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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808261

RESUMO

In host-parasitoid interactions, antagonistic relationship drives parasitoids to vary in virulence in facing different hosts, which makes these systems excellent models for stress-induced evolutionary studies. Venom compositions varied between two strains of Tetrastichus brontispae, Tb-Bl and Tb-On. Tb-Bl targets Brontispa longissima pupae as hosts, and Tb-On is a sub-population of Tb-Bl, which has been experimentally adapted to a new host, Octodonta nipae. Aiming to examine variation in parasitoid virulence of the two strains toward two hosts, we used reciprocal injection experiments to compare effect of venom/ovarian fluids from the two strains on cytotoxicity, inhibition of immunity and fat body lysis of the two hosts. We found that Tb-Onvenom was more virulent towards plasmatocyte spreading, granulocyte function and phenoloxidase activity than Tb-Blvenom. Tb-Blovary was able to suppress encapsulation and phagocytosis in both hosts; however, Tb-Onovary inhibition targeted only B. longissima. Our data suggest that the venom undergoes rapid evolution when facing different hosts, and that the wasp has good evolutionary plasticity.

2.
Chempluschem ; 86(1): 146-154, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459522

RESUMO

The exploration and understanding of self-assembly and stimuli-responsive mechanisms of supramolecular systems are of fundamental importance for researchers to plan syntheses reasonably. Herein, the self-assembly and ions responsive mechanisms of a tripodal quinolinamido-based supramolecular organogel (TBT-gel) were investigated through experiments and theoretical calculations including independent gradient model (IGM), localized orbitals locator (LOL) and hole-electron theory. According to these studies, the self-assembly mechanism of TBT-gel was based on strong threefold H-bonding and π-π interactions, which induced the TBT forming helical, one-dimensional supramolecular polymer. After addition of Fe3+ into the TBT-gel, the one-dimensional supramolecular polymer had been crosslinked by the Fe3+ through coordination interaction and formed a metallogel (TBT-Fe-gel). Interestingly, the TBT-gel showed selective fluorescent response for Fe3+ and F- based on a competitive coordination mechanism. Moreover, the study on fluorescence responsive mechanism of TBT-gel for Fe3+ and F- implied the ICT mode governs both the electron excitation and de-excitation processes. The calculated results were in agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Notably, the quantum chemical calculations provided a deep understanding and visualized presentation of the assembly and stimuli-responsive mechanisms.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(3): 1703-1710, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404436

RESUMO

In this study, pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) was employed to grow MgxZn1-xO films on quartz substrates. The optimal deposition temperature of 300 °C for MgxZn1-xO film was decided and Mg0.38Zn0.62O, Mg0.56Zn0.44O and Mg0.69Zn0.31O films were grown respectively using MgxZn1-xO targets with different Mg contents (x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7). As-deposited Mg0.38Zn0.62O film possessed the mixed-phase (hexagonal and cubic phase) structure, appropriate band gap of 4.68 eV and smaller surface roughness of 1.72 nm, and the solar-blind photodetector (PD) based on it was fabricated. The key features of our PD are the cutoff wavelength of 265 nm lying in solar-blind band, lower dark current (Idark) of 88 pA, higher peak responsivity of 0.10 A/W and bigger Ilight/Idark ratio of 1688, which provide the new idea for the application of solar-blind PDs based on MgxZn1-xO films.

