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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967278

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common adaptive response to a variety of stimuli, but prolonged hypertrophy leads to heart failure. Hence, discovery of agents treating cardiac hypertrophy is urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of QF84139, a newly synthesized pyrazine derivative, on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanisms. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs), pretreatment with QF84139 (1-10 µM) concentration-dependently inhibited phenylephrine-induced hypertrophic responses characterized by fetal genes reactivation, increased ANP protein level and enlarged cardiomyocytes. In adult male mice, administration of QF84139 (5-90 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.p., for 2 weeks) dose-dependently reversed transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy displayed by cardiomyocyte size, left ventricular mass, heart weights, and reactivation of fetal genes. We further revealed that QF84139 selectively activated the AMPK signaling pathway without affecting the phosphorylation of CaMKIIδ, ERK1/2, AKT, PKCε, and P38 kinases in phenylephrine-treated NRCMs and in the hearts of TAC-treated mice. In NRCMs, QF84139 did not show additive effects with metformin on the AMPK activation, whereas the anti-hypertrophic effect of QF84139 was abolished by an AMPK inhibitor Compound C or knockdown of AMPKα2. In AMPKα2-deficient mice, the anti-hypertrophic effect of QF84139 was also vanished. These results demonstrate that QF84139 attenuates the PE- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy via activating the AMPK signaling. This structurally novel compound would be a promising lead compound for developing effective agents for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.

2.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963755

RESUMO

Orchid gynostemium, the fused organ of the androecium and gynoecium, and ovule development are unique developmental processes. Two DROOPING LEAF/CRABS CLAW (DL/CRC) genes were identified from the Phalaenopsis orchid genome and functionally characterized, including PeDL1 and PeDL2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the most recent common ancestor of orchids contained the duplicated DL/CRC-like genes. The temporal and spatial expression analysis indicated PeDL genes are specifically expressed in the gynostemium and at the early stages of ovule development. Both PeDLs could partially complement an Arabidopsis crc-1 mutant. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of PeDL1 and PeDL2 affects the number of protuberant ovule initials differentiated from the placenta. Transient overexpression of PeDL1 in Phalaenopsis orchids caused abnormal development of ovule and stigmatic cavity of gynostemium. PeDL1, instead of PeDL2, could form a heterodimer with PeCIN8. Paralogous retention and subsequent divergence of the gene sequence of PeDL1 and PeDL2 in P. equestris might result in the differentiation of function and protein behaviors. These results reveal the ancestral duplicated DL/CRC-like genes in orchids play important roles in orchid reproductive organ innovation.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(15): 6019-6024, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835771

RESUMO

A combination of acoustic levitation, laser vaporization, and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) is presented in this study that enabled sensitive analysis of pharmaceutical drugs from an aqueous sample matrix. An unfocused pulsed infrared laser provided contactless sample desorption from the droplets trapped inside an acoustic levitator by activation of the OH stretching band of aqueous and alcoholic solvents. Subsequent atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used between the levitated droplet and the mass spectrometer for postionization. In this setup, the unfocused laser gently desorbed the analytes by applying very mild repulsive forces. Detailed plume formation studies by temporally resolved schlieren experiments were used to characterize the liquid gas transition in this process. In addition, the role of different additives and solvent composition was examined during the ionization process. The analytical application of the technique and the proof-of-concept for quantitative analysis were demonstrated by the determination of selected pharmaceutical drugs in aqueous matrix with limits of quantification at the lower nanomolar level and a linear dynamic range of 3-4 orders of magnitude.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824460

