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1.
Clin Rehabil ; : 269215520956388, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of stroke survivors and their carers of augmented arm rehabilitation including supported self-management in terms of its acceptability, appropriateness and relevance. DESIGN: A qualitative design, nested within a larger, multi-centre randomized controlled feasibility trial that compared augmented arm rehabilitation starting at three or nine weeks after stroke, with usual care. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants in both augmented arm rehabilitation groups. Normalization Process Theory was used to inform the topic guide and map the findings. Framework analysis was applied. SETTING: Interviews were conducted in stroke survivors' homes, at Glasgow Caledonian University and in hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 17 stroke survivors and five carers were interviewed after completion of augmented arm rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: Evidence-based augmented arm rehabilitation (27 additional hours over six weeks), including therapist-led sessions and supported self-management. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: (1) acceptability of the intervention (2) supported self-management and (3) coping with the intervention. All stroke survivors coped well with the intensity of the augmented arm rehabilitation programme. The majority of stroke survivors engaged in supported self-management and implemented activities into their daily routine. However, the findings suggest that some stroke survivors (male >70 years) had difficulties with self-management, needing a higher level of support. CONCLUSION: Augmented arm rehabilitation commencing within nine weeks post stroke was reported to be well tolerated. The findings suggested that supported self-management seemed acceptable and appropriate to those who saw the relevance of the rehabilitation activities for their daily lives, and embedded them into their daily routines.

2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815073

RESUMO

The objectives of the study described were to (1) compare environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) with the THI measured within two different calf housing systems and (2) determine how THI affects Holstein heifer calf body temperatures, serum cortisol concentrations, and serum thyroxine concentrations. At 24 to 48 h of age, calves were assigned to one of two individual housing treatments: (1) stalls in a three-sided barn (n = 8) or 2) hutches placed outside (n = 8). Calves were observed until 42 days of age during the summer months. Ambient temperature and relative humidity within housing systems were recorded hourly. Calf body temperatures were measured hourly using devices attached to the underside of each calf's tail. Blood samples were collected at 7, 21, and 42 days of age via jugular venipuncture. Blood serum was analyzed for cortisol and thyroxine concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Overall average THI was higher in hutches than in stalls (P < 0.0001). Calves housed in hutches had higher body temperatures (39 ± 0.18 °C vs 38 ± 0.15 °C, P = 0.005). No differences occurred in serum cortisol concentrations (P = 0.89) but at 21 days of age, calves housed in hutches had higher serum thyroxine concentrations (16.55 ± 0.51 µg/dl vs 13.91 ± 0.54 µg/dl, P = 0.0006) than calves housed in stalls. Although both housing systems in this study were located on the same dairy, calves housed in hutches were exposed to higher THI values, had higher body temperatures, and at 21 days of age had higher serum thyroxine concentrations than calves housed in stalls inside a three-sided barn.

3.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are a class of phytochemicals that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral properties. Previous research suggests that dietary polyphenol intake is protective against major chronic diseases. To our knowledge, no data on polyphenol intake for the US adult population are available. OBJECTIVE: This study explored usual dietary polyphenol intake among US adults in 2013-2016 and examined trends in intake during 2007-2016 by demographic characteristics, and identified major dietary sources of polyphenols. DESIGN: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a series of cross-sectional surveys representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized US population. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: This study included 9,773 adults aged 20 years and older. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary and supplement data were obtained from two 24-hour dietary recalls. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol Explorer Database and adjusted for total energy intake. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Usual intake was estimated both overall and by demographic characteristics using the National Cancer Institute method. Trends in intake on a given day over 10 years were evaluated using regression analysis. The complex survey design was incorporated in all analyses. RESULTS: In 2013-2016, the usual intake of dietary polyphenols was a mean (standard error) of 884.1 (20.4) mg per 1,000 kcal/d. Polyphenol intake was higher in adults 40 years and older, women, non-Hispanic White adults, and college graduates. During 2007-2016, the mean daily polyphenol intake did not change significantly over time for overall and demographic groups. Main polyphenol classes consumed were phenolic acids (mean [standard error] of 1,005.6 [34.3] mg/d) and flavonoids (mean [standard error] of 379.1 [10.7] mg/d). Foods and beverages contributed 99.8% of polyphenol intake, with coffee (39.6%), beans (9.8%), and tea (7.6%) as major dietary contributors. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study suggest that polyphenol intake is consistent with the low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in the US population, and provide more evidence of the need for increased consumption of these food groups.

