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1.
Epidemics ; 41: 100640, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274569

RESUMO

We investigated the initial outbreak rates and subsequent social distancing behaviour over the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic across 29 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs) of the United States. We used the Numerus Model Builder Data and Simulation Analysis (NMB-DASA) web application to fit the exponential phase of a SCLAIV+D (Susceptible, Contact, Latent, Asymptomatic infectious, symptomatic Infectious, Vaccinated, Dead) disease classes model to outbreaks, thereby allowing us to obtain an estimate of the basic reproductive number R0 for each CSA. Values of R0 ranged from 1.9 to 9.4, with a mean and standard deviation of 4.5±1.8. Fixing the parameters from the exponential fit, we again used NMB-DASA to estimate a set of social distancing behaviour parameters to compute an epidemic flattening index cflatten. Finally, we applied hierarchical clustering methods using this index to divide CSA outbreaks into two clusters: those presenting a social distancing response that was either weaker or stronger. We found cflatten to be more influential in the clustering process than R0. Thus, our results suggest that the behavioural response after a short initial exponential growth phase is likely to be more determinative of the rise of an epidemic than R0 itself.

2.
Stress Health ; 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251927

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, long-term overlooked motives concerning a sense of safety have become a primary concern. People's sense of safety largely depends on the information they receive. Indeed, a tsunami of information about the virus has been disseminated by all forms of media to people's electronic devices, thus permeating their lives. This study proposed that the over-abundance of information, known as information overload, could endanger individuals' sense of safety by increasing their rumination about COVID-19. However, it could also enhance their sense of safety by increasing their positive attitudes toward COVID-19 precautions. Furthermore, we proposed that individuals' hypervigilance could strengthen the relationship between information overload and rumination about COVID-19 and attitudes toward COVID-19 precautions. We tested these hypotheses using a cross-sectional survey study (N = 403) in February 2021 and a diary study (N = 98) in July 2021 in China. The results of both studies support the dual mediating paths of the relationship between information overload and sense of safety. We also found that hypervigilance moderated the relationship between information overload and rumination about COVID-19. Overall, our study offers insights into how social media may influence people's sense of safety and how individual differences in hypervigilance play a role in the process.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(17): 4707-4714, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164878

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effect of Jinzhen Oral Liquid(JOL) on cough after infection in rats and the mechanism. To be specific, a total of 60 male SD rats were classified into 6 groups: normal group(equivalent volume of distilled water, ig), model group(equivalent volume of distilled water, ig), Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Oral Solution group(3.67 mL·kg~(-1), ig), high-, medium-, and low-dose JOL groups(11.34, 5.67, and 2.84 mL·kg~(-1), respectively, ig). Lipopolysaccharide(LPS, nasal drip), smoking, and capsaicin(nebulization) were employed to induce cough after infection in rats except the normal group. Administration began on the 19 th day and lasted 7 days. Capsaicin(nebulization) was used to stimulate cough 1 h after the last administration and the cough frequency and cough incubation period in rats were recorded. The pathological morphology of lung tissue was observed based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. Immunohistochemistry(IHC) was used to detect the specific expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(Trpv1), nerve growth factor(NGF), tropomyosin receptor kinase A(TrkA), and phosphorylated-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p-p38 MAPK) in lung tissue, Western blot the protein expression of Trpv1, NGF, TrkA, and p-p38 MAPK in lung tissue, and real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(real-time PCR) the mRNA expression of Trpv1, NGF, and TrkA. The results showed that model group demonstrated significantly high cough frequency, obvious proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, significantly enhanced positive protein expression of Trpv1, NGF, TrkA, and p-p38 MAPK in lung tissue and significant increase in the mRNA expression of Trpv1, NGF, and TrkA compared with the normal group. Compared with the model group, JOL can significantly reduce the cough frequency, alleviate the pathological changes of lung tissue, and decrease the protein expression of Trpv1, NGF, TrkA, and p-p38 MAPK in lung tissue, and high-dose and medium-dose JOL can significantly lower the mRNA expression of Trpv1, NGF, and TrkA. This study revealed that JOL can effectively inhibit Trpv1 pathway-related proteins and improve cough after infection. The mechanism is that it reduces the expression of NGF, TrkA, and p-p38 MAPK in lung tissue, thereby decreasing the expression of Trpv1 and cough sensitivity.


