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Anal Chem ; 91(16): 10477-10483, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318193


RNA molecules harbor diverse chemical modifications that play important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. Up to date, more than 150 modifications have been identified in various RNA species. Most of these modifications occurring in nucleic acids are the methylation of nucleic acids. It has been demonstrated that many of these methylation are reversible and undergo dynamic demethylation. Previous studies established that the demethylation of the two most important and prevalent modifications of 5-methylcytidine (m5C) and N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in nucleic acids is through the hydroxylation of m5C and m6A, forming 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm5C) and N6-hydroxymethyladenosine (hm6A), respectively. This indicates the hydroxylation of the methylated nucleosides may be a general pathway for the demethylation of nucleic acid methylation. However, few other hydroxylmethylation modifications have yet to be reported in existence in mammals. In the current study, we developed a neutral enzymatic digestion method for the mild digestion of nucleic acids, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. With the established method, we reported the existence of a new hydroxylmethylated nucleosides, N2-hydroxymethylguanosine (hm2G), in mammalian RNA. In addition, we found that the contents of hm2G, as well as N2-methylguanosine (m2G), showed significant differences between thyroid carcinoma tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues, indicating that m2G and hm2G in RNA may play certain roles in the carcinogenesis of thyroid carcinoma. Collectively, our study suggests that RNA hydroxylmethylation may be a new prevalent group of modifications existing in RNA, which expands the diversity of nucleic acid modifications and should exert regulatory functions in living organisms.

Chemistry ; 24(39): 9949-9956, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756662


RNA contains diverse modifications that exert an important influence in a variety of cellular processes. So far, more than 150 modifications have been identified in various RNA species, mainly in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA). In contrast to rRNA, tRNA, and mRNA, the known modifications in small RNA species have been primarily limited to 2'-O-ribose methylation in plants and inosine in mammals. The methylation of small RNAs in mammals is still unclear. Current methods widely used in the characterization of small RNAs are mainly based on the strategy of nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing, which cannot characterize modifications in small RNAs. Herein, we have systematically investigated modifications in small RNAs composed of 16-28 nucleotides (nt) by establishing an effective isolation and neutral enzymatic digestion of small RNAs in combination with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This method allowed us to simultaneously detect 57 different types of nucleoside modification. By using this approach, we revealed 24 modifications in small RNAs comprising 16-28 nt from human cells. In addition, we found that the obesity-associated protein (FTO) may demethylate N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) and N6 ,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6 Am) in small RNAs of 16-28 nt. Our study demonstrates the existence of diverse modifications in small RNAs composed of 16-28 nt, which may promote in-depth understanding of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs.

Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , RNA/química , Adenosina/química , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Metilação , Nucleosídeos/química , Nucleotídeos/química , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA de Transferência/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem