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1.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24086, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573519

RESUMO

Appendicitis is a very common indication for surgery, although in recent years uncomplicated cases have often been managed with antibiotics. In this case, we discuss a patient who presented to the emergency department with a case of seemingly uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Physical exam, history, and imaging indicated that this was due to an ingested foreign body, specifically a dental crown, that had impacted the appendix. In cases of ingested foreign bodies, antibiotics are not an appropriate treatment for appendicitis and all cases should be treated surgically if the patient will tolerate surgery. A thorough history and physical exam, as well as imaging when indicated, can assist in the assessment of such patients.

2.
BJU Int ; 2022 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional and quality of life (QoL) outcomes of treatments for localised prostate cancer and inform treatment decision-making. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men aged 50-69 years diagnosed with localised prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen testing and biopsies at nine UK centres in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial were randomised to, or chose one of, three treatments. Of 2565 participants, 1135 men received active monitoring (AM), 750 a radical prostatectomy (RP), 603 external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and 77 low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT, not a randomised treatment). Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) completed annually for 6 years were analysed by initial treatment and censored for subsequent treatments. Mixed effects models were adjusted for baseline characteristics using propensity scores. RESULTS: Treatment-received analyses revealed different impacts of treatments over 6 years. Men remaining on AM experienced gradual declines in sexual and urinary function with age (e.g., increases in erectile dysfunction from 35% of men at baseline to 53% at 6 years and nocturia similarly from 20% to 38%). Radical treatment impacts were immediate and continued over 6 years. After RP, 95% of men reported erectile dysfunction persisting for 85% at 6 years, and after EBRT this was reported by 69% and 74%, respectively (P < 0.001 compared with AM). After RP, 36% of men reported urinary leakage requiring at least 1 pad/day, persisting for 20% at 6 years, compared with no change in men receiving EBRT or AM (P < 0.001). Worse bowel function and bother (e.g., bloody stools 6% at 6 years and faecal incontinence 10%) was experienced by men after EBRT than after RP or AM (P < 0.001) with lesser effects after BT. No treatment affected mental or physical QoL. CONCLUSION: Treatment decision-making for localised prostate cancer can be informed by these 6-year functional and QoL outcomes.