Assuntos
Tosse , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Receptor trkA , Animais , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Dextrometorfano/efeitos adversos , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/efeitos adversos , Hematoxilina , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor trkA/genética , Receptor trkA/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/efeitos adversos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/efeitos adversos , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 440: 129769, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027744

RESUMO

Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) could inhibit cadmium (Cd) accumulation in plants; however, its performance in an uneven iron (Fe) background remains unknown. Here, we found that the inhibitory effects of ABA on Cd accumulation in plants were optimal under nonlimiting Fe availability (25 and 50 µM), causing a reduction of 25-50 %, whereas only a 0-29 % decrease was observed in a Fe-free or -deficient (5 µM) medium. Although ABA significantly inhibited the expression of IRT1 under different Fe supplies, the inhibitory effects of ABA on Cd accumulation were lower (or absent) in irt1-mutants than in wild-type plants growing under nonlimiting Fe availability, whereas no significant difference was found under Fe deficiency. The mechanisms by which ABA reduces Cd accumulation under different Fe environments may differ. Furthermore, under Fe sufficiency, ABA increased Fe levels of root apoplasts by 91 % without changing the activity level of root ferric reductase (FCR). In contrast, ABA resulted in a 17 % decrease in Fe concentration in apoplasts and a 37 % decrease in FCR activity under Fe-deficient conditions. Thus, under Fe sufficiency, plants may show a reduced accumulation of Cd by accumulating more Fe in the apoplasts, which in turn inhibits the expression of IRT1. However, plants are more prone to redirect apoplastic Fe to prevent Cd accumulation under Fe deficiency. The different mechanisms of inhibition of Cd accumulation by ABA under different Fe supplies revealed in this study may provide guidelines for the precise regulation of Cd accumulation in crops via ABA-based strategies.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico , Cádmio , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ferro/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(7): 794-8, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793890

RESUMO

In reference with the systematic review of the thought of deqi (arrival of qi) put forward in Huangdi Neijing (Internal Classic of Yellow Emperor) and other classic books of traditional Chinese medicine, in view of detecting qi and identifying qi before treatment, as well as the prerequisites of deqi in tuina, meaning the accurate syndrome differentiation and manipulations, the importance of deqi in treatment with tuina is expounded. In association with clinical experience, the specific manifestations of deqi in patients during tuina are summarized, e.g. soreness, distention, pain, numbness, warm feeling and slight sweating, local changes in intestinal sound and skin color, as well as mind regulation. It is anticipated that deqi of tuina may be drawn the attention in clinical practice, and the relevant study be expanded.


Assuntos
Livros , Qi , Emoções , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Dor
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 216: 14-23, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780917

RESUMO

In addition to its high nutritious value, sea cucumber has been recognized by folk medicine for a long time. This study investigated the structure and hyperglycemic activity of a neutral polysaccharide (NPsj) from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, whose molecular weight was determined as 301.75 kDa by HPGPC method. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that NPsj is a glucan. The structure of NPsj was obtained by combining the analysis of methylation analysis, FTIR, NMR, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and ESI-MS, which is mainly composed of (1 â†’ 4)-α-d-glucoses with ß-d-glucose(1→) branches substituted at O-6 every 7-9 of 1,4 linked glucoses. An in vitro insulin resistance Hep G2 cells model and a 3 T3-L1 cells model were established, and the NPsj has significant effect to increase glucose consumption with no toxicity at 10-100 µg/mL. Furthermore, NPsj upregulates the phosphorylation of Akt1 and down-regulated GSK3ß, and then reduces the phosphorylation of GS, indicating its mechanism of ameliorating insulin resistance via Akt/GSK3ß/GS signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Pepinos-do-Mar , Stichopus , Animais , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Stichopus/metabolismo
7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683734