RESUMO

White matter injury is the major pathological alteration of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. It is characterized by progressive demyelination, apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and microglial activation, which leads to impairment of cognitive function. Triptolide exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation, immunosuppression and antitumor, etc. In this study, we investigated the effects of triptolide on white matter injury and cognitive impairments in mice with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by the right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (rUCCAO). We showed that triptolide administration alleviated the demyelination, axonal injury, and oligodendrocyte loss in the mice. Triptolide also improved cognitive function in novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test. In primary oligodendrocytes following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), application of triptolide (0.001-0.1 nM) exerted concentration-dependent protection. We revealed that the protective effect of triptolide resulted from its inhibition of oligodendrocyte apoptosis via increasing the phosphorylation of the Src/Akt/GSK3ß pathway. Moreover, triptolide suppressed microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokines expression after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice and in BV2 microglial cells following OGD, which also contributing to its alleviation of white matter injury. Importantly, mice received triptolide at the dose of 20 µg·kg-1·d-1 did not show hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity even after chronic treatment. Thus, our results highlight that triptolide alleviates whiter matter injury induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through direct protection against oligodendrocyte apoptosis and indirect protection by inhibition of microglial inflammation. Triptolide may have novel indication in clinic such as the treatment of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced SIVD.

5.
Anal Chem ; 93(12): 5009-5014, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729743

RESUMO

Concomitant species that appear at the same or very similar times in a mass-spectral analysis can clutter a spectrum because of the coexistence of many analyte-related ions (e.g., molecular ions, adducts, fragments). One method to extract ions stemming from the same origin is to exploit the chemical information encoded in the time domain, where the individual temporal appearances inside the complex structures of chronograms or chromatograms differ with respect to analytes. By grouping ions with very similar or identical time-domain structures, single-component mass spectra can be reconstructed, which are much easier to interpret and are library-searchable. While many other approaches address similar objectives through the Pearson's correlation coefficient, we explore an alternative method based on a modified cross-correlation algorithm to compute a metric that describes the degree of similarity between features inside any two ion chronograms. Furthermore, an automatic workflow was devised to be capable of categorizing thousands of mass-spectral peaks into different groups within a few seconds. This approach was tested with direct mass-spectrometric analyses as well as with a simple, fast, and poorly resolved LC-MS analysis. Single-component mass spectra were extracted in both cases and were identified based on accurate mass and a mass-spectral library search.

6.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713000

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapeutic adjuvants, such as oxaliplatin (OXA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), that enhance the immune system, are being assessed as strategies to improve durable response rates when used in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, we explored granzyme B (GZB), released by tumor-associated immune cells, as a PET imaging-based stratification marker for successful combination therapy using a fluorine-18 (18F)-labelled GZB peptide ([18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP). METHODS: Using the immunocompetent CT26 syngeneic mouse model of colon cancer, we assessed the potential for [18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP to stratify OXA/5-FU and ICI combination therapy response via GZB PET. In vivo tumor uptake of [18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP in different treatment arms was quantified by PET, and linked to differences in tumor-associated immune cell populations defined by using multicolour flow cytometry. RESULTS: [18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP tumor uptake was able to clearly differentiate treatment responders from non-responders when stratified based on changes in tumor volume. Furthermore, [18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP showed positive associations with changes in tumor-associated lymphocytes expressing GZB, namely GZB+ CD8+ T cells and GZB+ NK+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]AlF-mNOTA-GZP tumor uptake, driven by changes in immune cell populations expressing GZB, is able to stratify tumor response to chemotherapeutics combined with ICIs. Our results show that, while the immunomodulatory mode of action of the chemotherapies may be different, the ultimate mechanism of tumor lysis through release of Granzyme B is an accurate biomarker for treatment response.

7.
Mol Immunol ; 132: 132-141, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588244

RESUMO

PKR, also known as EIF2AK2, is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) and shows a higher expression in probands with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is likely responsible for the impaired translational and proliferative responses to mitogens in T cells from SLE patients. In this study, we overexpressed EIF2AK2 in HeLa cells to study EIF2AK2-regulated genes using RNA-seq technology, followed by bioinformatic analysis of target genes of EIF2AK2-regulated transcriptional factors (TFs). Overexpression of EIF2AK2 promotes HeLa cell apoptosis. EIF2AK2 selectively represses the transcription of histone protein genes associated with SLE, immune response genes and TF genes, which was validated by RT-qPCR experiments. Analysis of motifs overrepresented in the promoter regions of EIF2AK2-regulated genes revealed eighteen EIF2AK2-regulated TFs involved in establishing the EIF2AK2 network. Eight out of these predicted EIF2AK2-regulated TFs were further verified by RT-qPCR selectively in both HeLa and Jurkat cells, and most such as HEY2, TFEC, BATF2, GATA3 and ATF3 and FOXO6 are known to regulate immune response. Our results suggest that the dsRNA-dependent kinase EIF2AK2 selectively regulates the transcription of immune response and SLE-associated histone protein genes, and such a selectivity is likely to be operated by EIF2AK2-targeted TFs. The EIF2AK2-TFs axis potentially offers new therapeutic targets for counteracting immunological disease in the future.


Assuntos
Imunidade/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células HeLa , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat
8.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2007682, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522015

RESUMO

2D nanoslit devices, where two crystals with atomically flat surfaces are separated by only a few nanometers, have attracted considerable attention because their tunable control over the confinement allows for the discovery of unusual transport behavior of gas, water, and ions. Here, the passage of double-stranded DNA molecules is studied through nanoslits fabricated from exfoliated 2D materials, such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride, and the DNA polymer behavior is examined in this tight confinement. Two types of events are observed in the ionic current: long current blockades that signal DNA translocation and short spikes where DNA enters the slits but withdraws. DNA translocation events exhibit three distinct phases in their current-blockade traces-loading, translation, and exit. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation allows the different polymer configurations of these phases to be identified. DNA molecules, including folds and knots in their polymer structure, are observed to slide through the slits with near-uniform velocity without noticeable frictional interactions of DNA with the confining graphene surfaces. It is anticipated that this new class of 2D-nanoslit devices will provide unique ways to study polymer physics and enable lab-on-a-chip biotechnology.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(5): 2522-2536, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561291

RESUMO

Simultaneous dysregulation of multiple microRNAs (miRs) affects various pathological pathways related to cardiac failure. In addition to being potential cardiac disease-specific markers, miR-23b/27b/24-1 were reported to be responsible for conferring cardiac pathophysiological processes. In this study, we identified a conserved guanine-rich RNA motif within the miR-23b/27b/24-1 cluster that can form an RNA G-quadruplex (rG4) in vitro and in cells. Disruption of this intragenic rG4 significantly increased the production of all three miRs. Conversely, a G4-binding ligand tetrandrine (TET) stabilized the rG4 and suppressed miRs production in human and rodent cardiomyocytes. Our further study showed that the rG4 prevented Drosha-DGCR8 binding and processing of the pri-miR, suppressing the biogenesis of all three miRs. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated G4 deletion in the rat genome aberrantly elevated all three miRs in the heart in vivo, leading to cardiac contractile dysfunction. Importantly, loss of the G4 resulted in reduced targets for the aforementioned miRs critical for normal heart function and defects in the L-type Ca2+ channel-ryanodine receptor (LCC-RyR) coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for G4-dependent regulation of miR biogenesis, which is essential for maintaining normal heart function.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Animais , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Células Cultivadas , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo
10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 35, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic, chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destructive systemic organ involvement, which could cause the decreased functional capacity, increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies show that SLE is characterized by autoimmune, inflammatory processes, and tissue destruction. Some seriously-ill patients could develop into lupus nephritis. However, the cause and underlying molecular events of SLE needs to be further resolved. METHODS: The expression profiles of GSE144390, GSE4588, GSE50772 and GSE81622 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SLE and healthy samples. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichments of DEGs were performed by metascape etc. online analyses. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed by GENEMANIA software. We performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to further understand the functions of the hub gene, Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) would be utilized to build a gene co-expression network, and the most significant module and hub genes was identified. CIBERSORT tools have facilitated the analysis of immune cell infiltration patterns of diseases. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to explore the value of DEGs for SLE diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 6 DEGs (IFI27, IFI44, IFI44L, IFI6, EPSTI1 and OAS1) were screened, Biological functions analysis identified key related pathways, gene modules and co-expression networks in SLE. IFI27 may be closely correlated with the occurrence of SLE. We found that an increased infiltration of moncytes, while NK cells resting infiltrated less may be related to the occurrence of SLE. CONCLUSION: IFI27 may be closely related pathogenesis of SLE, and represents a new candidate molecular marker of the occurrence and progression of SLE. Moreover immune cell infiltration plays important role in the progession of SLE.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1205, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441740

RESUMO

The ovules and egg cells are well developed to be fertilized at anthesis in many flowering plants. However, ovule development is triggered by pollination in most orchids. In this study, we characterized the function of a Bsister gene, named PeMADS28, isolated from Phalaenopsis equestris, the genome-sequenced orchid. Spatial and temporal expression analysis showed PeMADS28 predominantly expressed in ovules between 32 and 48 days after pollination, which synchronizes with integument development. Subcellular localization and protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that PeMADS28 could form a homodimer as well as heterodimers with D-class and E-class MADS-box proteins. In addition, ectopic expression of PeMADS28 in Arabidopsis thaliana induced small curled rosette leaves, short silique length and few seeds, similar to that with overexpression of other species' Bsister genes in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, complementation test revealed that PeMADS28 could rescue the phenotype of the ABS/TT16 mutant. Together, these results indicate the conserved function of Bsister PeMADS28 associated with ovule integument development in orchid.

12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 48, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422132

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a neurological, medically incurable disorder. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs), which hold promise in the treatment of SCI by transplantation. In our study, we aimed to establish a chemically defined culture system using serum-free medium and ascorbic acid (AA) to generate and expand long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES cells) differentiated from hPSCs effectively and stably. METHODS: We induced human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)/induced PSCs (iPSCs) to neurospheres using a newly established in vitro induction system. Moreover, lt-NES cells were derived from hESC/iPSC-neurospheres using two induction systems, i.e., conventional N2 medium with gelatin-coated plates (coated) and N2+AA medium without pre-coated plates (AA), and were characterized by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and immunocytochemistry staining. Subsequently, lt-NES cells were induced to neurons. A microelectrode array (MEA) recording system was used to evaluate the functionality of the neurons differentiated from lt-NES cells. Finally, the mechanism underlying the induction of lt-NES cells by AA was explored through RNA-seq and the use of inhibitors. RESULTS: HESCs/iPSCs were efficiently induced to neurospheres using a newly established induction system in vitro. lt-NES cells derived from hESC/iPSC-neurospheres using the two induction systems (coated vs. AA) both expressed the neural pluripotency-associated genes PAX6, NESTIN, SOX1, and SOX2. After long-term cultivation, we found that they both exhibited long-term expansion for more than a dozen generations while maintaining neuropluripotency. Moreover, the lt-NES cells retained the ability to differentiate into general functional neurons that express ß-tubulin at high levels. We also demonstrated that AA promotes the generation and long-term expansion of lt-NES cells by promoting collagen synthesis via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This new chemically defined culture system was stable and effective regarding the generation and culture of lt-NES cells induced from hESCs/iPSCs using serum-free medium combined with AA. The lt-NES cells induced under this culture system maintained their long-term expansion and neural pluripotency, with the potential to differentiate into functional neurons.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 169: 1-7, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316339

RESUMO

Only a few known epoxide hydrolases (EHs) displayed activity towards o-nitrostyrene oxide (4a), presumably owing to the large steric hindrance caused by o-nitro substituent. Therefore, excavating EHs with high activity and enantio- and/or regio-selectivity towards racemic (rac-) 4a is essential but challenging. Here, AuEH2 from Aspergillus usamii was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). E. coli/Aueh2, an E. coli transformant expressing AuEH2, possessed EH activities of 16.2-184 U/g wet cell towards rac-styrene oxide (1a) and its derivatives (2a-13a), and the largest enantiomeric ratio of 96 towards rac-4a. The regioselectivity coefficients, ßR and ßS, of AuEH2 were determined to be 99.2% and 98.9%, suggesting that it regiopreferentially attacks the Cß in the oxirane rings of (R)- and (S)-4a. Then, the nearly perfect kinetic resolution of 20 mM rac-4a in pure water was carried out using 20 mg/mL wet cells of E. coli/Aueh2 at 25 °C for 50 min, retaining (S)-4a with over 99% ees and 48.9% yields, while producing (R)-o-nitrophenyl-1,2-ethanediol (4b) with 95.3% eep and 49.8% yieldp. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of AuEH2 with high enantiopreference for (R)-4a, its crystal structure was solved by X-ray diffraction and the molecular docking of AuEH2 with (R)- or (S)-4a was simulated.


Assuntos
Epóxido Hidrolases/química , Epóxido Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óxidos , Estereoisomerismo
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 958, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161415

RESUMO

Acute sympathetic stress quickly induces cardiac inflammation and injury, suggesting that pathogenic signals rapidly spread among cardiac cells and that cell-to-cell communication may play an important role in the subsequent cardiac injury. However, the underlying mechanism of this response is unknown. Our previous study demonstrated that acute ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) signaling activates inflammasomes in the heart, which triggers the inflammatory cascade. In the present study, ß-AR overactivation induced inflammasome activation in both the cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) of mice hearts following a subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (ISO, 5 mg/kg body weight), a selective agonist of ß-AR. In isolated cardiac cells, ISO treatment only activated the inflammasomes in the cardiomyocytes but not the CFs. These results demonstrated that inflammasome activation was propagated from cardiomyocytes to CFs in the mice hearts. Further investigation revealed that the inflammasomes were activated in the cocultured CFs that connected with cardiomyocytes via membrane nanotubes (MNTs), a novel membrane structure that mediates distant intercellular connections and communication. Disruption of the MNTs with the microfilament polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D (Cyto D) attenuated the inflammasome activation in the cocultured CFs. In addition, the MNT-mediated inflammasome activation in the CFs was blocked by deficiency of the inflammasome component NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cardiomyocytes, but not NLRP3 deficiency in the CFs. Moreover, ISO induced pyroptosis in the CFs cocultured with cardiomyocytes, and this process was inhibited by disruption of the MNTs with Cyto D or by the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 and the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK (FMK). Our study revealed that MNTs facilitate the rapid propagation of inflammasome activation among cardiac cells to promote pyroptosis in the early phase of ß-adrenergic insult. Therefore, preventing inflammasome transfer is a potential therapeutic strategy to alleviate acute ß-AR overactivation-induced cardiac injury.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13751-13759, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164532

RESUMO

Gallic acid (GA) is an important active ingredient for its pharmacological activities. High levels of GA in tea can be obtained by anaerobic fermentation, but its mechanism is still unclear. Here, the profiles of metabolites and microbiomes in pickled tea were analyzed. The results showed that GA of pickled tea increased to 24.26 mg/g at 18 d after anaerobic fermentation, which was accompanied by the reducing levels of epicatechin gallate (ECG), epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate (EAG), and 7-galloylcatechin (7-GC) and the increasing relative abundances of Bacillus and other six bacterial genera. However, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was basically stable during the whole fermentation process. These results suggested that EGCG contributes little to the GA formation during anaerobic fermentation, but ECG, EAG, and 7-GC should be the key precursors to form GA; moreover, bacteria, especially Bacillus, may be responsible for their bioconversion. It will establish an effective way to increase GA in tea production.

16.
Semin Immunopathol ; 42(5): 559-572, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165716

RESUMO

From a holistic point of view, aging results from the cumulative erosion of the various systems. Among these, the immune system is interconnected to the rest as immune cells are present in all organs and recirculate through bloodstream. Immunosenescence is the term used to define the remodelling of immune changes during aging. Because immune cells-and particularly lymphocytes-can further differentiate after their maturation in response to pathogen recognition, it is therefore unclear when senescence is induced in these cells. Additionally, it is also unclear which signals triggers senescence in immune cells (i) aging per se, (ii) specific response to pathogens, (iii) underlying conditions, or (iv) inflammaging. In this review, we will cover the current knowledge and concepts linked to immunosenescence and we focus this review on lymphocytes and T cells, which represent the typical model for replicative senescence. With the evidence presented, we propose to disentangle the senescence of immune cells from chronological aging.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19318, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168848