4.
J Theor Biol ; 512: 110558, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346020

RESUMO

In China, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype O remains prevalent, and its main host is pigs. Infected but undiscovered pigs can carry foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) for a longtime. And, the virus can spread among farms through pig trade. Although individual vaccination at least 2 times a year and monthly monitoring disease and culling all individual in same group for pigs are adopted vigorously in China, the epidemic remains prevalent. Therefore, in this paper, based on these propagation characteristics and control measures of the epidemic in China, we take the pig farms as research individuals, the trade among farms as transmission routes to establish a dynamic model with nonlinear incidence. In addition, we use this model to assess the impact of trade and transport of pigs among farms on the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), and to assess the effect of the immunization, monitoring and culling adopted presently in China on the control of the epidemic. By the dynamical analysis of the model, it is found that there will appear backward branching under some conditions, which means that there are two spreading thresholds for the disease, and the disease development trend is also related to the current epidemic situation. Besides, we give the threshold conditions of key parameters to control the spread of FMD. By carrying out data fitting and parameter estimation, we confirm the model rationality, and give four evaluation indexes: the basic reproduction number R0 of FMD serotype O in China, the value of the infected farms at the equilibria, annual probability of a susceptible farm being infected and annual transmission intensity of an infected farm. By carrying out the sensitivity analysis of key parameters on four evaluation indexes, the effect of parameters on the spread of the disease can be intuitively observed. All these can provide a theoretical basis for understanding of the trading-based transmission mechanism, control and prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs in China.

5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 118: 111358, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254978

RESUMO

Paraquat, one of non-selective herbicides, is widely used in agricultural production. However, it can cause death of people or animals quickly owing to its fatal toxicity. In the present work, for efficient separation and removal of the paraquat, a concept "employ collaboration effect to enhance the Host-Guest interactions" was rationally introduced into the design of paraquat adsorbent material. According to this concept, a novel linear tri-pillar[5]arene-based acceptor molecule was synthesized. Interestingly, the acceptor shows outstanding adsorption properties for paraquat through the collaboration effect of the adjacent pillar[5]arene moieties in the linear tri-pillar[5]arene acceptor. Compared with other adsorbents such as activated carbon and single-pillar[5]arene-based adsorbent materials, the linear tri-pillar[5]arene acceptor shows higher adsorption rate for paraquat. Additionally, the linear tri-pillar[5]arene acceptor was applied to adsorb the commercial pesticide paraquat sample in water with adsorption rate of 98%. Therefore, the linear tri-pillar[5]arene acceptor could serve as a paraquat adsorbent material and convey greatly potential application in the field of removal of paraquat. The concept "employ collaboration effect to enhance the Host-Guest interactions" is a useful way for the development of adsorption materials.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300514

RESUMO

As a photophysical phenomenon, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) was proposed by Tang in 2001. Due to their excellent fluorescence emission performance, AIEgens and AIE-based fluorescence materials have shown great application potential in a wide range of science fields. Hence, exploring new AIEgens and construction of novel AIE materials are especially vital. In addition, as a new class of macrocyclic hosts, pillararenes have shown excellent performance in supramolecular chemistry. Interestingly, pillararenes also exhibited fairly bright application prospects in the AIE area: firstly, some research studies suggested that pillararenes could serve as a novel AIEgen with considerable fluorescence emission in the aggregated state; moreover, they could also participate in the construction of AIE materials and have potential application in various areas. In this review, we summarised the recent development of pillararene-based AIE materials from the following aspects: pillararenes as novel AIEgens, the TPE functionalized pillararene-based AIE materials, the pillararene-based AIE materials constructed by supramolecular assembly, and the functionalized pseudo-pillararene-based AIE materials. It is hoped that this feature article will attract increasing attention and pave a new way for the development and application of pillar[n]arene-based AIE materials in more fields.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303695