3.
Eur Urol Focus ; 8(1): 66-74, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Completion rates and correspondence to other measures need to be established for the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) bladder diary (ICIQ-BD) in the assessment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ICIQ-BD completion rates, frequency, volume, and sensation reporting for men. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Baseline data from the Urodynamics for Prostate Surgery Trial; Randomised Evaluation of Assessment Methods (UPSTREAM) randomised controlled trial evaluating 820 men at 26 UK hospitals, looking at the ICIQ-BD, uroflowmetry, International Prostate Symptom Score, and ICIQ symptom score for male LUTS (ICIQ-MLUTS), were assessed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The ICIQ-BD, IPSS, ICIQ-MLUTS, and uroflowmetry data at baseline obtained from UPSTREAM were assessed. Correlations were analysed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and comparison between groups were performed using paired or unpaired t tests or Tukey's test. All statistical tests were two sided and the strength of evidence was presented using p values. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the participants, 25.0% (205/820) provided complete voiding and bedtime information for 3 d, 41.2% (338/820) omitted bedtime information, and the remainder omitted some or all voiding information. Median values (minimum - maximum) of 24-h, daytime, and night-time frequencies were 9.7 (3.3-24.0), 7.7 (3.3-22.7), and 1.7 (0.0-5.7), respectively. The mean voided volume per micturition for day and night times were 175.8 ± 74.2 and 264.4 ± 150.7 ml (p < 0.001), respectively. For fully completed diaries, day- and night-time frequency showed a weak-to-moderate correlation with symptom score questionnaires. More severe nocturia was generally reported in symptom scores than in the ICIQ-BD. In patients with high bother for increased daytime frequency (symptom), the mean daytime frequency (ICIQ-BD) was 9.6 ± 3.2 versus 7.6 ± 2.2 for low bother (p < 0.001). High bother for nocturia showed night-time frequency of 2.3 ± 1.2 versus 1.5 ± 1.1 for low bother (p < 0.001). For fully and partially completed diaries, ICIQ-BD sensation scores correlated weakly with symptom scores. Voided volumes from the bladder diary and uroflowmetry correlated weakly. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of men (543/820) fully completed voiding information in the ICIQ-BD, but many omitted bedtime information, limiting the ability to quantify nocturia and diagnose nocturnal polyuria. PATIENT SUMMARY: Most men with urinary symptoms complete a bladder diary fully but may fail to indicate bedtimes. Extra information from a diary helps support symptom questionnaires to explain a patient's urinary habits.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Noctúria , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Bexiga Urinária , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico
4.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying men whose lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) may benefit from surgery is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To identify routine diagnostic and urodynamic measures associated with treatment decision-making, and outcome, in exploratory analyses of the UPSTREAM trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomised controlled trial was conducted including 820 men, considering surgery for LUTS, across 26 hospitals in England (ISCTRN56164274). INTERVENTION: Men were randomised to a routine care (RC) diagnostic pathway (n = 393) or a pathway that included urodynamics (UDS) in addition to RC (n = 427). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Men underwent uroflowmetry and completed symptom questionnaires, at baseline and 18 mo after randomisation. Regression models identified baseline clinical and symptom measures that predicted recommendation for surgery and/or surgical outcome (measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]). We explored the association between UDS and surgical outcome in subgroups defined by routine measures. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The recommendation for surgery could be predicted successfully in the RC and UDS groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.78), with maximum flow rate (Qmax) and age predictors in both groups. Surgery was more beneficial in those with higher symptom scores (eg, IPSS >16), age <74 yr, Qmax <9.8 ml/s, bladder outlet obstruction index >47.6, and bladder contractility index >123.0. In the UDS group, urodynamic measures were more strongly predictive of surgical outcome for those with Qmax >15, although patient-reported outcomes were also more predictive in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment decisions were informed with UDS, when available, but without evidence of change in the decisions reached. Despite the small group sizes, exploratory analyses suggest that selective use of UDS could detect obstructive pathology, missed by routine measures, in certain subgroups. PATIENT SUMMARY: Baseline clinical and symptom measurements were able to predict treatment decisions. The addition of urodynamic test results, while useful, did not generally lead to better surgical decisions and outcomes over routine tests alone.

5.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(11): 1726-1733, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) measures of post-occlusion skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness demonstrate the microvascular dysfunction associated with ageing and age-related disease. However, the accessibility of CEUS is limited by the need for intravenous administration of ultrasound contrast agents and sophisticated imaging analysis. Alternative methods are required for the broader assessment of microvascular dysfunction in research and clinical settings. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the level of association and agreement between CEUS and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of post-occlusion skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness in older adults. METHODS: During supine rest, participants (n=15, 67±11 years) underwent 5 minutes of thigh cuff-occlusion (200 mmHg). Post-occlusion CEUS measures of calf muscle microvascular responsiveness were made, including time to 95% peak acoustic intensity (TTP95 AI) and the rate of rise (slope AI). Simultaneous measures, including time to 95% peak oxygenated haemoglobin (TTP95 O2Hb) and slope O2Hb, were made using continuous-wave NIRS in the same muscle region. RESULTS: There were strong correlations between TTP95 measures derived from CEUS and NIRS (r=0.834, p=<0.001) and the corresponding measures of slope (r=0.735, p=0.004). The limits of agreement demonstrated by Bland Altman plot analyses for CEUS and NIRS-derived measures of TTP95 (-9.67-1.98 s) and slope (-1.29-5.23%. s-1) were smaller than the minimum differences expected in people with microvascular dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The strong correlations and level of agreement in the present study support the use of NIRS as a non-invasive, portable and cost-effective method for assessing post-occlusion skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness in older adults.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Doenças Vasculares , Idoso , Humanos , Microcirculação , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(587)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790027