RESUMO

We studied the dissolution behavior of ß NaYF4:Yb(20%), Er(2%) UCNP of two different sizes in biologically relevant media i.e., water (neutral pH), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) at different temperatures and particle concentrations. Special emphasis was dedicated to assess the influence of different surface functionalizations, particularly the potential of mesoporous and microporous silica shells of different thicknesses for UCNP stabilization and protection. Dissolution was quantified electrochemically using a fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) and by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). In addition, dissolution was monitored fluorometrically. These experiments revealed that a thick microporous silica shell drastically decreased dissolution. Our results also underline the critical influence of the chemical composition of the aqueous environment on UCNP dissolution. In DMEM, we observed the formation of a layer of adsorbed molecules on the UCNP surface that protected the UCNP from dissolution and enhanced their fluorescence. Examination of this layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and mass spectrometry (MS) suggested that mainly phenylalanine, lysine, and glucose are adsorbed from DMEM. These findings should be considered in the future for cellular toxicity studies with UCNP and other nanoparticles and the design of new biocompatible surface coatings.

18.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108346, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147450

RESUMO

Complex febrile seizures (FSs) lead to a high risk of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy during adulthood, yet the pathological process of complex FSs is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that activated microglia extensively associated with glutamatergic neuronal soma displace surrounding GABAergic presynapses in complex FSs. Patch-clamp electrophysiology establishes that the microglial displacement of GABAergic presynapses abrogates a complex-FS-induced increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and neuronal excitability, whereas GABA exerts an excitatory action in this immature stage. Pharmacological inhibition of microglial displacement of GABAergic presynapses or selective ablation of microglia in CD11bDTR mice promotes the generation of complex FSs. Blocking or deleting the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) reduces microglial displacement of GABAergic presynapses and shortens the latency of complex FSs. Together, microglial displacement of GABAergic presynapses, regulated by P2Y12R, reduces neuronal excitability to mitigate the generation of complex FSs. Microglial displacement is a protective event during the pathological process of complex FSs.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right-sided primary tumor location is associated with worse prognosis in metastatic colon cancer, but the effect of sidedness on recurrence and prognosis for non-metastatic disease is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sidedness, recurrence, and survival among patients with localized colon cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent curative resection of colon cancer (2006-2013) were identified from a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. Risk for recurrence, overall survival, and survival after recurrence (SAR) were compared between left- and right-sided tumors using the log-rank test, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 673 patients (347 right-sided). There was no difference in overall recurrence rates (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.55; P = .75) or overall survival (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.75-1.97; P = .42) between right- and left-sided primary tumors. However, right-sided tumors were more likely to develop multi-focal and poor prognostic site recurrence (P = .04). Among the 71 patients who developed recurrence, those with right-sided tumors had significantly lower SAR (HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.42-10.62; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with colon cancer who underwent curative resection, tumor sidedness was not associated with recurrence risk. However, among patients who developed recurrence, right-sidedness was associated with unique recurrence patterns and inferior SAR. For patients presenting with localized disease, treatment stratification should not be based on tumor sidedness alone.

20.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thiopurines are widely used as maintenance therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the evidence base for their use is sparse and their role increasingly questioned. Using the largest series reported to date, we assessed the long-term effectiveness of thiopurines in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), including their impact on need for surgery. DESIGN: Outcomes were assessed in 11 928 patients (4968 UC, 6960 CD) in the UK IBD BioResource initiated on thiopurine monotherapy with the intention of maintaining medically induced remission. Effectiveness was assessed retrospectively using patient-level data and a definition that required avoidance of escalation to biological therapy or surgery while on thiopurines. Analyses included overall effectiveness, time-to-event analysis for treatment escalation and comparison of surgery rates in patients tolerant or intolerant of thiopurines. RESULTS: Using 68 132 patient-years of exposure, thiopurine monotherapy appeared effective for the duration of treatment in 2617/4968 (52.7%) patients with UC compared with 2378/6960 (34.2%) patients with CD (p<0.0001). This difference was corroborated in a multivariable analysis: after adjusting for variables including treatment era, thiopurine monotherapy was less effective in CD than UC (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.51, p<0.0001). Thiopurine intolerance was associated with increased risk of surgery in UC (HR 2.44, p<0.0001); with a more modest impact on need for surgery in CD (HR=1.23, p=0.0015). CONCLUSION: Thiopurine monotherapy is an effective long-term treatment for UC but significantly less effective in CD.

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