. Ectopic expression of MdCIP1 complemented the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis cip1 mutant, and MdCIP1 inhibited anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple calli. In addition, the biochemical assay demonstrated that MdCIP1 could interact with MdCOP1 protein by their coiled-coil domain, and MdCIP1-OX/cop1-4 had a similar phenotype in photomorphogenesis with the cop1-4 mutant, suggesting that COP1 is epistatic to CIP1. Furthermore, the transient transformation assay indicated that MdCIP1 repressed anthocyanin biosynthesis in an MdCOP1-mediated pathway. CONCLUSION: Take together, this study finds that MdCIP1 acts as a repressor in regulating hypocotyl elongation and anthocyanin biosynthesis through MdCOP1 in apple.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/genética , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
18.
Planta ; 253(2): 46, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484359

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This study identified a new bHLHm1 transcription factor MdSAT1 which functioned in mediating tolerance to salt and drought resistance. Changes in the expression of stress-related genes play crucial roles in response to environmental stress. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are the largest superfamily of transcription factors and a large number of bHLH proteins function in plant responses to abiotic stresses. We identified a new bHLHm1 transcription factor from apple and named it MdSAT1. ß-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that MdSAT1 expressed in various tissues with highly expressed in leaves. Promoter analysis revealed that MdSAT1 contained multiple response elements and its transcription was induced by several environmental cues, particularly salt and drought stresses. Overexpression of MdSAT1 in apple calli and Arabidopsis resulted in a phenotype of increased tolerance to salt and drought. Altering abscisic acid (ABA) treatment increased the sensitivity of MdSAT1-OE Arabidopsis to ABA, and heavy metal stress, osmotic stress, and ethylene did not participate in MdSAT1 mediated plant development. These findings reveal the abiotic stress functions of MdSAT1 and pave the way for further functional investigation.


Assuntos
Secas , Malus , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácido Abscísico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110771, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487355

RESUMO

Nitrate is essential for plant growth and development. When nitrate availability is low, plants produce more lateral roots (LRs) to seek nitrate from the soil. In this study, by DNA electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase assays, it was showed that NIN-like protein 7 (NLP7) transcription factor activated expression of TAR2 by directly binding to its promoter. Finally, through genetic analysis, it was speculated that NLP7 regulated LR development through TAR2. In conclusion, NLP7 binds to the TAR2 promoter and activates TAR2 expression, thereby promoting nitrate-dependent LR development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Triptofano Transaminase/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triptofano Transaminase/metabolismo
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 19(2): 285-299, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757335

RESUMO

Changes in carbohydrates and organic acids largely determine the palatability of edible tissues of horticulture crops. Elucidating the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the change in carbohydrates and organic acids, and their temporal and spatial crosstalk are key steps in understanding fruit developmental processes. Here, we used apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) as research materials and found that MdbHLH3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (bHLH TF), modulates the accumulation of malate and carbohydrates. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that MdbHLH3 directly binds to the promoter of MdcyMDH that encodes an apple cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, activating its transcriptional expression, thereby promoting malate accumulation in apple fruits. Additionally, MdbHLH3 overexpression increased the photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate levels in apple leaves and also enhanced the carbohydrate accumulation in fruits by adjusting carbohydrate allocation from sources to sinks. Overall, our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of how the bHLH TF MdbHLH3 modulates the fruit quality. It directly regulates the expression of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase MdcyMDH to coordinate carbohydrate allocation and malate accumulation in apple.


Assuntos
Malus , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Frutose , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malatos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
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