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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 159, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore the concepts of health and well-being from the point of view of the people experiencing them. Most of the efforts to understand these concepts have focused on disease prevention and treatment. Less is known about how individuals achieve health and well-being, and their roles in the pursuit of a good life. We hoped to identify important components of these concepts that may provide new targets and messages to strengthen existing public health programs. An improved understanding of health and well-being - or what it means to be well - can guide interventions that help people lead healthier, more fulfilling lives. METHODS: Using a grounded qualitative approach drawing from narrative inquiry, we interviewed 24 Taiwanese adults. Thematic inductive coding was employed to explore the nature of health and well-being. RESULTS: Eight constituent domains emerged regarding well-being and health. While the same domains were found for both constructs, important frequency differences were found when participants discussed health versus well-being. Physical health and lifestyle behaviors emerged as key domains for health. Disease-related comments were the most frequently mentioned sub-category within the physical health domain, along with health care use and aging-related changes. For well-being, family and finances emerged as key domains. Family appears to be a cornerstone element of well-being in this sample, with participants often describing their personal well-being as closely tied to - and often indistinguishable from - their family. Other domains included work-life, sense of self, resilience, and religion/spirituality. CONCLUSIONS: Health and well-being are complex and multifaceted constructs, with participants discussing their constituent domains in a very interconnected manner. Programs and policies intended to promote health and well-being may benefit from considering these domains as culturally-appropriate leverage points to bring about change. Additionally, while the domains identified in this study are person-centered (i.e., reflecting the personal experiences of participants), the stories that participants offered provided insights into how well-being and health are influenced by structural, societal and cultural factors. Our findings also offer an opportunity for future refinement and rethinking of existing measurement tools surrounding these constructs.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18530, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895788

RESUMO

The role of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been a matter of scientific debate with mixed results. We conducted a nationwide cohort study to assess the association between AD and risk of CRC. Drawing on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, 46,703 patients with AD (the AD cohort) and 186,812 sex, age, and index year-matched patients without AD (the non-AD cohort) were identified in the period between 2000 and 2008. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of entry in the cohort until the occurrence of a first CRC diagnosis, death, or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2013), whichever occurred first. Hazards ratios (HRs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from the Fine-Gray competing risk model were used to estimate the association between AD and CRC risk. After multivariable adjustment, AD was associated with an increased risk of CRC (adjusted HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14-1.40). Of note, a significant positive association between AD and CRC risk was evident in both men and women and in all age groups. In summary, this population-based cohort study revealed that AD was associated with an increased risk of CRC in an Asian population. It will be of interest for cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens to evaluate the potential relationship between AD and CRC using biomarkers for allergy status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(1 Pt 1): 51-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There is conflicting data regarding the utility of measuring apolipoproteins in addition to traditional lipid measures in risk assessment of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether apolipoprotein measurements can improve the ability to predict the future development of type 2 diabetes beyond what is possible based on traditional type 2 diabetes risk factors and clinical routine lipid measurements. METHODS: A total of 4,223 Chinese adults without diabetes were followed for a mean duration of 5.42 years. The hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the longitudinal associations of apolipoprotein B (apo B), apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), and the apo B/apo A-I ratio with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Further, the analysis of the area under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC) was performed to test the predictive value of apolipoprotein measurements. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, the HRs of diabetes consistently showed an increasing trend across both the apo B and the apo B/apo A-I ratio quartiles (p for trend = 0.004). In analyses of AUC, the predictive ability for type 2 diabetes risk for the apo B and the apo B/apo A-I ratio was superior to that of routine lipid and lipoprotein measurements. CONCLUSION: Apolipoprotein measurements significantly predict diabetes risk in an Asian population. Furthermore, the predictive ability of apo B alone to detect diabetes was comparable with that of the apo B/apo A-I ratio and better than the routine lipid measurements.

4.
Sleep Med ; 66: 15-20, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies on the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cancer relationship in humans are inconsistent. Furthermore, there are limited prospective studies on the association between OSA and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This retrospective cohort study examined the longitudinal relationship between OSA and CRC in a nationwide population-based cohort. METHODS: We identified 4180 individuals newly diagnosed with OSA (the exposed cohort) and randomly selected 16,720 age- and sex-matched subjects without OSA (the nonexposed cohort) between 2000 and 2008 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculating the cumulative incidence of CRC in each cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and the accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between OSA and CRC. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with OSA were associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC than those without OSA (adjusted HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.28-2.52). The cumulative incidence of CRC was significantly higher in the OSA cohort than in the comparison cohort (log-rank test, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the association between OSA and CRC appeared to be enhanced with increasing frequency of OSA medical visits (adjusted HR [95% CI] was 1.61 [0.97-2.66] and 1.86 [1.26-2.75] for one visit and two or more visits, respectively). CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study demonstrated that OSA was associated with an increased risk of CRC. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1120, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (KT) correlates with an increased risk of developing several malignancies; however, the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) after KT remains debatable and has been marginally explored. Hence, in this nationwide, retrospective, population-based cohort study, we aimed to examine the correlation between KT and CRC in a large-scale population-based Chinese cohort. METHODS: We identified a total of 3739 regular hemodialysis patients undergoing KT (exposed cohort) and 42,324 hemodialysis patients not undergoing KT (non-exposed cohort) between 2000 and 2008 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Both cohorts were followed up from January 1, 2000, to the date of CRC diagnosis, death, or the end of 2013. Using Kaplan-Meier method, we measured the cumulative incidence of CRC in each cohort. Furthermore, Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the correlation between KT and CRC in hemodialysis patients. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of CRC was significantly higher in the exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, the exposed cohort exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC compared with the non-exposed cohort (adjusted HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients undergoing KT have a significantly higher risk of CRC than those not undergoing KT. Cancer should continue to be a primary focus of prevention during KT.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e011607, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581860

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have raised concerns about the reduced efficacy of citalopram when used concurrently with proton pump inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between clinical use of citalopram and omeprazole and the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in an Asian population. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan dated from 2000 to 2013. The study cohorts comprised 3882 patients with citalopram use alone, 31 090 patients with omeprazole use alone, and 405 patients with concomitant use of citalopram and omeprazole (as the exposed cohort), and 141 508 patients received treatment with antidepressants without the risk of SCA and/or proton pump inhibitors other than omeprazole (as the comparison cohort). The primary outcome was the occurrence of SCA. The hazard ratios and 95% CIs derived from the time-dependent Cox regression model were used to assess the association between the proposed drug treatments and risk of SCA. The adjusted hazard ratios of SCA was 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for citalopram use alone, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.98-1.20) for omeprazole use alone, and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.79-2.78) for concomitant use of citalopram and omeprazole. The cumulative incidence of SCA over the Kaplan-Meier curves was more pronounced in patients with concomitant use of citalopram and omeprazole than those treated with citalopram alone and omeprazole alone. Conclusions This cohort study demonstrated use of citalopram and omeprazole either in isolation use or in concomitant use to be at increased risk for SCA.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1861-1867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, few epidemiologic studies have been conducted to elucidate lifestyle-related risk factors for multiple myeloma in Asia. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality through a pooled analysis of more than 800,000 participants in the Asia Cohort Consortium. METHODS: The analysis included 805,309 participants contributing 10,221,623 person-years of accumulated follow-up across Asia Cohort Consortium cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between BMI, smoking, and alcohol at baseline and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model with shared frailty. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant dose-dependent association between BMI categories and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality (<18.5 kg/m2: HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.52-1.24; 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: reference; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2: HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.94-1.47; ≥30 kg/m2: HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.99-2.64, P trend = 0.014). By sex, this association was more apparent in women than in men (P for heterogeneity between sexes = 0.150). We observed no significant associations between smoking or alcohol consumption and risk of multiple myeloma mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that excess body mass is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma mortality among Asian populations. In contrast, our results do not support an association between smoking or alcohol consumption and the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations. IMPACT: This study provides important evidence on the association of BMI, smoking, and alcohol with the risk of multiple myeloma mortality in Asian populations.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