RESUMO

With the increasing application of nanomaterials in aerospace technology, the long-term space exposure to nanomaterials especially in the space full of radiation coupled with microgravity condition has aroused great health concerns of the astronauts. However, few studies have been conducted to assess these effects, which are crucial for seeking the possible intervention strategy. Herein, using a random positioning machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity, we investigated the behaviors of cells under simulated microgravity and also evaluated the possible toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), a multifunctional nanomaterial with potential application in aerospace. Pulmonary epithelial cells A549 were exposed to normal gravity (1 g) and simulated gravity (~10-3 g), respectively. The results showed that simulated microgravity had no significant effect on the viability of A549 cells as compared with normal gravity within 48 h. The effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell viability and apoptosis were marginal with only a slightly decrease in cell viability and a subtle increase in apoptosis rate observed at a high concentration of TiO2 NPs (100 µg/mL). However, it was observed that the exposure to simulated microgravity could obviously reduce A549 cell migration compared with normal gravity. The disruption of F-actin network and the deactivation of FAK (Tyr397) might be responsible for the impaired mobility of simulated microgravity-exposed A549 cells. TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited cell migration under two different gravity conditions, but to different degrees, with a milder inhibition under simulated microgravity. Meanwhile, it was found that A549 cells internalized more TiO2 NPs under normal gravity than simulated microgravity, which may account for the lower cytotoxicity and the lighter inhibition of cell migration induced by the same exposure concentration of TiO2 NPs under simulated microgravity at least partially. Our study has provided some tentative information on the effects of TiO2 NPs exposure on cell behaviors under simulated microgravity.

8.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt E): 113618, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671800

RESUMO

Bacteria, archaea and fungi usually coexist in various soil habitats and play important roles in biogeochemical cycle and remediation of contamination. Despite their significance, their combined bioassembly pattern, ecological interactions and driving factors in contaminated soils still remain obscure. To fill the gap, a systemic investigation on the characteristics of microbial community including bacteria, archaea and fungi, assembly patterns and environmental driving factors was conducted in an abandoned gas station soils which were contaminated by polycyclic aromatic compounds and potentially toxic elements for decades. The results showed that the soils were contaminated excessively by benzo[a]pyrene (0.46-2.00 mg/kg) and Dibenz[a,h]anthracene (0.37-1.30 mg/kg). Multitudinous contaminant-degrading/resistant microorganisms and unigenes were detected, indicating potential of the soils to mitigate the pollution. Compared with fungi and archaea, the bacteria had higher community diversity and were more responsive to seasonal shifts. Functional genes (nidB, nahAb, nahAa, adhP, adh, adhC, etc.) involved in biodegradation were highly enriched in summer (1.96% vs 1.80%). The co-occurrence network analysis showed summer communities exhibit a more robust network structure and positive interactions than winter communities. The fungi Neocucurbitaria, Penicillium, Fusarium, Chrysosporium, Knufia, Filobasidium, Wallemia and Rhodotorula were identified as the keystone taxa, indicating that fungi also had important positions in the interdomain molecular ecological networks of both seasons. The network topological properties and |ßNTI| (66.7%-93.3% greater than 2) results indicated the deterministic assembly processes of the microbial communities in the contaminated soil. Acenaphthylene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]perylene, benzo[g,h,i]pyrene and 9-fluorenone were the key environmental factors driving the deterministic assembly processes of the interdomain microbial community in the contaminated soil. These findings extended our knowledge of interdomain microbial community assembly mechanisms and ecological patterns in natural attenuation and provide valuable guidance in associated bioremediation strategies.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compostos Policíclicos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 891191, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547879

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2021.643129.].

10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 287: 119362, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422306

