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1.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In evaluating foot and ankle soft tissue masses, comprehensive epidemiological data, especially clinical predictors of malignancy, is essential knowledge. Our aim was to assess these data in a cohort of patients that have undergone surgical excision of foot and ankle soft tissue tumours and pseudo-tumours over a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective review of foot and ankle soft tissue tumours and pseudo-tumours excised in a tertiary hospital from 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2016 was performed. Uni- and multivariable analyses via logistic regression were conducted for all independent variables to identify their relationship with malignancy. Applying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Youden's Index to significant variables, we attempted to identify optimal threshold values to predict malignancy of the soft tissue mass. RESULTS: A total of 623 tumours and pseudo-tumours were analysed, and majority were benign (n = 605, 97.1%). The most common pseudo-tumour, benign, and malignant tumours were ganglion cysts (n = 289, 90.3%), plantar fibromas (n = 54, 18.9%) and pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomas (n = 4, 22.2%), respectively. Increasing age (P = 0.036), larger size of mass (P < 0.001) and male gender (P = 0.017) were significant predictors of malignancy. ROC and Youden's Index analyses identified optimal threshold values of 4.0 cm (area under curve [AUC] = 87.6%) for size of mass and 66 years (AUC = 60.7%) for age. CONCLUSION: Majority of foot and ankle soft tissue masses are benign. Increasing age, larger size of mass and male gender are significant predictors of malignancy. The threshold value in predicting malignancy is 4.0 cm for size of mass and 66 years for age.

2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 845-851, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600148

RESUMO

AIMS: While patients with psychological distress have poorer short-term outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), their longer-term function is unknown. We aimed to 1) assess the influence of preoperative mental health status on long-term functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient satisfaction; and 2) analyze the change in mental health after TKA, in a cohort of patients with no history of mental health disorder, with a minimum of ten years' follow-up. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of 122 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA in 2006 were reviewed. Patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively at two and ten years using the Knee Society Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS); Oxford Knee Score (OKS); and the Mental (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS) which were derived from the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). Patients were stratified into those with psychological distress (MCS < 50, n = 51) and those without (MCS ≥ 50, n = 71). Multiple regression was used to control for age, sex, BMI, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and baseline scores. The rate of expectation fulfilment and satisfaction was compared between patients with low and high MCS. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mean KSKS, KSFS, OKS, and SF-36 PCS at two years or ten years after TKA. Equal proportions of patients in each group attained the minimal clinically important difference for each score. Psychologically distressed patients had a comparable rate of satisfaction (91.8% (47/51) vs 97.1% (69/71); p = 0.193) and fulfilment of expectations (89.8% vs 97.1%; p = 0.094). The proportion of distressed patients declined from 41.8% preoperatively to 29.8% at final follow-up (p = 0.021), and their mean SF-36 MCS improved by 10.4 points (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with poor mental health undergoing TKA may experience long-term improvements in function and quality of life that are comparable to those experienced by their non-distressed counterparts. These patients also achieved a similar rate of satisfaction and expectation fulfilment. Undergoing TKA was associated with improvements in mental health in distressed patients, although this effect may be due to residual confounding. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):845-851.

3.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; : e13320, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction of apatinib and buspirone and underlying mechanism. METHODS: UPLC-MS/MS assay was applied to determine the concentrations of buspirone and its main metabolites (1-PP and 6-OH buspirone) after incubated with liver microsomes. Moreover, the connection of in vitro and in vivo was further determined. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: group A (20 mg/kg buspirone) and group B (buspirone vs 40 mg/kg apatinib). Tail vein blood was collected and subjected to the UPLC-MS/MS detection. KEY FINDINGS: Apatinib inhibited the generations of 1-PP and 6-OH buspirone dose-dependently with IC50 of 1.76 and 2.23 µm in RLMs, and 1.51 and 1.48 µm in HLMs, respectively. There was a mixed mechanism underlying such an inhibition effect. In rat, AUC(0- t ) , AUC(0-∞) , Tmax and Cmax of buspirone and 6-OH buspirone increased significantly while co-administering with apatinib, but Vz/F and CLz/F decreased obviously while comparing group A with group B . CONCLUSIONS: Apatinib suppresses the CYP450 based metabolism of buspirone in a mixed mechanism and boosted the blood exposure of prototype drug and 6-OH buspirone dramatically. Therefore, extra caution should be taken when combining apatinib with buspirone in clinic.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525268