4.
Am J Mens Health ; 14(3): 1557988320925985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602769

RESUMO

A decades-long decline in sperm counts in Western countries has coincided with an increase in obesity rates, prompting study into their association. Few of these studies have incorporated men of color, the sperm health of whom is relatively unknown. The present exploratory study evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI), race, ethnicity, and sperm parameters among a diverse sample of U.S. men attending a Washington, DC physician practice. Semen samples were collected and processed at a single laboratory and sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and count were evaluated according to World Health Organization (WHO) 5th edition criteria. Multivariate models accounted for covariates related to sperm health. The study population (n = 128) was largely obese (45.3%) or overweight (34.4%), and 36.0% were black or Hispanic. Black men had lower adjusted sperm concentration compared to white men (75.0 million/mL to 107.4 million/mL, p = .01) and were more likely to have oligozoospermia (p = .01), asthenozoospermia (p = .004), and low sperm count (p < .0001). Hispanic men had higher adjusted sperm concentration compared to non-Hispanic men (124.5 million/mL to 62.1 million/mL, p = .007) and were less likely to have teratozoospermia (p = .001). Obesity and BMI were associated with lower sperm motility and count in crude models only. Given the study's sample size its findings should be interpreted with caution but align with the limited epidemiological literature to date that has evaluated racial and ethnic differences in semen quality. Heightened clinical research attention is needed to ensure men of color are included in representative numbers in studies of urologic and andrologic health.

5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 113-122, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of noncommunicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), is crucially important as people with HIV (PWH) live longer with antiretroviral therapy. Our objective was to assess patient-level and clinic-level factors associated with achieving hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≤7.0% among PWH and DM. SETTING: The DC Cohort, an observational clinical cohort of PWH, followed from 2011 to 2019 at 12 sites in Washington, DC. METHODS: Among PWH with diagnosed DM and elevated HbA1c (>7.0%), we examined the association between achieving HbA1c ≤7.0% and demographic and clinical factors, including time-updated medication data, and clinic-level factors related to services and structure. A multilevel marginal extended Cox regression model was generated to identify factors associated with time to HbA1c ≤7.0%. RESULTS: Over half (52.3%) of 419 participants achieved HbA1c ≤7.0%. Individual-level factors associated with HbA1c ≤7.0% included a diagnosis of DM after enrollment and a longer time since HIV diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.65 and 1.13, P < 0.05 for both]. Attending a clinic with an endocrinologist was associated with the outcome [adjusted HR (aHR) = 1.41 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.01 to 1.97)]. In addition, comparing clinics that treat everyone, refer everyone or have a mix of treating and referring, showed an association between attending a clinic that treats everyone [aHR = 1.52 95% CI: (1.21 to 1.90)] or a clinic that refers everyone [aHR = 2.24 95% CI: (1.63 to 3.07)] compared with clinics with a mix in achieving glycemic control. CONCLUSION: Multiple factors are associated with achieving glycemic control in an urban cohort of PWH. Determining if specific services or structures improve DM outcomes may improve health outcomes for PWH and DM.

6.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 46(6): 19-23, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378289

RESUMO

This article reviews recent federal and state policy changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect health care and quality of life for older adults. Specific regulations and guidelines issued at the state and federal level have increased access and provided additional funding for essential services and supports. Many of these changes are temporary and have the potential to improve care beyond the immediate crisis. This period of greater flexibility offers the opportunity to accrue evidence on quality and access to influence sustained change. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(6), 19-23.].


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Vaccine ; 38(30): 4671-4678, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful control of vaccine preventable diseases not only requires high coverage but also requires that vaccines are administered in a timely manner. Prior studies have examined the timing of vaccinations in Armenia and found that although vaccination coverage is high, children are not receiving the vaccinations in a timely manner. This study aims to further elucidate the timing and associated factors of childhood vaccinations among children in Armenia in 2015-2016. METHODS: Data from the Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) from 2015 to 2016 were used to examine the timing of WHO-recommended vaccinations during the first year of life of all living children under three years of age, which included a vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG), three doses of a diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine (DTP), three doses of a polio vaccine (Pol) and a measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess age-appropriate receipt of vaccinations. Cox proportional hazards models with a shared gamma frailty to account for clustered sampling were used to determine factorsassociatedwith timely vaccinations. RESULTS: Vaccination coverage was high ranging from 80.6% for the third dose of DTP to 98.4% for BCG, yet the proportion of children with delayed vaccinations increased with each dose in a series, with 51.9% and 48.5% having a delayed receipt of the third doses of DTP and Pol respectively. Factors associated with delayed vaccinations included female gender, certain regions of residence, previously delayed vaccinations, poorer wealth index and lower educational level of mother. There were no differences in timing of vaccinations between clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Although coverage was generally high, a high proportion of children under three in Armenia experienced delays in receiving the recommended vaccinations. Continued focus on adherence to the immunization schedule is necessary to ensure optimal coverage and protection for children in Armenia from vaccine preventable diseases.