RESUMO

Cancer chemoprevention is the most effective approach to control cancer in the population. Despite significant progress, chemoprevention has not been widely adopted because agents that are safe tend to be less effective and those that are highly effective tend to be toxic. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel and effective chemopreventive agents, such as mitochondria-targeted agents, that can prevent cancer and prolong survival. Mitochondria, the central site for cellular energy production, have important functions in cell survival and death. Several studies have revealed a significant role for mitochondrial metabolism in promoting cancer development and progression, making mitochondria a promising new target for cancer prevention. Conjugating delocalized lipophilic cations such triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP+) to compounds of interest is an effective approach for mitochondrial targeting. The hyperpolarized tumor cell membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential allow for selective accumulation of TPP+ conjugates in tumor cell mitochondria versus those in normal cells. This could enhance direct killing of pre-cancerous, dysplastic, and tumor cells while minimizing potential toxicities to normal cells.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041405, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between air pollutant exposure and interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). SETTING: A nationwide, population-based, matched case-control study in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Using the 1997-2013 Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified patients with newly diagnosed CTD during 2001-2013, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis (DMtis)/polymyositis (PM) and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients with newly diagnosed ILD during 2012-2013 were identified as ILD cases, and selected patients with CTD without ILD matching (1:4) the CTD cases for CTD diagnosis, age, gender, disease duration and year of ILD diagnosis date were identified as non-ILD controls. Data of hourly level of air pollutants 1 year before the index date were obtained from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. The association between ILD and air pollutant exposure was evaluated using logistic regression analysis shown as adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 505 newly diagnosed CTD-ILD patients, including 82 with SLE, 210 with RA, 47 with SSc, 44 with DMtis/PM and 122 with pSS. Ozone (O3) exposure (per 10 ppb) was associated with a decreased ILD risk in patients with CTD (aOR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.79) after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: A previously unrecognised inverse correlation was found between O3 exposure and ILD in patients with RA and SSc. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 563699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324395

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease. The characteristic pathology involves immune complexes formed by the deposition of IgA1 and underglycosylated IgA1 aggregates in the mesangial area, which may be accompanied by the deposition of IgG and/or IgM and complement components. However, the molecular mechanisms of IgAN remain unclear. In the present study, microarray analysis showed that the expression of microRNA-630 (miR-630) was significantly reduced in palatal tonsils from IgAN patients compared with chronic tonsillitis. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was the predicted target gene of miR-630 and was regulated by miR-630. When miR-630 was overexpressed in palatal tonsil mononuclear cells from IgAN patients, the expression of TLR4 was reduced and the content of IgA1 in the cell culture supernatant was decreased, and the level of galactosylation in the IgA1 hinge region was increased. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of TLR4 in IgAN patients was significantly increased. After knocking down the expression of TLR4, both the concentration of IgA1 and the binding force of IgA1 with broad bean lectin were significantly reduced in IgAN. Furthermore, the mechanism study demonstrated that TLR4 might regulate the expression of IL-1ß and IL-8 through NF-κB signaling pathway to modulate the concentration of IgA1 and the glycosylation level of IgA1. This interesting finding may offer new insight into the molecular mechanism of IgAN.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226370

RESUMO

In this meta-analysis, we systematically investigated the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. We searched PubMed, Network Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), and Wanfang databases up to January 2020 for studies on PC risk-associated SNPs. We identified 45 case-control studies (36,360 PC patients and 54,752 non-cancer individuals) relating to investigations of 27 genes and 54 SNPs for this meta-analysis. Direct meta-analysis followed by network meta-analysis and Thakkinstian algorithm analysis showed that homozygous genetic models for CTLA-4 rs231775 (OR =0.326; 95% CI: 0.218-0.488) and VDR rs2228570 (OR = 1.976; 95% CI: 1.496-2.611) and additive gene model for TP53 rs9895829 (OR = 1.231; 95% CI: 1.143-1.326) were significantly associated with PC risk. TP53 rs9895829 was the most optimal SNP for diagnosing PC susceptibility with a false positive report probability < 0.2 at a stringent prior probability value of 0.00001. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that TP53 rs9895829, VDR rs2228570, and CTLA-4 rs231775 are significantly associated with PC risk. We also demonstrate that TP53 rs9895829 is a potential diagnostic biomarker for estimating PC risk.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206102