RESUMO

Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate was obtained from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva (FCShf). The structure was elucidated by NMR and HILIC-FTMS analysis. FCShf contained a chondroitin core chain [→3)-ß-D-GalNAc-(1 â†’ 4)-ß-D-GlcA-(1→]n, where the sulfation positions were the O-4 or O-6 of the GalNAc residues. The ratio of sulfated and non-sulfated GalNAc at O-6 was 1:2, while the ratio of GalNAc at O-4 was 1:1. 2,4-disulfated-fucose (Fuc2,4S), 4-sulfated-fucose (Fuc4S) and 3,4-disulfated-fucose (Fuc3,4S) were attached to the O-3 of GlcA with a molar ratio of 1.00: 0.62: 1.32. The FCShf could significantly promote the proliferative rate, NO production and neutral red uptake of RAW 264.7 cells within the concentration range of 10-300 µg/mL. Compared with the fucosylation and deacetylation degrees, the molecular weight of FCShf had markedly influence on the activation of RAW 264.7 cells. A decrease in molecular weight dramatically improved the immunoregulatory activities. Furthermore, FCShf activated RAW 264.7 cells through TLR-2/4-NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Holothuria , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Fucose/química , Holothuria/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Sulfatos/metabolismo
11.
Oral Dis ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A significant genetic association between rs7078160 in VAX1 and NSCL/P has been established through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and we previously replicated the association in the Chinese population. The critical issue in the post-GWAS era is to identify functional variations that have a real impact on disease in the susceptible regions highlighted by GWAS. This study aimed to elucidate functional variants in VAX1 fully. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, target sequencing was performed on 159 NSCL/P patients, followed by association analysis to discover disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); we then replicated the findings using a larger sample (1626 cases, 2255 controls) and investigated how candidate SNPs affect disease occurrence using extensive annotation databases. Additionally, we compared the genetic profiles of NSCL/P subtypes. RESULTS: In this study, 6 SNPs in VAX1 were identified to be associated with NSCL/P in the Western Han Chinese population. Five of them were predicted to influence transcriptional factor-biding ability and were expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of nearby genes in multiple tissues. CONCLUSION: The previously reported association between rs7078160 and NSCL/P was successfully replicated. Moreover, our findings firstly revealed that 5 SNPs in VAX1 are associated with NSCL/P in the Western Han Chinese population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Original Reports.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128461, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228076

RESUMO

Chitosan crosslinked with potassium tripolyphosphate (CTPP) and monochloroacetic-acid-modified chitosan crosslinked with potassium tripolyphosphate (MCTPP) were synthesized for removing UO22+ from acidic radioactive effluents. The influential factors, operational requirements, and interactive mechanisms of the adsorption process were systematically investigated. The mesh-structured composites adsorbed UO22+ most effectively at pH 5.0. The maximum adsorption capacities for pure chitosan, CTPP, and MCTPP were 374.93, 780.89, and 1487.72 mg/g, respectively. Batch experiments indicated that the pH and adsorbent dose strongly influenced UO22+ adsorption. MCTPP could adsorb most UO22+ within 15 min, and equilibrium was reached by ~1 h. The adsorption isotherms indicated that UO22+ adsorption by MCTPP may be an endothermic single-layer adsorption process. Moreover, common metal ions in single-metal systems only slightly affected this process. The results of instrumental characterization and natural water application suggested that the highly developed pore structure and abundant tripolyphosphate groups in synthesized composites were dominant adsorption contributors besides amino and hydroxyl groups. Successful development of the novel material for efficiently adsorbing UO22+ and identification of the adsorption mechanism will provide valuable guidance to chitosan modification and further remediation practices of radioactive effluents.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Acetatos , Adsorção , Quitosana/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Cinética , Polifosfatos , Potássio , Purificação da Água/métodos
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(5): 1327-1335, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343161

RESUMO

Protective effect of Qilong Capsules(QL) on the myocardial fibrosis and blood circulation of rats with coronary heart disease of Qi deficiency and blood stasis type was investigated. Sleep deprivation and coronary artery ligation were used to construct a disease-symptom combination model, and 60 SD rats were divided into sham operation(sham) group, syndrome(S) group, disease and syndrome(M) group and QL group randomly. The treatment group received administration of QL 0.4 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1). Other groups were given the same amount of normal saline. The disease indexes of each group [left ventricular end diastolic diameter(LVESD), left ventricular end systolic diameter(LVEDD), left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF), left ventricular axis shortening rate(LVFS), myocardial histopathology, platelet morphology, peripheral blood flow] and syndrome indexes(tongue color, pulse, grip power) were detected. In sham group, cardiomyocytes and myocardial fibers were arranged neatly and densely with clear structures. The tongues' color in sham were light red, and the pulse shape were regular. RGB is a parameter reflected the brightness of the image of the tongue. In the S group, the amplitude and frequency of the animal's pulse increased accompanied by decreasing R,G,B, however, the decreased R,G,B was accompanied by reduced pulse amplitude in M group. And in M group, we observed fuzzy cell morphology, hypertrophied myocytes, disordered arrangement of cardiomyocytes and myocardial fibers, reduced peripheral blood flow and increased collagen volume fraction(CVF). Increased LVESD and LVEDD, and decreased LVEF and LVFS represented cardiac function in S group was significantly lower than that in sham. In QL group, the tongue's color was red and the pulse was smooth. The myocardial fibers of the QL group were arranged neatly and secreted less collagen. It improved the blood circulation in the sole and tail, and reversed the increasing of LVEDD, LVESD and the decreasing of LVEF and LVFS of M group. Platelets in M and S group showed high reactivity, and QL could decrease aggregation risk. In conclusion, Qilong Capsules has an obvious myocardial protective effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy, which may inhibit the degree of myocardial fibrosis and reduce platelet reactivity.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Qi , Animais , Cápsulas , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose , Miócitos Cardíacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt A): 113191, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351456