RESUMO

This study investigated the degradability of corn silage (CS) and Leymus chinensis silage (LS) in vitro, and evaluated the effect of various ratios on growth performance, digestion and serum parameters in beef cattle. A 72-hr bath culture trial was performed to evaluate degradability and rumen fermentation characteristics of CS, LS and their combinations [67:33, 33:67, dry matter (DM) basis]. Forty Simmental steers, averaging 441.46 ± 4.45 kg of body weight (BW), were randomly allocated into four dietary treatments for 120-d period. Diets were given as total mixed rations with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 and CS:LS ratios of 100:0, 67:33, 33:67 and 0:100 (DM basis). The in vitro trial showed that DM and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradability decreased linearly as LS proportion increased, whereas CP degradability increased linearly. Additionally, increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) degradability was detected at 48 hr of incubation. Increasing the proportion of LS increased rumen liquor pH and decreased volatile fatty acid linearly including acetate, propionate and butyrate, whereas the ammonia-N increased linearly at 12 and 72 hr of incubation. With increasing LS ratio, final BW, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of steers decreased linearly, whereas DMI was not affected. Additionally, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF and ADF linearly and quadratically decreased while ether extract apparent digestibility decreased linearly, and CP apparent digestibility was not affected. Serum glucose and urea nitrogen linearly and quadratically decreased while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity linearly decreased as the proportion of LS increased. Other serum parameters including total triglycerides, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease were not affected. Overall, enhancing ratio of LS caused inferior DM and NDF degradability but improved CP degradability in the combinations of LS and CS. A CS:LS ratio of 67:33 resulted in the best growth performance and nutrient utilization in steers.

5.
J Neurosci ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487697

RESUMO

3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) plays a critical role in the development of mammalian brain. Here, we investigated the role of PDK1 in purkinje cells (PCs) by generating the PDK1 conditional knockout mice (PDK1-cKO) through crossing PV-cre or Pcp2-cre mice with Pdk1fl/fl mice. The male mice were used in the behavioural testing and the other experiments were performed on mice of both genders. These PDK1-cKO mice displayed the decreased cerebellar size and the impaired motor balance and coordination. By the electrophysiological recording, we observed the reduced spontaneous firing of PCs from the cerebellar slices of the PDK1-cKO mice. Moreover, the cell body size of PCs in the PDK1-cKO mice was time-dependently reduced compared to that in the control mice. And the morphological complexity of PCs was also decreased after PDK1 deletion. These effects may be contributed to the reduction of the rpS6 phosphorylation and the PKCγ expression in PDK1-cKO mice since the upregulation of pS6 by the treatment of 3BDO, the agonist of mTOR1, partly rescued the reduction in the cell body size of the PCs, and the delivery of rAAV-PKCγ through cerebellar injection rescued the reduced complexity of the dendritic arbour inPDK1-cKO mice. Taken together, our data suggest that PDK1, by regulating rpS6 phosphorylation and PKCγ expression, controls the cell body maintenance and the dendritic development in PCs and is critical for cerebellar motor coordination.Significance Statement:Here, we show the role of PDK1 in PCs. The ablation of PDK1 in PCs resulted in a reduction of the cell body size, and the dendritic complexity and the abnormal spontaneous firing, which attributes to the motor defects in PDK1-cKO mice. Moreover, the rpS6 phosphorylation and the expression of PKCγ are down-regulated after the ablation of PDK1. Additionally, upregulation of rpS6 phosphorylation by 3BDO partly rescued the reduction in cell body size of PCs, and overexpression of PKCγ in PDK1-KO PCs rescued the reduction in the dendritic complexity. These findings indicate that PDK1 contributes to the maintenance of cell body and the dendritic development of PCs by regulating rpS6 phosphorylation and PKCγ expression.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13256-13260, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482883