9.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(5): 1377-1387, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127896

RESUMO

Objective: Three vaccines are available to Taiwanese young girls for cervical cancer (CC) prevention. Here we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the two-dose (2D) AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine (2D-AS04-HPV- 16/18v)+screening compared with a screening programme alone, with 2D human papillomavirus 6/11/16/18 vaccine (2D-4vHPVv)+screening, and with 2D/three-dose (3D) human papillomavirus 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine (9vHPVv)+screening, for Taiwan universal mass vaccination. Methods: A static Markov cohort model simulated the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and CC screening for a 12-year-old cohort of Taiwanese girls (N=120,000). The model ran in 1-year cycles over the cohort's lifetime. Vaccine efficacy irrespective of HPV type was considered in the analysis for each vaccine. Input data were obtained from published literature, local databases, government reports and websites, and expert opinion. The analysis incorporated direct medical costs only, with an annual discount rate of 3.0%. The threshold was determined as 1 Gross Domestic Product per capita (New Taiwan dollar [NT$] 727,818; year 2016). Results: The 2D-AS04-HPV-16/18v+screening yielded 0.0365 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained at an additional cost of NT$ 5,770 per person compared with the screening programme alone. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio well below the threshold. Compared with 2D-4vHPVv+screening and 2D/3D-9vHPVv+screening, discounted results demonstrated additional QALYs gained at lower cost for 2D-AS04-HPV- 16/18v+screening, making it dominant over both 2D-4vHPVv+screening and 2D/3D-9vHPVv+screening. Conclusions: Vaccinating Taiwanese girls with 2D-AS04-HPV-16/18v in addition to screening to prevent CC is cost-effective compared with using a screening programme alone and the dominant option compared with 2D-4vHPVv+screening and 2D/3D-9vHPVv+screening.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Vacinação/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192696, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002328

RESUMO

Importance: Asia is home to the largest diabetic populations in the world. However, limited studies have quantified the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asian populations. Objectives: To evaluate the association of diabetes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Asia and to investigate potential effect modifications of the diabetes-mortality associations by participants' age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis incorporated individual participant data from 22 prospective cohort studies of the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted between 1963 and 2006. A total of 1 002 551 Asian individuals (from mainland China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Bangladesh) were followed up for more than 3 years. Cohort-specific hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox regression models and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Analysis was conducted between January 10, 2018, and August 31, 2018. Exposures: Doctor-diagnosed diabetes, age, sex, education level, body mass index, and smoking status. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: Of 1 002 551 participants (518 537 [51.7%] female; median [range] age, 54.0 [30.0-98.0] years), 148 868 deaths were ascertained during a median (range) follow-up of 12.6 (3.0-38.9) years. The overall prevalence of diabetes reported at baseline was 4.8% for men and 3.6% for women. Patients with diabetes had a 1.89-fold risk of all-cause death compared with patients without diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; 95% CI, 1.74-2.04), with the highest relative risk of death due to diabetes itself (HR, 22.8; 95% CI, 18.5-28.1), followed by renal disease (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.50-3.78), coronary heart disease (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.19-3.02), and ischemic stroke (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.85-2.51). The adverse diabetes-mortality associations were more evident among women (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.89-2.32) than among men (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.62-1.88) (P for interaction < .001) and more evident among adults aged 30 to 49 years (HR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.08-2.84) than among adults aged 70 years and older (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.40-1.62) (P for interaction < .001). A similar pattern of association was found between diabetes and cause-specific mortality, with significant variations noted by sex and age. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of death from several diseases among Asian populations. Development and implementation of diabetes management programs are urgently needed to reduce the burden of diabetes in Asia.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191474, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924901