RESUMO

The concentration of chloride in sweat remains the most robust biomarker for confirmatory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF), a common life-shortening genetic disorder. Early diagnosis via quantitative assessment of sweat chloride allows prompt initiation of care and is critically important to extend life expectancy and improve quality of life. The collection and analysis of sweat using conventional wrist-strapped devices and iontophoresis can be cumbersome, particularly for infants with fragile skin, who often have insufficient sweat production. Here, we introduce a soft, epidermal microfluidic device ("sweat sticker") designed for the simple and rapid collection and analysis of sweat. Intimate, conformal coupling with the skin supports nearly perfect efficiency in sweat collection without leakage. Real-time image analysis of chloride reagents allows for quantitative assessment of chloride concentrations using a smartphone camera, without requiring extraction of sweat or external analysis. Clinical validation studies involving patients with CF and healthy subjects, across a spectrum of age groups, support clinical equivalence compared to existing device platforms in terms of accuracy and demonstrate meaningful reductions in rates of leakage. The wearable microfluidic technologies and smartphone-based analytics reported here establish the foundation for diagnosis of CF outside of clinical settings.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Suor , Cloretos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Qualidade de Vida , Smartphone
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e041769, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782018

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children are common and present major resource implications for primary care. Unnecessary use of antibiotics is associated with the development and proliferation of antimicrobial resistance. In 2016, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded 'TARGET' programme developed a prognostic algorithm to identify children with acute cough and RTI at very low risk of 30-day hospitalisation and unlikely to need antibiotics. The intervention includes: (1) explicit elicitation of parental concerns, (2) the results of the prognostic algorithm accompanied by prescribing guidance and (3) provision of a printout for carers including safety netting advice. The CHIldren's COugh feasibility study suggested differential recruitment of healthier patients in control practices. This phase III 'efficiently designed' trial uses routinely collected data at the practice level, thus avoiding individual patient consent. The aim is to assess whether embedding a multifaceted intervention into general practitioner (GP) practice Information Technology (IT) systems will result in reductions of antibiotic prescribing without impacting on hospital attendance for RTI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The coprimary outcomes are (1) practice rate of dispensed amoxicillin and macrolide antibiotics, (2) hospital admission rate for RTI using routinely collected data by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). Data will be collected for children aged 0-9 years registered at 310 practices (155 intervention, 155 usual care) over a 12-month period. Recruitment and randomisation of practices (using the Egton Medical Information Systems web data management system) is conducted via each CCG stratified for children registered and baseline dispensing rates of each practice. Secondary outcomes will explore intervention effect modifiers. Qualitative interviews will explore intervention usage. The economic evaluation will be limited to a between-arm comparison in a cost-consequence analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethics approval was given by London-Camden and Kings Cross Research Ethics Committee (ref:18/LO/0345). This manuscript refers to protocol V.4.0. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11405239.


Assuntos
Tosse , Infecções Respiratórias , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
11.
BJGP Open ; 4(5)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) is often treated in primary care with antibiotics. The recent Oral Steroids for Acute Cough (OSAC) randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed corticosteroids were not an effective alternative in adults without a diagnosis of asthma with ALRTI. AIM: To investigate if corticosteroids are beneficial for ALRTI in patients with unrecognised asthma. DESIGN & SETTING: An exploratory analysis was undertaken of the primary care OSAC trial. METHOD: A subgroup analysis was performed in patients who responded 'yes' to the following International Primary Care Airways Group (IPCAG) question: did you have wheeze and/or at least two of nocturnal cough or chest tightness or dyspnoea in the past year. Sensitivity analyses were carried out on those who answered 'yes' to wheeze and at least two of the nocturnal symptoms. The primary outcomes were as follows: duration of cough (0-28 days, minimum clinically important difference [MCID] of 3.79 days) and mean symptom severity score (range 0-6; MCID 1.66 units). RESULTS: In total, 40 (10%) patients were included in the main analysis: mean age 49 years (standard deviation [SD] = 17.9), 52% male. Median cough duration was 3 days in both prednisolone (interquartile range [IQR] = 2-6 days) and placebo (IQR = 1-6 days) groups (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 2.54; P = 0.83), equating to 0.24 days longer in the prednisolone group (95% CI = 1.23 days shorter to 2.88 days longer). Mean symptom severity difference was -0.14 (95% CI = -0.78 to 0.49; P=0.65) comparing prednisolone with placebo. Similar findings were found in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found to support the use of corticosteroids for ALRTI in patients with clinically unrecognised asthma. Clinicians should not use the IPCAG questions to target oral corticosteroid treatment in patients with ALRTI.