RESUMO

Artificial photosynthesis provides a way to store solar energy in chemical bonds. Achieving water splitting without an applied external potential bias provides the key to artificial photosynthetic devices. We describe here a tandem photoelectrochemical cell design that combines a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) and an organic solar cell (OSC) in a photoanode for water oxidation. When combined with a Pt electrode for H2 evolution, the electrode becomes part of a combined electrochemical cell for water splitting, 2H2O → O2 + 2H2, by increasing the voltage of the photoanode sufficiently to drive bias-free reduction of H+ to H2 The combined electrode gave a 1.5% solar conversion efficiency for water splitting with no external applied bias, providing a mimic for the tandem cell configuration of PSII in natural photosynthesis. The electrode provided sustained water splitting in the molecular photoelectrode with sustained photocurrent densities of 1.24 mA/cm2 for 1 h under 1-sun illumination with no applied bias.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20540, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect and safety of Huangqi-Guizhi-Wuwu Decoction (HGWD) and Erxian Decoction (EXD) in the treatment of frozen shoulder (FS). METHODS: We will compressively search potential randomized controlled trials from electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. We will search all of them from inception of each electronic database up to the present without language limitations. Two researchers will conduct selection of study, data extraction, and study quality evaluation independently. Study quality will be identified using Cochrane risk of bias tool. Statistical analysis will be performed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will summarize high quality evidence of randomized controlled trials on exploring the effect and safety of HGWD and EXD in the treatment of FS. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will provide helpful evidence of the effect and safety of HGWD and EXD in the treatment of FS to facilitate the clinical practice and guideline development. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040070.


Assuntos
Bursite/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206628, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589229

RESUMO

Importance: The associations of lifestyle factors with gastric cancer (GC) are still underexplored in populations in China. Long-term nutritional supplementation may prevent GC in high-risk populations, but the possible effect modification by lifestyle factors remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate how lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol intake, and diet, may change the risk of GC incidence and mortality and whether the effects of vitamin and garlic supplementation on GC are associated with major lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of the Shandong Intervention Trial, a masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that aimed to assess the effect of vitamin and garlic supplementations and Helicobacter pylori treatment on GC in a factorial design with 22.3 years of follow-up. The study took place in Linqu County, Shandong province, China, a high-risk area for GC. Data were collected from Jully 1995 to December 2017. Overall, 3365 participants aged 35 to 64 years identified in 13 randomly selected villages who agreed to undergo gastroscopy were invited to participate in the trial and were included in the analysis. Data analysis was conducted from March to May 2019. Interventions: Participants received vitamin and garlic supplementation for 7.3 years, H pylori treatment for 2 weeks (among participants with H pylori ), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were GC incidence and GC mortality (1995-2017). We also examined the progression of gastric lesions (1995-2003) as a secondary outcome. Results: Of the 3365 participants (mean [SD] age, 47.1 [9.2] years; 1639 [48.7%] women), 1677 (49.8%) were randomized to receive active vitamin supplementation, with 1688 (50.2%) receiving placebo, and 1678 (49.9%) receiving active garlic supplementation, with 1687 (50.1%) receiving placebo. Overall, 151 GC cases (4.5%) and 94 GC deaths (2.8%) were identified. Smoking was associated with increased risk of GC incidence (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.003-2.93) and mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-3.98). Smoking was not associated with changes to the effects of vitamin or garlic supplementation. The protective effect on GC mortality associated with garlic supplementation was observed only among those not drinking alcohol (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.75; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54; P for interaction = .03), and significant interactions were only seen among participants with H pylori (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.78; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.52-1.60; P for interaction = .04). No significant interactions between vitamin supplementation and lifestyle factors were found. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, smoking was associated with an increased risk of GC incidence and mortality. Not drinking alcohol was associated with a stronger beneficial effect of garlic supplementation on GC prevention. Our findings provide new insights into lifestyle intervention for GC prevention, suggesting that mass GC prevention strategies may need to be tailored to specific population subgroups to maximize the potential beneficial effect. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00339768.