RESUMO

A novel fluorescent chemosensor based on trimesoyl chloride-rhodamine (TR) was successfully synthesized. Rising chromogenic and fluorogenic spectral enhancements could be observed in trimesoyl chloride-rhodamine (TR) probes when Hg2+ and Fe3+ were added, respectively. TR has shown selectivity for Hg2+ and Fe3+ with high sensitivity due to metal ion complexation induced photophysical "turn-on" signaling responses. The detection limit towards Hg2+ was 2.46 × 10-8 M as determined by the 3σ method. At the same time, fluorogenic spectral enhancements were observed in TR, which exhibits a superior sensitive and selective recognition towards Fe3+ with 4.11 × 10-8 M of the detection limit. The test strips were used for colorimetric and simple detection towards Hg2+, which might finally enable the advancement of the Hg2+ sensor in the field of on-site detection.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(47): 9811-9817, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179907

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) is very necessary for biosystems; therefore, high-efficient detection of Trp is an important subject. Hereof, based on our early research works on fluorescent sensors, we rationally designed and synthesized a fluorescent sensor (SNP5) based on N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-(hexylthio) acetamide-functionalized pillar[5]arene, which showed high selectivity and sensitive recognition for l-Trp (LOD = 2.19 × 10-8 M). Moreover, SNP5 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement fluorescence. Within SNP5, the pillar[5]arene group could act as N-H···π- and C-H···π-interaction sites, as well as a H-bond-interaction site; meanwhile, the N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-(hexylthio) acetamide group also served as a multihydrogen-bonding site. As a result, SNP5 could selectively detect l-Trp through the synergy of the pillar[5]arene group and the N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-(hexylthio) acetamide group. Compared with previous work, the results of this work support the strategy that changing the functionalized group of the pillar[5]arene can adjust the selectivity of the pillar[5]arene-based sensor and achieve the detection of different amino acids. The detection mechanism was specifically researched through experiments and theoretical calculations including frontier orbitals, electrostatic potential, and the independent gradient model approach. Interestingly, these theoretical calculations not only supported the experimental results but also provided a visualized understanding of guest-adaptive multisupramolecular interactions between SNP5 and l-Trp.

13.
Phys Med Biol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181498

RESUMO

Emerging magnetic resonance (MRI) guided radiotherapy affords significantly improved anatomy visualization and, subsequently, more effective personalized treatment. The new therapy paradigm imposes significant demands on radiation dose calculation quality and speed, creating an unmet need for the acceleration of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. Existing deep learning approaches to denoise the final plan MC dose fail to achieve the accuracy and speed requirements of large-scale beamlet dose calculation in the presence of a strong magnetic field for online adaptive radiotherapy (OART) planning. Our deep learning dose calculation method, DeepMC, addresses these needs by predicting low-noise dose from extremely noisy (but fast) MC-simulated dose and anatomical inputs, thus enabling significant acceleration. DeepMC simultaneously reduces MC sampling noise and predicts corrupted dose buildup at tissue-air material interfaces resulting from MR-field induced electron return effects. Here we demonstrate our model's ability to accelerate dose calculation for daily treatment planning by a factor of 38 over traditional low-noise MC simulation with clinically meaningful accuracy in deliverable dose and treatment delivery parameters. As a post-processing approach, DeepMC provides compounded acceleration of large-scale dose calculation when used alongside established MC acceleration techniques in variance reduction and GPU-based MC simulation.

14.
Langmuir ; 36(45): 13469-13476, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147040

RESUMO

The booming of host-guest assembly-based supramolecular chemistry provides abundant ways to construct functional systems and materials. Attracted by the important application prospect of white light emission and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) materials, herein, we report an efficient way for fabricating metal-free white light-emitting AIE materials through the supramolecular assembly of simple organic compounds: methoxyl pillar[5]arene (MP5) and tri-(pyridine-4-ylamido)benzene (TAP). By host-guest assembly, MP5 and TAP formed a supramolecular polymer (MP5-T); meanwhile, the MP5-T xerogel powder emitted white light at CIE coordinates (0.29 and 0.29). The supramolecular assembly and white light-emitting mechanisms were carefully investigated by experiments as well as quantum chemical calculations including density functional theory (DFT), reduced density gradient, electrostatic surface potential, independent gradient model, and frontier molecular orbital (highest-occupied molecular orbital-lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital) analyses. Interestingly, according to the experiments and calculations, the supramolecular assembly is critical in the white light-emitting phenomenon. Moreover, in this work, the quantum chemical calculations could not only support experimental phenomena but also provide deep understanding and visualized presentation of the assembly and emission mechanism. In addition, the obtained MP5-T solid powder could serve as a novel and easy means to make material for white light-emitting devices.