RESUMO

Soil polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) pollution as a result of petroleum exploitation has caused serious environmental problems. The unclear assembly and functional patterns of microorganisms in oilfield soils limits the understanding of microbial mechanisms for PAC elimination and health risk reduction. This study investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and substituted PAHs (SPAHs) occurrence, and their impact on the bacteria-archaea-fungi community diversity, co-occurrence network and functionality in the soil of an abandoned oilfield. The results showed that the PAC content in the oilfield ranged from 3429.03 µg kg-1 to 6070.89 µg kg-1, and risk assessment results suggested a potential cancer risk to children and adults. High molecular weight PAHs (98.9%) and SPAHs (1.0%) contributed to 99.9% of the toxic equivalent concentration. For microbial analysis, the abundantly detected degraders and unigenes indicated the microbial potential to mitigate pollutants and reduce health risks. Microbial abundance and diversity were found to be negatively correlated with health risk. The co-occurrence network analysis revealed nonrandom assembly patterns of the interdomain microbial communities, and species in the network exhibited strong positive connections (59%). The network demonstrated strong ecological linkages and was divided into five smaller coherent modules, in which the functional microbes were mainly involved in organic substance and mineral component degradation, biological electron transfer and nutrient cycle processes. The keystone species for maintaining microbial ecological functions included Marinobacter of bacteria and Neocosmospora of fungi. Additionally, benzo [g,h,i]pyrene, dibenz [a,h]anthracene, indeno [1,2,3-cd]perylene and total phosphorus were the key environmental factors driving the assembly and functional patterns of microbial communities under pollution stress. This work improves the knowledge of the functional pattern and environmental adaptation mechanisms of interdomain microbes, and provides valuable guidance for the further bioremediation of PAC-contaminated soils in oilfields.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compostos Policíclicos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Criança , Humanos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
16.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 339, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies and associated analysis methods have rapidly developed in recent years. This includes preprocessing methods, which assign sequencing reads to genes to create count matrices for downstream analysis. While several packaged preprocessing workflows have been developed to provide users with convenient tools for handling this process, how they compare to one another and how they influence downstream analysis have not been well studied. RESULTS: Here, we systematically benchmark the performance of 10 end-to-end preprocessing workflows (Cell Ranger, Optimus, salmon alevin, alevin-fry, kallisto bustools, dropSeqPipe, scPipe, zUMIs, celseq2, and scruff) using datasets yielding different biological complexity levels generated by CEL-Seq2 and 10x Chromium platforms. We compare these workflows in terms of their quantification properties directly and their impact on normalization and clustering by evaluating the performance of different method combinations. While the scRNA-seq preprocessing workflows compared vary in their detection and quantification of genes across datasets, after downstream analysis with performant normalization and clustering methods, almost all combinations produce clustering results that agree well with the known cell type labels that provided the ground truth in our analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the choice of preprocessing method was found to be less important than other steps in the scRNA-seq analysis process. Our study comprehensively compares common scRNA-seq preprocessing workflows and summarizes their characteristics to guide workflow users.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , RNA-Seq , Software , Transcriptoma
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 585: 139-145, 2021 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801934