9.
Hepatology ; 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594528

RESUMO

The development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dependent on its local microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are deemed as a key factor for the tumor microenvironment and attribute to contribute to tumor aggressiveness. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the pro-metastatic effect of TAMs on HCC remains undefined. The present study manifested that TAMs were enriched in HCC. TAMs were characterized by an M2-polarized phenotype and accelerated migratory potential of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we found that M2-derived exosomes induced TAM-mediated pro-migratory activity. With the use of mass spectrometry, we identified that integrin, αM ß2 (CD11b/CD18), was notably specific and efficient in M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2 exos). Blocking either CD11b and/or CD18 elicited a significant decrease in M2 exos-mediated HCC cell metastasis. Mechanistically, M2 exos mediated an intercellular transfer of the CD11b/CD18, activating the MMP-9 signaling pathway in recipient HCC cells to support tumor migration. Collectively, the exosome-mediated transfer of functional CD11b/CD18 protein from TAMs to tumor cells may have the potency to boost the migratory potential of HCC cells, thus providing new insights into the mechanism of tumor metastasis.

10.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2020 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594651

RESUMO

Paclitaxel (PTX) has previously been used to treat tumours of various tissue origins, such as lung, breast, ovarian, prostate cancer, and leukemia. PTX-induced apoptosis is associated with p38 MAPK, ERK, NF-κB and JNK/ SAPK pathway. TAK1 and TAB1 play an important role in cell apoptosis through the P38, ERK, NF-κB and JNK signal transduction pathways. To investigate the role of TAK1 in PTX-induced cell apoptosis, we treated HEK293 and 8305C cells with 0-20 µM PTX for 6, 12 or 24 h. To investigate whether TAK1 can cooperate with PTX for cancer treatment, we transfected cells with TAK1, TAB1 or control plasmid and treated with PTX (3-10 µM) for 9-24 h. Apoptosis rates were analysed by flow cytometry (annexin V+). Endogenous TAK1 and TAB1, caspase 7 cleavage, PARP cleavage, Bcl-xL level, phospho-P44/42, phospho-JNK, and phospho-P38 were detected by western blot. We show that in HEK293 and 8305C cells, PTX enhanced the endogenous TAK1/TAB1 level and induced cells apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Upon TAK1 overexpression in HEK293 cells treated with PTX, apoptosis rate, JNK phosphorylation and PARP cleavage increased contrary to heat-shocked or untreated cells. CRISPR-editing of the tak1 gene upon PTX treatment resulted in lower phospho-JNK and PARP cleavage levels than in cells transfected with the control or the TAK1- or TAB1 + TAK1-containing plasmids. TAK1-K63A could not induce JNK phosphorylation or PARP cleavage. We conclude that PTX induces HEK293 and 8305C cell apoptosis through the TAK1-JNK activation pathway, potentially highlighting TAK1's role in chemosensitivity.

11.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(5): 280-288, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403143

RESUMO

Despite being the most common human neuroendocrine tumor, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas (PAs) is still unclear. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and has been shown to play a key role in the process of tumor instigation and development by affecting the proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and metastasis of tumor cells. Therefore, lncRNAs may be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers of tumors. In this paper, the effect of lncRNA on the onset and progression of PAs is reviewed so as to provide a profound understanding of its pathogenesis and clinical reference for the early diagnosis of PAs.