15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 588090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194833

RESUMO

White leaf spot can cause significant damage to many economically important Brassicaceae crops, including oilseed rape, vegetable, condiment, and fodder Brassica species, and recently has been identified as a re-emerging disease. The causal agent, Neopseudocercosporella capsellae, produces foliar, stem, and pod lesions under favorable weather conditions. N. capsellae secretes cercosporin, a non-host specific, photo-activated toxin, into the host tissue during the early infection process. The pathogen has an active parasitic stage on the living host and a sexual or asexual saprobic stage on the dead host. Where the sexual stage exists, ascospores initiate the new disease cycle, while in the absence of the sexual stage, conidia produced by the asexual stage initiate new disease cycles. Distribution of the pathogen is worldwide; however, epidemiology and disease severity differ between countries or continents, with it being more destructive in Subtropical, Mediterranean, or Temperate climate regions with cool and wet climates. The pathogen has a wide host range within Brassicaceae. Brassica germplasm show varied responses from highly susceptible to completely resistant to pathogen invasion and significant susceptibility differences are observed among major crop species. Cultural practices only provide effective disease control when the climate is not conducive. An increase in the susceptible host population and favorable weather conditions have together favored the recent rise in white leaf spot disease occurrence and spread. The lack of understanding of variation in pathogen virulence and associated resistant gene sources within brassicas critically limits the potential to develop efficient control measures.

16.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020: 8872120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194875

RESUMO

Aims: The aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Sofosbuvir- (SOF-) based direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) treatment for patients with genotype (GT) 3/6 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods: Patients infected with GT 3/6 HCV and treated with SOF-based DAAs were enrolled in this prospective, open, single-center, and real-world study. Drugs included Sofosbuvir (SOF), Velpatasvir (VEL), Daclatasvir (DCV), and Ribavirin (RBV). The treatment regimens included SOF + RBV for 24 weeks, SOF + DCV ± RBV for 12/24 weeks, and SOF/VEL ± RBV for 12 weeks. Results: A total of 54 patients were included. Age was 42.5 ± 10.4 years. Baseline HCV RNA was 6.29 ± 0.89log10 IU/mL. The numbers of GT 3a, 3b, and 6a patients were 10, 12, and 32, respectively. The numbers of chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis patients were 39, 9, and 6, respectively. In patients with chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis, sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was 97.4% and 96.7%, respectively, and rapid virological response (RVR) was 75.0% and 57.1%, respectively. SVR12 of GT3a, GT3b, and GT6a was 100%, 83.3%, and 97%, respectively. ALT normality rate in chronic hepatitis group is higher than that in cirrhosis group at 4 weeks of treatment (89.7% versus 60.0%, p = 0.033) and at 12 weeks after EOT (94.9% versus 66.7%, p = 0.021). The overall incidence rate of adverse events was 44.4%, with fatigue being the most common (13.0%). Conclusion: SOF-based DAAs regimen can achieve ideal SVR12 for Chinese patients with both GT3a and GT6a HCV infection. The tolerance and safety of SOF-based DAAs regimen are good.