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains largely unclear. A large body of evidence suggests that the abnormal level of serotonin (5-HT) is closely related to the onset of PTSD. Several reports reveal that nitric oxide (NO) affects extracellular 5-HT levels in various brain regions, but no consistent direction of change was found and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The most of serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a major source of serotonergic input to the forebrain, co-expresses neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a synthase derived nitric oxide (NO) in the central nervous system. Here, we found that the excessive expression of nNOS and thereby the high concentration of NO followed by single-prolonged stress (SPS) caused suppression of the activity of DRN 5-HT neurons, inducing PTSD-like phenotype including increased anxiety-like behaviors, enhanced contextual fear memory, and fear generalization. Our study uncovered an important role of DRN nNOS-NO pathway in the pathology of PTSD, which may contribute to new understanding of the molecular mechanism of PTSD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/enzimologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/citologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5294-5302, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708968

RESUMO

The river water-groundwater interaction zone is an important area for the enrichment, degradation, and transformation of pollutants and other biogeochemical processes. The distribution characteristics of antibiotics, as organic pollutants of wide concern, in the interaction zone is essential for understanding the migration and transformation process of pollutants in the environment. Due to the sensitive changes in the redox conditions and special composition of sediments in the interaction zone, this study established an effective pretreatment method for extracting 22 antibiotics and four sulfonamide metabolites in the interaction zone, and optimized the initial state of the samples, extraction temperature, pH value of the extraction solution and organic extraction solvent. The content of antibiotics in the sediments of the river water-groundwater interaction zone and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River was also analyzed. The results show that the best recovery of the target compounds is obtained by using pH 3 acetonitrile/Na2EDTA-Mcllvaine buffer(1:1, volume ratio) to digest and extract the unoxidized sediment samples at 40℃ three times using a microwave. A total of 11 antibiotics are detected in the sediments of the interaction zone in the lower reaches of the Hanjiang River, among which oxytetracycline and ofloxacin are the main compounds with the highest concentrations of 6.77 ng·g-1 and 5.81 ng·g-1, respectively. The vertical distribution of antibiotics in different sediment profiles is significantly different, which may be related to the lithology of sediments, physicochemical properties of antibiotics, and interaction between surface water and groundwater.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 256, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548476

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by aberrant accumulation of extracellular ß-amyloid (Aß) peptides in the brain. Soluble Aß oligomers are thought to be the most neurotoxic species and are correlated with cognitive dysfunction in early AD. However, there is still no effective treatment so far. We determined that Pep63, a small peptide, had a neuroprotective effect on synaptic plasticity and memory in our previous study. Here, we developed novel and multifunctional liposomes targeting both Aß oligomers and fibrils based on a liposome delivery system. Transferrin-Pep63-liposomes (Tf-Pep63-Lip), possessing the ability for blood-brain barrier targeting, were also incorporated with phosphatidic acid (PA) and loaded with neuroprotective Pep63. We discovered that administration of Tf-Pep63-Lip could significantly reduce the Aß burden in the hippocampus, and improve cognitive deficits in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice in the Morris-Water maze task and fear-conditioning test with the combined effects of PA and Pep63. Tf-Pep63-Lip could capture Aß oligomers or fibrils and then facilitated microglial chemotaxis nearby for clearance. Simultaneously, Tf-Pep63-Lip hindered Aß1-42 aggregation and disaggregated Aß1-42 assembly due to multivalent PA-Aß. Pep63 effectively inhibited the binding between EphB2 and Aß oligomers after release from liposomes and rescued NMDA receptors trafficking, the basis of synaptic plasticity. No side effects were observed in either APP/PS1 or wild-type mice, indicating that Tf-Pep63-Lip might be safe under the dosing regimen used in our experiment. Taken together, our results suggested that Tf-Pep63-Lip may serve as a safe and efficient agent for AD combination therapy.

20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 342, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531370

RESUMO

While some individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) present mild-to-severe disease, many SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals are asymptomatic. We sought to identify the distinction of immune response between asymptomatic and moderate patients. We performed single-cell transcriptome and T-cell/B-cell receptor (TCR/BCR) sequencing in 37 longitudinal collected peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from asymptomatic, moderate, and severe patients with healthy controls. Asymptomatic patients displayed increased CD56briCD16- natural killer (NK) cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells. They showed more robust TCR clonal expansion, especially in effector CD4+ T cells, but lack strong BCR clonal expansion compared to moderate patients. Moreover, asymptomatic patients have lower interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in general but large interpatient variability, whereas moderate patients showed various magnitude and temporal dynamics of the ISGs expression across multiple cell populations but lower than a patient with severe disease. Our data provide evidence of different immune signatures to SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
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