12.
Neurol India ; 68(2): 440-447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415021

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of endovascular treatment for cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and January 2016, 75 patients with cerebellar AVMs underwent endovascular treatment at our department. The clinical and angiographic features, post-procedure complications, occlusion rate, and follow-up outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, mRS) of all the patients were retrospectively reviewed and collected. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to calculate potential risk factors for predicting poor outcomes (mRS ≥3). Results: Of the 75 patients, 61 (81.3%) presented with initial hemorrhage, and 44 (58.7%) presented with 63 cerebral aneurysms. Immediate digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after the procedure showed complete occlusion of the cerebral aneurysms in all the patients, and total occlusion of the AVM nidus in 32/75 (42.7%) patients, 99-90% occlusion in 31/75 (41.3%) patients, and <90% occlusion in 12/75 (16.0%) patients. Favorable functional outcome (mRS <3) was achieved in 61 (81.3%) patients. After adjusting for other factors, multivariate logistic analysis showed that increasing patient age (OR, 1.086; 95% CI, 1.098-1.182), the size of AVM (OR, 9.072; 95% CI, 1.164-20.703), and eloquent location (OR, 9.209; 95% CI, 1.557-35.481) were significantly independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of cerebellar AVMs is safe and feasible. The high rate of associated cerebral aneurysms could explain the tendency of initial hemorrhage in cerebellar AVMs; targeted embolization of coexisting cerebral aneurysms should be the first priority. Increasing patient age, eloquent AVM location, and the size of AVM are independent predictors of poor outcome after endovascular treatment of cerebellar AVMs.

13.
J Gene Med ; : e3207, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-ecdysone (ßEcd) has numerous pharmacological effects, although its role in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has not yet been explored. METHODS: In cell experiments, BMSCs were induced to differentiate by osteogenic induction medium (OIM) or ßEcd. In animal experiments, an osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) rat model was established using lipopolysaccharide plus methylprednisolone and treating the rats with ßEcd. The osteogenic differentiation capacity of human BMSCs (hBMSCs) was analyzed by alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red S staining. Histopathological changes in rat femoral head tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression levels of RUNX2, COL1A1, OCN and phosphorylated Akt in BMSCs from rat femoral head tissues were measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis. RESULTS: Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium nodules in the ßEcd-treated BMSC group dose-dependently increased compared to those in the control and OIM groups. The hematoxylin and eosin staining results indicated that femoral head tissues of ONFH rats showed typical osteonecrosis, which could be ameliorated by ßEcd. Western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry assays demonstrated that the expression levels of RUNX2, COL1A1 and OCN in hBMSCs and femoral head tissue models were obviously increased after ßEcd treatment, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt phosphorylation were also increased. CONCLUSIONS: ßEcd may be beneficial for the recovery of ONFH patients by accelerating osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which may be a novel therapy for related diseases.

14.
J Knee Surg ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356290

RESUMO

This study aims to find out if routine preoperative group crossmatch and postoperative check hemoglobin for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is necessary. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent unilateral TKAs for osteoarthritis from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014. The main outcome measures were postoperative hemoglobin levels and transfusion requirements. Patients' demographics, comorbidities, laboratory results, and surgical details were analyzed. A total of 955 TKAs were included in this study (males = 207, females = 748; mean age = 66.1 years, standard deviation [SD] = 7.7). A total of 79 (8.27%) cases required postoperative blood transfusion, and the crossmatch-transfusion ratio was 17.5. Significant predictors for postoperative transfusion included lower preoperative hemoglobin levels (p < 0.001) and advanced age (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's Index analyses identified the preoperative hemoglobin cut-off value for females to be 12.1 g/dL (relative risk (RR): 5.65, p < 0.001) in predicting postoperative blood transfusion requirement, and 12.4 g/dL (RR: 11.71, p < 0.001) for males. For age, the identified cut-off value was 68 years (RR: 3.18, p < 0.001). The largest decline in hemoglobin levels was noted on postoperative day (POD) 3 (31.8%), and smallest on POD 1 (18.8%). The postoperative transfusion requirements in TKA are low and do not justify routine perioperative blood investigations. However, these investigations should be reserved for patients with the identified risk factors, in particular advancing age (68 years and above) and lower preoperative hemoglobin (below or equal to 12.1 and 12.4 g/dL for females and males, respectively). In the event that postoperative hemoglobin level needs to be checked, it should be performed beyond the first POD.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(12): 4570-4577, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428411