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding birth cohort-specific tobacco smoking patterns and their association with total and cause-specific mortality is important for projecting future deaths due to tobacco smoking across Asian populations. Objectives: To assess secular trends of tobacco smoking by countries or regions and birth cohorts and evaluate the consequent mortality in Asian populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled meta-analysis was based on individual participant data from 20 prospective cohort studies participating in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Between September 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, a total of 1 002 258 Asian individuals 35 years or older were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and random-effects meta-analysis. The pooled results were presented for mainland China; Japan; Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan; and India. Exposures: Tobacco use status, age at starting smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age at quitting smoking. Main Outcomes and Measures: Country or region and birth cohort-specific mortality and the population attributable risk for deaths from all causes and from lung cancer. Results: Of 1 002 258 participants (51.1% women and 48.9% men; mean [SD] age at baseline, 54.6 [10.4] years), 144 366 deaths (9158 deaths from lung cancer) were ascertained during a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.7 (5.3) years. Smoking prevalence for men steadily increased in China and India, whereas it plateaued in Japan and Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. Among Asian male smokers, the mean age at starting smoking decreased in successive birth cohorts, while the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day increased. These changes were associated with an increasing relative risk of death in association with current smoking in successive birth cohorts of pre-1920, 1920s, and 1930 or later, with hazard ratios for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.17-1.37) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.61) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 1.70 (95% CI, 1.57-1.84) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality were 3.38 (95% CI, 2.25-5.07) for the pre-1920 birth cohort, 4.74 (95% CI, 3.56-6.32) for the 1920s birth cohort, and 4.80 (95% CI, 3.71-6.19) for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking accounted for 12.5% (95% CI, 8.4%-16.3%) of all-cause mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 21.1% (95% CI, 17.3%-24.9%) of all-cause mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.3%) of all-cause mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. Tobacco smoking among men accounted for 56.6% (95% CI, 44.7%-66.3%) of lung cancer mortality in the pre-1920 birth cohort, 66.6% (95% CI, 58.3%-73.5%) of lung cancer mortality in the 1920s birth cohort, and 68.4% (95% CI, 61.3%-74.4%) of lung cancer mortality for the cohort born in 1930 or later. For women, tobacco smoking patterns and lung cancer mortality varied substantially by countries and regions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mortality associated with tobacco smoking continued to increase among Asian men in recent birth cohorts, indicating that tobacco smoking will remain a major public health problem in most Asian countries in the coming decades. Implementing comprehensive tobacco-control programs is warranted to end the tobacco epidemic.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/mortalidade
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(1): 225-234, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are commonly used in breast cancer patients to ameliorate emesis induced by chemotherapy. Some preclinical studies have suggested that systemic GCs might promote survival of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer cells. This study aims to clarify their clinical effect on patient survival. METHODS: A total of 18,596 women with newly diagnosed stage I-III breast cancer in 2002-2006 were identified from the Taiwan Cancer Database and drug treatment was examined from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Claims Database. Of these, 3989 who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy (non-chemotherapy cohort) and 3237 patients who received six cycles of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy (anthracycline cohort) were included. The impact of GC use on survival was analyzed separately in these two cohorts using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In the non-chemotherapy cohort, GC use was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features of breast cancer. High-dose GC was associated with shorter overall survival in univariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. In the anthracycline cohort, multivariate analysis showed that GC use at each dose level was significantly associated with longer breast cancer-specific survival (HR 0.65, 0.70, and 0.70 for low-dose, median-dose, and high-dose GC, respectively) and overall survival (HR 0.72, 0.76, and 0.73, respectively) when compared with those receiving no GC. The associations were significant in both ER-positive and ER-negative subgroups for breast cancer-specific survival, and in ER-negative subgroup for overall survival. CONCLUSION: Concomitant use of GC improved survival in patients receiving adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for stage I-III breast cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 29(4): e55, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the progression risk of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with different clinical managements. METHODS: Women with their first diagnosis of ASCUS cytology were retrieved from the national cervical cancer screening database and linked to the national health insurance research database to identify the management of these women. The incidences of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and invasive cervical cancer (CIN3+) were calculated, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National Taiwan University Hospital and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02063152). RESULTS: There were total 69,741 women included. Various management strategies including colposcopy, cervical biopsies and/or endocervical curettage, and cryotherapy, failed to reduce the risk of subsequent CIN3+ compared with repeat cervical smears. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure/conization significantly decreased risk of subsequent CIN3+ lesions (HR=0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.07-0.68; p=0.010). Women in their 40s-50s had an approximately 30% risk reduction compared to other age groups. Women with a previous screening history >5 years from the present ASCUS diagnosis were at increased risk for CIN3+ (HR=1.24; 95% CI=1.03-1.49; p=0.020). CONCLUSION: In women of first-time ASCUS cytology, a program of repeat cytology can be an acceptable clinical option in low-resource settings. Caution should be taken especially in women with remote cervical screening history more than 5 years.


Assuntos
Células Escamosas Atípicas do Colo do Útero/citologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Colposcopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Conização/estatística & dados numéricos , Crioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 94: 37-46, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocarcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has rarely been studied in populations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and those without hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection (non-B-non-C). This case-control study nested in a community-based cohort aimed to investigate the HCC risk associated with AFB1 in HCV-infected and non-B-non-C participants. METHODS: Baseline serum AFB1-albumin adduct levels were measured in 100 HCC cases and 1767 controls seronegative for anti-HCV and HBsAg (non-B-non-C), and another 103 HCC cases and 176 controls who were anti-HCV-seropositive and HBsAg-seronegative. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: In 20 years of follow-up, the follow-up time to newly developed HCC was significantly shorter in participants with higher serum AFB1-albumin adduct levels in non-B-non-C (p = 0.0162) and HCV-infected participants (p < 0.0001). Within 8 years of follow-up, HCV infection and AFB1 exposure were independent risk factors for HCC. Elevated serum AFB1-albumin adduct levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC newly developed within 8 years of follow-up in non-B-non-C participants with habitual alcohol consumption [crude OR (95% CI) for high vs. low/undetectable levels, 4.22 (1.16-15.37)] and HCV-infected participants [3.39 (1.31-8.77)], but not in non-B-non-C participants without alcohol drinking habit. AFB1 exposure remained an independent risk predictor for HCV-related HCC after adjustment for other HCC predictors (multivariate-adjusted OR [95% CI], 3.65 [1.32-10.10]). CONCLUSIONS: AFB1 exposure contributes to the development of HCC in participants with significant risk factors for cirrhosis including alcohol and HCV infection.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aflatoxina B1/sangue , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 33(3): 349-352, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease (PD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were associated with chronic inflammation. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between PD severity and CRC in a large-scale, population-based Chinese cohort. METHODS: A total of approximately 106,487 individuals with newly diagnosed PD and 106,487 age-matched and sex-matched patients without PD from 2000 to 2002 were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of CRC was significantly higher in patients with PD than in those without PD (log-rank test, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, patients with PD were associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC compared with those without PD (adjusted HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.50-1.80). Further, the risk of CRC appeared to increase with increasing frequency of PD medical visits [adjusted HR (95% CI) was 1.78 (1.58-2.02) and 1.53 (1.35-1.74) for annual visits > 10 and < 4, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Based on our study, PD severity was associated with an increase in the risk of CRC. Further mechanistic research is needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Gynecol Oncol ; 29(1): e16, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. METHODS: Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3-6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. RESULTS: A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3-5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). CONCLUSION: Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovariectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0188203, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284025

RESUMO

We analyzed the management and risk of subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 3 (CIN3) and invasive cervical cancer in women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. A total of 53,293 women with a new diagnosis of cytologic LSIL were identified in Taiwan's national cervical screening registration database. Based on the retrieved clinical management data, the incidence of subsequent CIN3+ lesions was determined, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The average follow-up was 5.02 years. A total of 988 women developed CIN3+ lesions during this period, with an overall incidence of 369.3 women per 100,000 person-years. Cryotherapy and conization/loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) decreased the subsequent risk of CIN3+ lesions in women younger than 50 years (HR 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.64, p<0.0001 for cryotherapy; HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27-0.55, p<0.0001 for LEEP). Cryotherapy and conization/LEEP were two significant protective factors for developing CIN3+ lesions, especially in women with biopsy-proven CIN1 (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.82, p = 0.003 for cryotherapy; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.77, p = 0.005 for LEEP). These results suggest that when women are first screened LSIL and lack prior abnormal cervical cytology, cryotherapy should be one of the treatment options. Younger women with a histological biopsy diagnosis of CIN1 were most likely to benefit from cryotherapy.


Assuntos
Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/prevenção & controle , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia
18.
Radiother Oncol ; 125(2): 248-257, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Irradiating glioblastoma preoperative edema (PE) remains controversial. We investigated the associations between tumors' PE extent with invasion into synchronous subventricular zone and corpus callosum (sSVZCC) and treatment outcomes to provide the clinical evidence for radiotherapy decision-making. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extensive PE (EPE) was defined as PE extending ≥2 cm from the tumor edge and extensive progressive disease (EPD) as tumors spreading ≥2 cm from the preoperative tumor edge along PE. The survival and progression patterns were analyzed according to EPE and sSVZCC invasion. RESULTS: In total, 136 patients were followed for a median of 74.9 (range, 47.6-102.1) months. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 19.7 versus 28.6 months (p = 0.005) and 11.0 versus 17.4 months (p = 0.011) in patients with EPE+ versus EPE-, and were 18.7 versus 25.4 months (p = 0.021) and 10.7 versus 14.6 months (p = 0.020) in those with sSVZCC+ versus sSVZCC-. The EPD rates for tumors with EPE-/sSVZCC-, EPE-/sSVZCC+, EPE+/sSVZCC-, and EPE+/sSVZCC+ were 2.8%, 7.1%, 37.0%, and 71.9%, respectively. In EPE+/sSVZCC+, tumor migration was associated with the PE extending along the corpus callosum (77.8%) and subventricular zone (50.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the need for developing individualized irradiation strategies for glioblastomas according to EPE and sSVZCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Edema/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(9)2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of alteration of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with dementia remains unclear. The purpose of study was to evaluate the association between dynamic change in MetS status around a 5-year period and dementia. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort study was conducted from the Taiwanese Survey on Prevalence of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia in 2002, with follow-up in 2007. The sample was subsequently linked to the National Health Insurance Research Database. Participants were divided into 3 groups: persistent MetS (MetS both in 2002 and 2007); nonpersistent MetS (MetS either in 2002 or 2007); and non-MetS (MetS neither in 2002 nor 2007). Furthermore, the individuals with nonpersistent MetS were categorized as improved MetS (MetS in 2002 but not in 2007) and worsened MetS (MetS not in 2002 but in 2007). Each participant was tracked until the end of 2011 to identify the development of dementia. In total, 3458 participants aged 40 to 80 years were included. Up to 10 years and 31 741 person-years of follow-up, 76 patients developed dementia. Only a relationship was found between the nonpersistent MetS and dementia (adjusted hazard ratio=1.93; 95% confidence interval =1.17-3.19; P=0.010). Moreover, a significantly higher dementia risk was observed in patients with worsened MetS (adjusted hazard ratio=2.22; 95% confidence interval=1.32-3.72; P=0.003), but not those with persistent (P=0.752) or improved (P=0.829) MetS. Similar results were detected in participants aged ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with worsened MetS had an increased dementia risk during the 10-year follow-up period in a population-based sample.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demência/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 56(4): 442-448, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of age, screening interval, and histologic type on the effect of Pap smears in cervical cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry and Cervical Cancer Screening Registration System for the period from 2002 to 2010. Age, Pap smear interval, FIGO stage, and histology were further analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 12,294 women with cervical cancer were enrolled, including 10,040 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1720 with adenocarcinoma (ADC), 401 with adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), and 133 with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SMC). Women who had a Pap smear at an interval of <3 years had a significantly higher proportion of stage I disease than women who had never undergone cervical cancer screening (p < 0.0001). Greater than 40% of women with SCCs in each age group had never had a Pap smear; however, women with ADCs were predominantly in the younger age and greater than 40% of women with ADCs had Pap smear at intervals < 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Pap smear is more effective in screening for cervical SCCs compared to cervical ADCs. Improving adherence to screening recommendations is important for the prevention of cervical SCC, especially in elderly women.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
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