12.
Exp Physiol ; 105(12): 2238-2245, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017064

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Cuff-occlusion duration may influence contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) assessments of skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow responsiveness: what are the effects of 1, 3 and 5 min cuff-occlusion on the magnitude and reliability of calf muscle microvascular blood flow responsiveness in older adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Calf muscle microvascular blood flow responsiveness was enhanced following 5 min cuff-occlusion compared with 1 min. The reliability of post-occlusion CEUS measurements was also improved following 5 min occlusion. The use of a standardized 5 min occlusion period should therefore be considered in future studies and clinical practice. ABSTRACT: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is increasingly used in assessments of skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow responsiveness. In response to limb cuff-occlusion, some studies have reported significant impairments in CEUS measurements of microvascular blood flow in older adults with cardiovascular or metabolic disease, whereas others have failed to detect significant between-group differences, which has brought the reliability of the technique into question. In the absence of a standardized CEUS protocol, there is variance in the duration of cuff-occlusion used, which is likely to influence post-occlusion measurements of muscle microvascular blood flow. We aimed to determine the effect of cuff-occlusion duration by comparing the magnitude and reliability of CEUS measurements of calf muscle microvascular blood flow responsiveness in older adults (n = 15, 67 ± 11 years) following 1, 3 and 5 min occlusion periods. Microvascular blood flow (= microvascular volume × microvascular velocity) within the calf muscle was measured using real-time destruction-replenishment CEUS. Measurements were made following thigh cuff-occlusion (200 mmHg) periods of 1, 3 and 5 min in a random order. Microvascular blood flow was higher following 3 min (3.71 ± 1.46 aU s-1 ) and 5 min (3.47 ± 1.48 aU s-1 ) compared with 1 min (2.42 ± 1.27 aU s-1 , P = 0.002), which corresponded with higher microvascular volumes after 3 and 5 min compared with 1 min. Reliability was good following 5 min (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.49) compared with poor following 1 min (ICC 0.34) and 3 min (ICC 0.35). This study demonstrates that the magnitude and reliability of calf muscle microvascular responsiveness is enhanced using a 5 min cuff-occlusion protocol compared with 1 min in older adults.


Assuntos
Microcirculação/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Idoso , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
14.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(42): 1-122, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men may indicate bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) or weakness, known as detrusor underactivity (DU). Severe bothersome LUTS are a common indication for surgery. The diagnostic tests may include urodynamics (UDS) to confirm whether BOO or DU is the cause, potentially reducing the number of people receiving (inappropriate) surgery. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine whether a care pathway including UDS is no worse for symptom outcome than one in which it is omitted, at 18 months after randomisation. Rates of surgery was the key secondary outcome. DESIGN: This was a pragmatic, multicentre, two-arm (unblinded) randomised controlled trial, incorporating a health economic analysis and qualitative research. SETTING: Urology departments of 26 NHS hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS: Men (aged ≥ 18 years) seeking further treatment, potentially including surgery, for bothersome LUTS. Exclusion criteria were as follows: unable to pass urine without a catheter, having a relevant neurological disease, currently undergoing treatment for prostate or bladder cancer, previously had prostate surgery, not medically fit for surgery and/or unwilling to be randomised. INTERVENTIONS: Men were randomised to a care pathway based on non-invasive routine tests (control) or routine care plus invasive UDS (intervention arm). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) at 18 months after randomisation and the key secondary outcome was rates of surgery. Additional secondary outcomes included adverse events (AEs), quality of life, urinary and sexual symptoms, UDS satisfaction, maximum urinary flow rate and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: A total of 820 men were randomised (UDS, 427; routine care, 393). Sixty-seven men withdrew before 18 months and 11 died (unrelated to trial procedures). UDS was non-inferior to routine care for IPSS 18 months after randomisation, with a confidence interval (CI) within the margin of 1 point (-0.33, 95% CI -1.47 to 0.80). A lower surgery rate in the UDS arm was not found (38% and 36% for UDS and routine care, respectively), with overall rates lower than expected. AEs were similar between the arms at 43-44%. There were more cases of acute urinary retention in the routine care arm. Patient-reported outcomes for LUTS improved in both arms and satisfaction with UDS was high in men who received it. UDS was more expensive than routine care. From a secondary care perspective, UDS cost an additional £216 over an 18-month time horizon. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were similar, with a QALY difference of 0.006 in favour of UDS over 18 months. It was established that UDS was acceptable to patients, and valued by both patients and clinicians for its perceived additional insight into the cause and probable best treatment of LUTS. LIMITATIONS: The trial met its predefined recruitment target, but surgery rates were lower than anticipated. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of UDS in the diagnostic tests results in a symptom outcome that is non-inferior to a routine care pathway, but does not affect surgical rates for treating BOO. Results do not support the routine use of UDS in men undergoing investigation of LUTS. FUTURE WORK: Focus should be placed on indications for selective utilisation of UDS in individual cases and long-term outcomes of diagnosis and therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN56164274. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 42. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