RESUMO

Interest in photovoltaic devices based on layered perovskites is motivated by their tunable optoelectronic properties and stabilities in humid conditions. In these systems, quantum wells with different sizes are organized to direct energy and charge transport between electrodes; however, these relaxation mechanisms are difficult to distinguish based on conventional transient absorption techniques. Here, two-dimensional "action spectroscopies" are employed to separately target processes that lead to the production of photocurrent and energy loss due to fluorescence emission. These measurements show that energy transfer between quantum wells dominates the subnanosecond time scale, whereas electron transfer occurs at later times. Overall, this study suggests that while the intense exciton transitions promote light harvesting, much of the absorbed energy is lost by way of spontaneous emission. This limitation may be overcome with alternate layered perovskite systems that combine smaller exciton binding energies with large absorbance cross sections in the visible spectral range.

16.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2026-2032, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241487

RESUMO

Yeast culture (YC) positively affects the performance of laying hens. The purpose of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanism for the YC-mediated performance improvement. Sixty 67-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 2 experimental groups with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. One group was fed a control diet, whereas the other received the control diet supplemented with YC at 3.0 g/kg; treatment lasted for 8 wk. The results showed that dietary YC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the total egg weight (11.2-13.6%) and egg-laying rate (13.0-13.5%) but decreased (P < 0.05) the feed/egg ratio by 9.3 to 11.0% during weeks 5 to 6 and 7 to 8 compared with the control. However, egg quality, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, egg weight, albumen height, egg yolk color, and Haugh unit, was not affected (P > 0.05) by YC supplementation. Furthermore, dietary YC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) chymotrypsin and ɑ-amylase activities by 54.8 to 62.5% in the duodenal chyme and reduced (P < 0.05) plasma endotoxin by 44.1%. YC dietary supplementation also upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of intestinal barrier-related genes (occludin and claudin 1) and antimicrobial peptides genes (ß-defensin 1 and 7 and cathelicidin 1 and 3) in the duodenum or jejunum compared with the control. In conclusion, dietary YC supplementation improved the performance of aged laying hens, potentially through the upregulation of intestinal digestive enzyme activities and intestinal health-related gene expression.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of young patients with degenerative lumbar spondylosis is expected to increase, and with it, the number of younger patients seeking surgical treatment is likely to rise. The goals of young patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis may differ from those of older patients, but little is known about the levels of pain and function, complication rates, or radiographic union that young patients achieve after interbody fusion. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How likely were patients younger than 50 years to achieve a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in improvement on any of several validated patient-reported outcomes scores after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis at a minimum of 2 years after surgery? (2) What proportion developed complications or underwent reoperations? (3) What proportion achieved radiographic fusion or developed adjacent-segment degeneration? METHODS: Longitudinally maintained institutional registry data of patients undergoing primary, single-level, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis at a single institution from 2006 to 2013 were studied in this retrospective case series. Of the 96 patients who met inclusion criteria, 14% (13 of 96) were missing follow-up data, leaving 83 patients younger than 50 years with complete clinical and radiological data at a minimum of 2 years (97%, 93 of 96 had sufficient data to assess complications and radiographic fusion). The mean age of the cohort was 44 ± 7 years. Radiological parameters for each patient with spondylolisthesis were recorded. Clinical outcomes such as the numeric rating scale for back pain and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and SF-36 were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3, 6 months and 2 years. The proportion of patients who had an improvement greater than the MCID of each outcome instrument was then calculated. The occurrence of any medical, surgical or wound complications, and reoperations for any reason were recorded. Radiographic fusion using Bridwell grading and adjacent-segment degeneration were assessed by an independent observer not involved in clinical care. The mean follow-up was 5 ± 3 years. RESULTS: The proportions of patients younger than 50 years who achieved the MCID for the various patient-reported outcomes were 82% (68 of 83) for leg pain, 75% (62 of 83) for back pain, 87% (72 of 83) for ODI and 71% (59 of 83) for SF-36 physical component summary at 2 years. Two perioperative complications occurred, and two reoperations were performed for implant-related complications. A total of 85% (79 of 93) of young patients achieved stable fusion, 8% (seven of 93) had radiologic adjacent-segment degeneration, and one patient underwent a revision procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis commonly, but do not always, experience clinically meaningful gains in pain relief, function, and quality of life after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. A low risk of complications, reoperations, nonunion and adjacent-segment degeneration were also noted in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

