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Pain Physician ; 24(3): 235-242, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988942


BACKGROUND: Interscalene block is the most commonly used nerve block for shoulder surgery, and superior trunk block has been investigated as a phrenic-sparing alternative. This randomized controlled trial compared ultrasound-guided interscalene block and superior trunk block as anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to determine the superiority of anesthesia quality and compare the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis between these 2 blocks. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital. METHODS: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery under an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block were randomized to receive either an interscalene block (ISB group, n = 24) or a superior trunk block (STB group, n = 24) for surgery. Ten milliliters of 2% lidocaine and 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine were used as local anesthesia in both brachial plexus block groups (total 20 mL). In the ISB group, the local anesthesia was injected between the C5-C6 root and at the upper part of C5 with equally divided doses. In the STB group, the local anesthesia was injected into the anterior and posterior parts of the superior trunk with equally divided doses. Sensory blockade of each trocar's insulting site (supraclavicular, axillary, and suprascapular nerve areas) and motor blockade of the axillary nerve (shoulder abduction) and the suprascapular nerve (shoulder external rotation) were assessed by a blinded observer at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes after the block. Anesthesia quality was assessed using 3 grades (excellent/insufficient/failure). The blinded investigator also assessed the grade of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (normal/partial/complete) by comparing pre- and postoperative chest radiographs. Primary outcome variables were anesthesia grade and rate of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Secondary outcome variables were performance time and anesthesia onset time. RESULTS: The anesthetic grade was significantly different between the 2 groups (22/2/0 in the ISB group vs. 16/3/5 in the STB group, P = 0.046). Both groups displayed equivalent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (12/6/6 in the ISB group vs. 7/14/3 in the STB group, P = 0.063). No intergroup differences were found in terms of performance time and anesthesia onset time. LIMITATIONS: Our sensory and motor function test was not applied to the subscapular nerve, which serves internal rotation of the humeral head so may be difficult to evaluate in patients with rotator cuff tears. We assessed the diaphragmatic movement by chest radiographs instead of by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: The superior trunk block provided lower quality of surgical anesthesia than the interscalene block and did not effectively decrease the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff syndrome.

Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e24571, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011020


INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among obstetric and gynecologic patients. This systematic review aimed to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of commonly used intravenous (IV) iron formulations, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), and iron sucrose (IS) in the treatment of IDA in obstetric and gynecologic patients. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV iron replacement using FCM and IS up to October 2019. The primary outcome was to compare the efficacy of FCM and IS, assessed by measuring serum hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels before and after iron replacement. The secondary outcome was to compare the safety of FCM and IS, assessed by the incidence of adverse events during iron replacement. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: We identified 9 RCTs with 910 patients (FCM group, n = 456; IS group, n = 454). Before iron replacement, FCM and IS group patients had similar baseline Hb (mean difference [MD], 0.04 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.07 to 015; I2 = 0%; P = 0.48) and ferritin levels (MD, -0.42 ng/mL; 95% CI, -1.61 to 0.78; I2 = 45%; P = 0.49). Following iron replacement, patients who received FCM had higher Hb (MD, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.25-1.08; I2 = 92%; P = 0.002) and ferritin levels (MD, 24.41; 95% CI, 12.06-36.76; I2 = 75%; P = 0.0001) than patients who received IS. FCM group showed a lower incidence of adverse events following iron replacement than IS group (risk ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.80; I2 = 0%; P = 0.003). Serious adverse events were not reported in any group. CONCLUSION: FCM group showed better efficacy in increasing Hb and ferritin levels and a favorable safety profile with fewer adverse events compared with IS group for IDA treatment among obstetric and gynecologic patients. However, this meta-analysis was limited by the small number of RCTs and high heterogeneity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was prospectively registered with the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews (, registration number CRD42019148905).

Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Ferro Sacarado/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/efeitos adversos , Óxido de Ferro Sacarado/efeitos adversos , Ferritinas/sangue , Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Maltose/administração & dosagem , Maltose/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102676


BACKGROUND: Phase lag entropy (PLE) is a novel anesthetic depth indicator that uses four-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the temporal pattern diversity in the phase relationship of frequency signals in the brain. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic depth monitoring using PLE and to evaluate the correlation between PLE and bispectral index (BIS) values during propofol anesthesia. METHODS: In thirty-five adult patients undergoing elective surgery, anesthesia was induced with propofol using target-controlled infusion (the Schneider model). We recorded the PLE value, raw EEG, BIS value, and hemodynamic data when the target effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol reached 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 µg/ml before intubation and 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 µg/ml after intubation and injection of muscle relaxant. We analyzed whether PLE and raw EEG data from the PLE monitor reflected the anesthetic depth as the Ce of propofol changed, and whether PLE values were comparable to BIS values. RESULTS: PLE values were inversely correlated to changes in propofol Ce (propofol Ce from 0 to 6.0 µg/ml, r2 = - 0.83; propofol Ce from 6.0 to 2.0 µg/ml, r2 = - 0.46). In the spectral analysis of EEG acquired from the PLE monitor, the persistence spectrogram revealed a wide distribution of power at loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC), with a narrow distribution during unconsciousness. The power spectrogram showed the typical pattern seen in propofol anesthesia with slow alpha frequency band oscillation. The PLE value demonstrated a strong correlation with the BIS value during the change in propofol Ce from 0 to 6.0 µg/ml (r2 = 0.84). PLE and BIS values were similar at LOC (62.3 vs. 61.8) (P > 0.05), but PLE values were smaller than BIS values at ROC (64.4 vs 75.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PLE value is a useful anesthetic depth indicator, similar to the BIS value, during propofol anesthesia. Spectral analysis of EEG acquired from the PLE monitor demonstrated the typical patterns seen in propofol anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was retrospectively registered at at October 2017 (NCT03299621).

Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitores de Consciência , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Propofol/farmacologia , Adulto , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059515


Perioperative anemia frequently occurs in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intravenous iron therapy (IVIT) on transfusion and recovery profiles during orthopedic surgery. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Google Scholar for eligible clinical trials (randomized controlled trials, RCTs; case-control studies, CCSs) in comparing IVIT and no iron therapy, up to September 2018. Primary outcomes were the effects of IVIT on the proportion of patients transfused and units of red blood cells (RBCs) transfused perioperatively. Secondary outcomes were the effects of IVIT on recovery profiles, such as length of hospital stay (LOS), post-operative infection, and mortality. Subgroup analysis was performed based on iron dose (low: ≤ 300 mg, high: > 400 mg), IVIT period (pre-operative, post-operative, perioperative), and study design. We identified 12 clinical trials (4 RCTs with 616 patients and 8 CCSs with 1,253 patients). IVIT significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused by 31% (RR, 0.69; P = 0.0002), and units of RBCs transfused by 0.34 units/person (MD, -0.34; P = 0.0007). For subgroup analysis by iron dose, low- or high-dose IVIT significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused (RR, 0.73, P = 0.005; RR, 0.68, P = 0.008), and RBC units transfused (MD, -0.47, P < 0.0001; MD, -0.28, P = 0.04). For subgroup analysis by period, IVIT administered post-operatively significantly reduced the proportion of patients transfused (post-operative: RR, 0.60, P = 0.002; pre-operative: RR, 0.74, P = 0.06) and RBC units transfused (post-operative: MD, -0.44, P <0.00001; pre-operative: MD, -0.29, P = 0.06). For subgroup analysis by study design, IVIT decreased the proportion of patients transfused and RBC units transfused in the group of CCSs, but IVIT in the group of RCTs did not. IVIT significantly shortened LOS by 1.6 days (P = 0.0006) and reduced post-operative infections by 33% (P = 0.01). IVIT did not change mortality. Perioperative IVIT during orthopedic surgery, especially post-operatively, appears to reduce the proportion of patients transfused and units of RBCs transfused, with shorter LOS and decreased infection rate, but no change in mortality rate. These were only found in CCSs and not in RCTs due to the relatively small number of RCTs with low to high risk of bias.

Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(9): 1423-1431, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867725


Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days. Wound size, immune response and oxidative stress were explored and compared to conventional agents such as Betadine and alcohol. We found that SAEW-treated group showed the highest wound reduction percentage (p<0.01). Antioxidant activities such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and myeloperoxidase activities of SAEW group surpassed the total reactive oxygen species in skin. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor were upregulated in SAEW group. Further, SAEW recruited the production of intracellular calcium and promoted its utilization for faster healing. In line, SAEW treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in serum. Other hallmarks of wound healing, matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)1 and MMP9 were also upregulated. Collectively, our study indicates that SAEW is effective in wound healing of hairless mice via immune-redox modulation, and heals better/faster than conventional agents.

Eletrólise , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Desinfetantes , Feminino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Água/química , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia