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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114246

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) could increase both the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and experiencing poor outcomes. To compare the clinical outcomes between ICS users and nonusers, COVID-19-related claims in the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database were evaluated. To evaluate susceptibility to COVID-19 among patients with COPD or asthma, a nested case-control study was performed using the same database. In total, 7341 patients were confirmed to have COVID-19, including 114 ICS users and 7227 nonusers. Among 5910 patients who were hospitalized, death was observed for 9% of ICS users and 4% of nonusers. However, this association was not significant when adjusted for age, sex, region, comorbidities, and hospital type (aOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.43-2.07). The case-control analysis of COPD compared 640 cases with COVID-19 to 2560 matched controls without COVID-19, and the analysis of asthma compared 90 cases with COVID-19 to 360 matched controls without COVID-19. Use of ICS was not significantly associated with COVID-19 among patients with COPD (aOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.46-2.25) or asthma (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.13-1.17). Prior ICS use was not significantly associated with COVID-19 in patients with COPD or asthma, nor with clinical outcomes among patients with COVID-19.

2.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
3.
Korean J Fam Med ; 41(3): 146-152, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456382

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies are using healthcare claims databases to assess healthcare intervention utilization patterns or outcomes in real-world clinical settings. However, methodological issues affecting study design or data analysis can make conducting and reporting these types of studies difficult. This review presents an overview of the types of information contained in claims data, describes some advantages and limitations of using claims data for research purposes, and outlines steps for utilizing the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment and National Health Insurance Service databases. The study also reviews epidemiological approaches utilizing healthcare claims databases (including cross-sectional, case-control, case-crossover, and cohort designs) with respect to protocol development, analysis, and reporting of results, and introduces relevant guidelines and checklists, including the Guidelines for Good Pharmacoepidemiology Practices, the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist, and the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions tool.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2121-2128, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors may facilitate host cell entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or attenuate organ injury via RAAS blockade. We aimed to assess the associations between prior use of RAAS inhibitors and clinical outcomes among Korean patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database. Claim records were screened for 69 793 individuals who were tested for COVID-19 until 8 April 2020. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to compare the clinical outcomes between RAAS inhibitor users and nonusers. RESULTS: Among 5179 confirmed COVID-19 cases, 762 patients were RAAS inhibitor users and 4417 patients were nonusers. Relative to nonusers, RAAS inhibitor users were more likely to be older, male, and have comorbidities. Among 1954 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 377 patients were RAAS inhibitor users, and 1577 patients were nonusers. In-hospital mortality was observed for 33 RAAS inhibitor users (9%) and 51 nonusers (3%) (P < .001). However, after adjustment for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, immunosuppression, and hospital type, the use of RAAS inhibitors was not associated with a higher risk of mortality (adjusted OR, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.44; P = .60). No significant differences were observed between RAAS inhibitor users and nonusers in terms of vasopressor use, modes of ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, renal replacement therapy, and acute cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that prior use of RAAS inhibitors was not independently associated with mortality among COVID-19 patients in Korea.

5.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 126(3): 226-235, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520564

RESUMO

Tramadol is a weak opioid that is commonly used for chronic low back pain (LBP). Despite its effectiveness, duplicated use of tramadol, which may indicate abuse or dependence, may exacerbate potential adverse reactions. This population-based, cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of duplication of tramadol and its associated factors among patients with LBP. From a Korean nationwide claims database, non-hospitalized patients aged 40-99 years with LBP without malignancy were prescribed tramadol during 2014-2016. Duplication of tramadol was defined as overlapping of prescription days. Among them, we defined "extensive duplication (ED)" when days of tramadol duplication cover 10% or more of the days prescribed tramadol. Patient and healthcare utilization factors associated with ED were examined using a logistic regression model. The study population was 6 417 503 patients. Of these, 13.7% were ED users. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of using tramadol twice or more a year was 14.06 per 100 people in 2014, 13.74 per 100 people in 2015 and 13.52 per 100 people in 2016. ED occurred more in those in the group aged 70-79 years (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.13) than 40-49 years and in those with comorbidities, such as drug abuse (OR 2.99, 95% CI 2.05-4.36) or depression (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.72-1.77). Based on the results of this study, a proper management system is needed to avoid tramadol duplication among older people and patients with drug abuse or depression.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Tramadol/efeitos adversos
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