18.
Platelets ; : 1-9, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326796

RESUMO

Introduction: This prospective, multicenter, randomized study was designed to analyze the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing subclinical stent thrombosis (ST) in patients with coronary artery disease who underwent implantation of a second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES).Methods: About 352 patients with single de novo coronary stenosis were randomly assigne`d to either clopidogrel group (aspirin plus clopidogrel) or ticagrelor group (aspirin plus ticagrelor) after DES implantation for 1 year. Baseline clinical characteristics, blood chemistry markers, coronary artery angiography (CAG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were obtained during the index procedure. Data about clinic, CAG and OCT were also collected after 1 year follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT), per protocol set (PPS), and sensitivity analysis of subclinical ST were performed. Major factors associated with subclinical ST were analyzed by multivariable and univariable logistic regression models.Results: The incidence of subclinical ST in ticagrelor group was significantly low as compared to clopidogrel group (P < .05) at 1-year follow-up. Ticagrelor use was an independent factor in reducing subclinical ST (P < .05). The percentage of endothelial coverage, neointimal hyperplasia, malapposition, and edge dissection about stents were not different between the two groups (P > .05). Bleeding ratio was not markedly altered after ticagrelor treatment (P > .05). Not any significant differences were detected with regard to baseline clinical characteristics, CAG results, and DES between ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (P > .05).Conclusion: In patients who underwent a second-generation DES implantation, using aspirin plus ticagrelor was associated with a significant reduction in subclinical ST. (ClinicalTrials.gov. Number: NCT02140801).

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 141: 111373, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330547

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth performance and intestinal microbiota in weaning piglets, and potential efficacy of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce DON toxicity. Four groups of 21-day-old male piglets (n = 7/group) were fed either a control diet, or diet containing 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg DON, or 3.0 mg/kg DON plus 0.05% modified HSCAS for 28 d. Compared to the control, dietary DON at 1.0 and/or 3.0 mg/kg reduced (P < 0.05) the body weight gain (16.0-60.8%) and feed intake (18.1-38.7%) during the whole experiment, and increased (P < 0.05) the feed/gain ratio (12.8-33.8%) between d 1-28. The body weight gain and feed intake were further decreased (P < 0.05) in 3.0 mg/kg DON in comparison to 1.0 mg/kg DON during d 15-28. DON exposure reshaped gut microbial structure by drastically affecting the abundance of several bacterial phyla, families and genera, including dysbiosis of Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria in small intestine. Notably, dietary Amdetox™ supplementation alleviated the adverse effects of DON on growth performance of piglets and improved the intestinal flora disorder. Therefore, the current study has revealed that Amdetox™, the modified HSCAS binder, can alleviate DON-induced negative effects and could be used as a promising countermeasure for reducing DON toxicity.

20.
Food Funct ; 11(3): 2749-2762, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176232

RESUMO

Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced DNA damage, oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, and skin pigmentation cause pigmented spots, wrinkles, inflammation, and accelerated skin aging and cancer. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a natural antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory food. We investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of maqui berry ethanol extract (MEE) in vitro and in vivo. Spectrophotometric measurements revealed dominant extinction profile of MEE in the UVB range. MEE clearly reversed the DNA damage induced by UVB irradiation in HaCaT cells by upregulating endogenous cellular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione and reducing the production of nitric oxide. Moreover, MEE treatment enhanced the antioxidant ability and weakened lipid peroxidation in BALB/c mice exposed to UVB radiation. It also down-regulated interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and up-regulated IL-4 levels. Moreover, MEE inhibited the UVB-triggered activation of ERK and p38 MAPK. These data suggest that MEE is an effective agent against UVB-induced photodamage.

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