17.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185518

RESUMO

White leaf spot (Neopseudocercosporella capsellae) is a persistent and increasingly important foliar disease for canola (Brassica napus) across southern Australia. To define the role of plant growth stage on development of the disease epidemic, we first investigated the response of different canola cultivars (Scoop and Charlton) at five Sylvester-Bradley growth stages against N. capsellae. White leaf spot disease incidence and severity was dependent upon plant growth stage and cultivar (both P < 0.001), with plants being most susceptible at plant growth stage 1,00 (cotyledon stage) followed by plant growth stage 1,04 (4th leaf stage). Then, second, to quantify the impact of this disease on canola yield, we investigated the in-field relationship of white leaf spot disease incidence and severity with seed yield loss following artificial inoculation commencing at growth stage 1.04 (4th leaf stage). White leaf spot significantly (P < 0.001) reduced seed yield by 24% in N. capsellae inoculated field plots compared with non-inoculated field plots. We believe that this is the first time that serious seed yield losses from this disease have been quantified in-field. The current study demonstrates that N. capsellae disease incidence and severity on canola is determined by host growth stage at which pathogen infestation occurs. Emerging seedling cotyledons were highly susceptible, followed by less susceptibility in first true leaves to emerge but then increasing susceptibility as plants subsequently age towards the 4th leaf stage. This explains field observances where white leaf spot readily establishes on emerging seedlings and subsequently becomes more prevalent and severe as plants age.

18.
Microb Ecol ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145650

RESUMO

Fine root endophytes (FRE) were traditionally considered a morphotype of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), but recent genetic studies demonstrate that FRE belong within the subphylum Mucoromycotina, rather than in the subphylum Glomeromycotina with the AMF. These findings prompt enquiry into the fundamental ecology of FRE and AMF. We sampled FRE and AMF in roots of Trifolium subterraneum from 58 sites across temperate southern Australia. We investigated the environmental drivers of composition, richness, and root colonization of FRE and AMF by using structural equation modelling and canonical correspondence analyses. Root colonization by FRE increased with increasing temperature and rainfall but decreased with increasing phosphorus (P). Root colonization by AMF increased with increasing soil organic carbon but decreased with increasing P. Richness of FRE decreased with increasing temperature and soil pH. Richness of AMF increased with increasing temperature and rainfall but decreased with increasing soil aluminium (Al) and pH. Aluminium, soil pH, and rainfall were, in decreasing order, the strongest drivers of community composition of FRE; they were also important drivers of community composition of AMF, along with temperature, in decreasing order: rainfall, Al, temperature, and soil pH. Thus, FRE and AMF showed the same responses to some (e.g. soil P, soil pH) and different responses to other (e.g. temperature) key environmental factors. Overall, our data are evidence for niche differentiation among these co-occurring mycorrhizal associates.

19.
Soft Matter ; 16(43): 9876-9881, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006593

RESUMO

Supramolecular gels have been widely reported on account of their unique superiority and application prospects. In this work, we constructed a novel supramolecular gel (HD-G) by using hydroxy-naphthaldehyde decorated with naphthalimide in DMSO solution, which exhibited excellent selectivity and ultrasensitive sensing properties toward CN- (the lowest detection limit is 1.82 × 10-10 M). The sensing mechanism of this supramolecular gel takes advantage of π-π stacking interactions and anion-π interactions, which is different from the other familiar methods.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5084, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033253

RESUMO

Identifying factors underlying resistance to immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) is still challenging. Most cancer patients do not respond to ICT and the availability of the predictive biomarkers is limited. Here, we re-analyze a publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset of melanoma samples of patients subjected to ICT and identify a subset of macrophages overexpressing TREM2 and a subset of gammadelta T cells that are both overrepresented in the non-responding tumors. In addition, the percentage of a B cell subset is significantly lower in the non-responders. The presence of these immune cell subtypes is corroborated in other publicly available scRNA-seq datasets. The analyses of bulk RNA-seq datasets of the melanoma samples identify and validate a signature - ImmuneCells.Sig - enriched with the genes characteristic of the above immune cell subsets to predict response to immunotherapy. ImmuneCells.Sig could represent a valuable tool for clinical decision making in patients receiving immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunoterapia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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