After hospital referral, men with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are assessed with standard tests. These include measurement of urine flow rate, bladder diaries and questionnaires, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). UPSTREAM (Urodynamics for Prostate Surgery Trial; Randomised Evaluation of Assessment Methods) researched whether or not including an extra test, urodynamics (UDS), helps when considering treatment options. UDS is a more invasive test and measures pressure in the bladder to check whether or not the prostate is causing obstruction. It was presumed that, if there is no obstruction, surgery would not be offered, so that using UDS would reduce the number of prostate operations. Each man participating (820 in total) was assessed with the standard tests. Around half of them had no extra tests (the 'routine care' arm of the trial); the rest had the UDS tests (the 'UDS' arm). Men then went on to have treatment, which they chose having discussed their test results with a urologist. IPSS and other symptom scores were examined for each man 18 months after joining the trial. At 18 months, surgery outcomes were known for 792 men and IPSS was known for 669 men. We investigated if the two trial arms showed similar changes in the IPSS and if there were fewer operations done in the UDS arm. We identified similar reductions in the IPSS in both arms. However, UDS tests did not reduce the number of operations. Analysing all the costs, it was found that a pathway including UDS costs more than routine care. Interviews were conducted that showed that men found UDS acceptable, and that the additional information helped both the men and their doctors consider which treatment would be most appropriate. These results do not support the routine use of UDS in the assessment of every man considering prostate surgery for LUTS. Further exploration of the data may identify circumstances in which UDS could be helpful.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária , Urodinâmica/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Bexiga Inativa/diagnóstico
15.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(41): 1-96, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the standard operation for benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Thulium laser transurethral vaporesection of the prostate (ThuVARP) vaporises and resects the prostate using a technique similar to TURP. The small amount of existing literature suggests that there may be potential advantages of ThuVARP over TURP. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not the outcomes from ThuVARP are equivalent to the outcomes from TURP in men with BPO treated in the NHS. DESIGN: A multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled parallel-group trial, with an embedded qualitative study and economic evaluation. SETTING: Seven UK centres - four university teaching hospitals and three district general hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Men aged ≥ 18 years who were suitable to undergo TURP, presenting with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) or urinary retention secondary to BPO. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised 1 : 1 to receive TURP or ThuVARP and remained blinded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two co-primary outcomes - patient-reported International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and clinical measure of maximum urine flow rate (Qmax) at 12 months post surgery. RESULTS: In total, 410 men were randomised, 205 to each arm. The two procedures were equivalent in terms of IPSS [adjusted mean difference 0.28 points higher for ThuVARP (favouring TURP), 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.92 to 1.49 points]. The two procedures were not equivalent in terms of Qmax (adjusted mean difference 3.12 ml/second in favour of TURP, 95% CI 0.45 to 5.79 ml/second), with TURP deemed superior. Surgical outcomes, such as complications and blood transfusion rates, and hospital stay were similar for both procedures. Patient-reported urinary and sexual symptoms were also similar between the arms. Qualitative interviews indicated similar patient experiences with both procedures. However, 25% of participants in the ThuVARP arm did not undergo their randomised allocation, compared with 2% of participants in the TURP arm. Prostate cancer was also detected less frequently from routine histology after ThuVARP (65% lower odds of detection) in an exploratory analysis. The adjusted mean differences between the arms were similar for secondary care NHS costs (£9 higher for ThuVARP, 95% CI -£359 to £376) and quality-adjusted life-years (0.01 favouring TURP, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.01). LIMITATIONS: Complications were recorded in prespecified categories; those not prespecified were excluded owing to variable reporting. Preoperative Qmax and IPSS data could not be collected for participants with indwelling catheters, making adjustment for baseline status difficult. CONCLUSIONS: TURP was superior to ThuVARP in terms of Qmax, although both operations resulted in a Qmax considered clinically successful. ThuVARP also potentially resulted in lower detection rates of prostate cancer as a result of the smaller volume of tissue available for histology. Length of hospital stay after ThuVARP, anticipated to be a key benefit, was equal to that after TURP in this trial. Overall, both ThuVARP and TURP were effective procedures for BPO, with minor benefits in favour of TURP. Therefore, the results suggest that it may be appropriate that new treatment alternatives continue to be compared with TURP. FUTURE WORK: Longer-term follow-up to assess reoperation rates over time, and research into the comparative effectiveness of ThuVARP and TURP in large prostates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00788389. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


An enlarged prostate can make it difficult, or even impossible, for a man to pass urine by blocking the urine flow from the bladder. This can cause significant problems, and 25,000 men in the UK each year are treated with an operation to relieve their symptoms. The standard operation [transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)], which uses electricity to shave off the enlarged prostate, is successful, but it can have some complications. There is some evidence to suggest that laser surgery can lead to less blood loss and a shorter stay in hospital, but laser operations can be difficult for surgeons to carry out. This trial has looked at a procedure using a new type of laser called thulium, which uses a very similar surgical technique to TURP and has shown promising results so far. A total of 410 men needing a prostate operation received either TURP or a laser operation. Participants were unaware of which operation they received until the end of the study to ensure a fair comparison. Seven hospitals across the UK were involved over 4 years. The trial mainly assessed the benefits of the operations using a urinary symptom questionnaire completed by participants, and by measuring the speed of passing urine after surgery. Overall, both procedures achieved positive results, and participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the outcomes. Participants who had either operation reported a similar improvement in urinary symptoms in their questionnaires. However, although both operations did a good job of improving the speed of passing urine, TURP was better. Participants experienced few complications, and the complications that did occur were similar after both operations, including levels of bleeding and time spent in hospital. The cost of the two operations to the NHS was also similar. Overall, we concluded that both operations are suitable for patients with prostate enlargement, with TURP showing some minor additional benefits.


Assuntos
Próstata/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Túlio , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(37): 1-176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the UK. Prostate-specific antigen testing followed by biopsy leads to overdetection, overtreatment as well as undertreatment of the disease. Evidence of treatment effectiveness has lacked because of the paucity of randomised controlled trials comparing conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of conventional treatments for localised prostate cancer (active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy) in men aged 50-69 years. DESIGN: A prospective, multicentre prostate-specific antigen testing programme followed by a randomised trial of treatment, with a comprehensive cohort follow-up. SETTING: Prostate-specific antigen testing in primary care and treatment in nine urology departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Between 2001 and 2009, 228,966 men aged 50-69 years received an invitation to attend an appointment for information about the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study and a prostate-specific antigen test; 82,429 men were tested, 2664 were diagnosed with localised prostate cancer, 1643 agreed to randomisation to active monitoring (n = 545), radical prostatectomy (n = 553) or radical radiotherapy (n = 545) and 997 chose a treatment. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions were active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy. TRIAL PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Definite or probable disease-specific mortality at the 10-year median follow-up in randomised participants. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality, metastases, disease progression, treatment complications, resource utilisation and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for 17 prostate cancer-specific (p = 0.48) and 169 all-cause (p = 0.87) deaths. Eight men died of prostate cancer in the active monitoring group (1.5 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 3.0); five died of prostate cancer in the radical prostatectomy group (0.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.2 per 1000 person years) and four died of prostate cancer in the radical radiotherapy group (0.7 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 2.0 per 1000 person years). More men developed metastases in the active monitoring group than in the radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy groups: active monitoring, n = 33 (6.3 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 4.5 to 8.8); radical prostatectomy, n = 13 (2.4 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.2 per 1000 person years); and radical radiotherapy, n = 16 (3.0 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.9 per 1000 person-years; p = 0.004). There were higher rates of disease progression in the active monitoring group than in the radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy groups: active monitoring (n = 112; 22.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 19.0 to 27.5 per 1000 person years); radical prostatectomy (n = 46; 8.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 11.9 per 1000 person-years); and radical radiotherapy (n = 46; 9.0 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 12.0 per 1000 person years; p < 0.001). Radical prostatectomy had the greatest impact on sexual function/urinary continence and remained worse than radical radiotherapy and active monitoring. Radical radiotherapy's impact on sexual function was greatest at 6 months, but recovered somewhat in the majority of participants. Sexual and urinary function gradually declined in the active monitoring group. Bowel function was worse with radical radiotherapy at 6 months, but it recovered with the exception of bloody stools. Urinary voiding and nocturia worsened in the radical radiotherapy group at 6 months but recovered. Condition-specific quality-of-life effects mirrored functional changes. No differences in anxiety/depression or generic or cancer-related quality of life were found. At the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year, the probabilities that each arm was the most cost-effective option were 58% (radical radiotherapy), 32% (active monitoring) and 10% (radical prostatectomy). LIMITATIONS: A single prostate-specific antigen test and transrectal ultrasound biopsies were used. There were very few non-white men in the trial. The majority of men had low- and intermediate-risk disease. Longer follow-up is needed. CONCLUSIONS: At a median follow-up point of 10 years, prostate cancer-specific mortality was low, irrespective of the assigned treatment. Radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy reduced disease progression and metastases, but with side effects. Further work is needed to follow up participants at a median of 15 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN20141297. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 37. See the National Institute for Health Research Journals Library website for further project information.


Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and is often found through a blood test called a prostate-specific antigen test and through biopsies of the prostate. Over the years, these tests led to the detection of many small cancers that do not cause harm. Some prostate cancers are harmful, but it is difficult to recognise them early. When cancer is still inside the prostate, the conventional treatments are surgery or radiotherapy, which carry side effects including leaking urine and difficulty getting an erection, so another option is repeat investigations at regular intervals (active monitoring), with treatments given if the cancer progresses. These options needed to be compared in a study called a 'randomised trial' in which men agree to be allocated to one of the three treatments. In the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study, 200,000 men aged 50­69 years were invited to have a prostate-specific antigen test. Of the 82,849 men who agreed to be tested, 1643 of whom had prostate cancer that was still contained in the prostate agreed to be allocated to one of the three treatments. After an average of 10 years of follow-up, 99% of men were alive in each of the treatment groups. However, when compared with active monitoring, surgery and radiotherapy reduced the risk of disease spreading outside the prostate by half. Patients reported that urinary leakage and sexual function were worst with surgery, and sexual and bowel functions were affected by radiotherapy. Men on active monitoring had a gradual decline in their urinary and sexual function, particularly as around half of them later had surgery or radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was the treatment that seemed to be the best value for money. The findings from the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study can help men make decisions about being tested and which treatment to have if they are found to have cancer within the prostate. We now need to find out the longer-term effects of these treatments on how long men live and their quality of life.


Assuntos
Intervalo Livre de Doença , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(5): 466-473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive ventricular dilatation after intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants has a very high risk of severe disability and death. Drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT), in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reduced severe cognitive impairment at 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the cognitive advantage of DRIFT seen at 2 years persisted until school age. PARTICIPANTS: The RCT conducted in four centres recruited 77 preterm infants with IVH and progressive ventricular enlargement over specified measurements. Follow-up was at 10 years of age. INTERVENTION: Intraventricular injection of a fibrinolytic followed by continuous lavage, until the drainage was clear, and standard care consisting of control of expansion by lumbar punctures and if expansion persisted via a ventricular access device. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Cognitive quotient (CQ), derived from the British Ability Scales and Bayley III Scales, and survival without severe cognitive disability. RESULTS: Of the 77 children randomised, 12 died, 2 could not be traced, 10 did not respond and 1 declined at 10-year follow-up. 28 in the DRIFT group and 24 in the standard treatment group were assessed by examiners blinded to the intervention. The mean CQ score was 69.3 (SD=30.1) in the DRIFT group and 53.7 (SD=35.7) in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.1; adjusted p=0.01, after adjustment for the prespecified variables sex, birth weight and IVH grade). Survival without severe cognitive disability was 66% in the DRIFT group and 35% in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.019; adjusted p=0.003). CONCLUSION: DRIFT is the first intervention for posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation to objectively demonstrate sustained cognitive improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN80286058.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/complicações , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação Patológica , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Punção Espinal , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
18.
Eur Urol ; 78(5): 701-710, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate surgery can improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) by relieving bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). However, surgery is less effective without BOO, or if detrusor underactivity is present. Urodynamics (UDS) can identify BOO and measure detrusor activity, but evidence in clinical practice is lacking. OBJECTIVE: Urodynamics for Prostate Surgery Trial: Randomised Evaluation of Assessment Methods (UPSTREAM) aimed to evaluate whether a care pathway including UDS would reduce surgery without increasing urinary symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: UPSTREAM is a pragmatic, noninferiority, randomised controlled trial in men with bothersome LUTS, in whom surgery was an option, in 26 hospitals in England (ISRCTN56164274). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised (1:1) to routine care (RC) diagnostic tests, or RC plus UDS. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; patient-reported outcome scale from 0 to 35 points) 18 mo after randomisation, with a noninferiority margin of 1 point. Urological surgery rates were a key secondary outcome. The primary outcome was compared between the arms using linear regression, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Between October 2014 and December 2016, 820 men (median age 68 yr) were randomised (393 and 427 in the RC and UDS arms, respectively). The UDS arm showed noninferiority of the mean IPSSs (UDS 12.6; RC 13.1; adjusted difference at 18 mo -0.33 [95% confidence interval {CI} -1.47, +0.80]). In the UDS arm, 153/408 (38%) received surgery compared with 138/384 (36%) in the RC arm (adjusted odds ratio 1.05; 95% CI 0.77, 1.43). A total of 428 adverse events (UDS 234; RC 194) were recorded, with related events similar in both arms and 11 unrelated deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the UDS randomised group was noninferior to RC for the IPSS but did not reduce surgical rates. This study shows that routine use of UDS in the evaluation of uncomplicated LUTS has a limited role and should be used selectively. PATIENT SUMMARY: For men with uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms, symptom improvements after treatment and the number of operations performed are similar, irrespective of whether or not urodynamic tests are conducted in addition to routine tests. Accordingly, routine use of urodynamics has a limited role in this population group.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Urodinâmica
20.
Lancet ; 396(10243): 50-61, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the standard operation for benign prostatic obstruction. Thulium laser transurethral vaporesection of the prostate (ThuVARP) is a technique with suggested advantages over TURP, including reduced complications and hospital stay. We aimed to investigate TURP versus ThuVARP in men with lower urinary tract symptoms or urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic obstruction. METHODS: In this randomised, blinded, parallel-group, pragmatic equivalence trial, men in seven UK hospitals with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms or urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic obstruction were randomly assigned (1:1) at the point of surgery to receive ThuVARP or TURP. Patients were masked until follow-up completion. Centres used their usual TURP procedure (monopolar or bipolar). All trial surgeons underwent training on the ThuVARP technique. Co-primary outcomes were maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) at 12-months post-surgery. Equivalence was defined as a difference of 2·5 points or less for IPSS and 4 mL per s or less for Qmax. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN00788389. FINDINGS: Between July 23, 2014, and Dec 30, 2016, 410 men were randomly assigned to ThuVARP or TURP, 205 per study group. TURP was superior for Qmax (mean 23·2 mL per s for TURP and 20·2 mL per s for ThuVARP; adjusted difference in means -3·12, 95% CI -5·79 to -0·45). Equivalence was shown for IPSS (mean 6·3 for TURP and 6·4 for ThuVARP; adjusted difference in means 0·28, -0·92 to 1·49). Mean hospital stay was 48 h in both study groups. 91 (45%) of 204 patients in the TURP group and 96 (47%) of 203 patients in the ThuVARP group had at least one complication. INTERPRETATION: TURP and ThuVARP were equivalent for urinary symptom improvement (IPSS) 12-months post-surgery, and TURP was superior for Qmax. Anticipated laser benefits for ThuVARP of reduced hospital stay and complications were not observed. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Túlio , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Retenção Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
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