8.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 46(6): 19-23, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453436

RESUMO

This article reviews recent federal and state policy changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect health care and quality of life for older adults. Specific regulations and guidelines issued at the state and federal level have increased access and provided additional funding for essential services and supports. Many of these changes are temporary and have the potential to improve care beyond the immediate crisis. This period of greater flexibility offers the opportunity to accrue evidence on quality and access to influence sustained change. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(6), 19-23.].


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Política de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(8): 931-937, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hand hygiene adherence has been associated with reductions in nosocomial infection. We assessed the effect of improvements in electronically measured hand hygiene adherence on the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 555-bed urban safety-net level I trauma center. The preintervention period was January 2015 through June 2016. Baseline electronic hand hygiene data collection took place from April through June 2016. The intervention period was July 2016 through December 2017. An electronic hand hygiene system was installed in 4 locations in our hospital. Performance improvement strategies were implemented that included education, troubleshooting, data dissemination, and feedback. Adherence rates were tracked over time. Rates of hospital-acquired infections were evaluated in the intervention units and in control units selected for comparison. The intervention period was subdivided into the initial and subsequent 9-month periods and were compared to the baseline period. RESULTS: Electronically measured hand hygiene rates improved significantly from baseline to intervention, from 47% 77% adherence. Rates >70% continued to be measured 18 months after the intervention. Interrupted time series analysis indicated a significant effect of hand hygiene on healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection rates during the first 9 months of the intervention. This trend continued during the final 9 months of the intervention but was nonsignificant. No effects were observed for other hospital-acquired infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of electronic hand hygiene monitoring and performance improvement interventions resulted in reductions in hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection rates.

10.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) prevention bundles have proven successful in decreasing infections. Surgeon and nurse engagement and endorsement are essential for success. The objective of this quality improvement project was to develop, implement and sustain a colon SSI prevention bundle and determine which bundle components are most strongly associated with prevention of SSI. METHODS: The bundle was developed and implemented in a 525 bed Level I trauma hospital and included pre-, intra- and postoperative components. Bundle adherence and SSI rate were continually tracked and communicated to surgeons and nursing staff throughout project. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the components associated with lowest SSI rates. RESULTS: There were 280 elective and urgent/emergent colon surgeries between October 2015 and March 2018. Over 60% had preoperative components, 76.5% had intraoperative components and 55.6% had postoperative bundle components with a nonsignificant decreasing trend in SSI rate of -0.5 SSI/100 procedures per quarter. The multivariate analysis suggested that use of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% alcohol skin prep, use of wound protector and change of gloves for fascial closure were associated with fewer SSI. DISCUSSION: The implementation of a colon SSI prevention bundle in a Level I trauma hospital with pre-, intra- and postoperative components was described. Future directions include focusing implementation efforts on bundle components that significantly prevent SSI to improve adherence.

13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e16665, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem amenable to prevention and health promotion. As healthy behaviors have an impact on disease outcomes, approaches to support and sustain diabetes self-management are vital. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse coaching program using motivational interviewing paired with mobile health (mHealth) technology on diabetes self-efficacy and self-management for persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared usual care with an intervention that entailed nurse health coaching and mHealth technology to track patient-generated health data and integrate these data into an electronic health record. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) enrolled at 1 of 3 primary care clinics, (2) aged 18 years or above, (3) living with type 2 diabetes, and (4) English-speaking. We collected outcome measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months. The primary outcome was diabetes self-efficacy; secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, perceived stress, physical functioning, and emotional distress and anxiety. Linear regression mixed modeling estimated the population trends and individual differences in change. RESULTS: We enrolled 319 participants; 287 participants completed the study (155 control and 132 intervention). The participants in the intervention group had significant improvements in diabetes self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale, 0.34; 95% CI -0.15,0.53; P<.01) and a decrease in depressive symptoms compared with usual care at 3 months (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; 0.89; 95% CI 0.01-1.77; P=.05), with no differences in the other outcomes. The differences in self-efficacy and depression scores between the 2 arms at 9 months were not sustained. The participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significant increase in physical activity (from 23,770 steps per week to 39,167 steps per week at 3 months and 32,601 per week at 9 months). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the short-term effectiveness of this intervention; however, by 9 months, although physical activity remained above the baseline, the improvements in self-efficacy were not sustained. Further research should evaluate the minimum dose of coaching required to continue progress after active intervention and the potential of technology to provide effective ongoing automated reinforcement for behavior change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02672176; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02672176.

14.
Gerontologist ; 60(Suppl 1): S14-S28, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although most people have some experience as caregivers, the nature and context of care are highly variable. Caregiving, socioeconomic factors, and health are all interrelated. For these reasons, caregiver interventions must consider these factors. This review examines the degree to which caregiver intervention research has reported and considered social determinants of health. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions for older adults with age-related chronic conditions using the PRISMA and AMSTAR 2 checklists. From 2,707 papers meeting search criteria, we identified 197 potentially relevant systematic reviews, and selected 33 for the final analysis. RESULTS: We found scant information on the inclusion of social determinants; the papers lacked specificity regarding race/ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. The majority of studies focused on dementia, with other conditions common in later life vastly underrepresented. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Significant gaps in evidence persist, particularly for interventions targeting diverse conditions and populations. To advance health equity and improve the effectiveness of interventions, research should address caregiver heterogeneity and improve assessment, support, and instruction for diverse populations. Research must identify aspects of heterogeneity that matter in intervention design, while recognizing opportunities for common elements and strategies.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Doença Crônica/enfermagem , Demência/enfermagem , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Idoso , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 21(1): 48-53, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429634

RESUMO

Background: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend bathing prior to surgery, surgical skin antisepsis, peri-operative antibiotic administration, normothermia throughout the procedure, serum glucose concentration <200 mg/dL throughout the procedure, and hyperoxygenation in the immediate post-operative period to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). We developed interventions to standardize skin antisepsis and peri-operative antibiotic administration at our institution. Methods: This is a cross-sectional evaluation of surgical skin antisepsis and antibiotic administration before and after a series of interventions designed to standardize the processes. Results: One hundred twenty-four surgical skin antisepsis opportunities were observed; significant improvement was seen in hand hygiene prior to performing skin antisepsis (compliance changing from 1% to 48%; p < 0.001), sleeves being worn during skin antisepsis (1% versus 67%; p < 0.001), use of the correct cleansing time (47% versus 85%; p < 0.001), allowance for adequate drying time (67% versus 87%; p = 0.02), and use of a cleansing motion from the incision to the periphery (78% versus 95%; p = 0.004). Pre-operative antibiotic order placement, correct antibiotic selection, and optimal antibiotic dose were evaluated in 466 surgical procedures. Significant improvement was seen in both peri-operative order placement (59% versus 70%; p = 0.02) and correct antibiotic selection (52% versus 95%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: An intervention to standardize skin antisepsis and to encourage early ordering of peri-operative antibiotics was successful.

16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(2): 212-215, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801647

RESUMO

We surveyed emergency department and urgent care clinicians to assess patterns of use and perceived usefulness of a local antibiotic stewardship application to deliver institution-specific prescribing guidance. Among 114 eligible respondents, the application was widely utilized, and it was perceived to be a useful clinical resource that improved prescribing.

17.
Res Sports Med ; 28(1): 42-54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892095

RESUMO

Determinants of concussion diagnosis, symptomology, and other sequelae have not been examined in high school soccer players. Using a sample of soccer-related head/neck injuries from the NATION Surveillance Program, we evaluated potential determinants (sex, injury history, injury mechanism, setting) of concussion characteristics. A total of 378 head/neck injuries were recorded, and 189 (50.0%) injuries from this sample, resulted in a concussion diagnosis. Odds of concussion diagnosis were 84% higher among female players compared with their male counterparts, and over two-fold higher in game settings compared with practice settings. We also observed several significant symptom dependencies, such as higher odds of difficulty concentrating (OR = 5.84, 95% CI = [2.99, 11.42]) given concurrent light sensitivity. Furthermore, we identified injury mechanism as a determinant of concussion symptom resolution time. Our results suggest that determinants of soccer-related concussions and their sequelae are multifactorial, and extend the existing literature with the potential to inform clinical practice.

18.
J. gerontol. nurs ; 46(6)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103757

RESUMO

This article reviews recent federal and state policy changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect health care and quality of life for older adults. Specifi c regulations and guidelines issued at the state and federal level have increased access and provided additional funding for essential services and supports. Many of these changes are temporary and have the potential to improve care beyond the immediate crisis. This period of greater fl exibility offers the opportunity to accrue evidence on quality and access to infl uence sustained change.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde do Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência Integral à Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos
20.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; : 1-5, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834414

RESUMO

Pragmatic trials occur within the complexity of real-world care delivery, and when effective, contribute to more rapid translation into practice because of their greater generalizability. Research with older adults is complex when participants have chronic conditions and multiple comorbidities. Often pragmatic trials introduce a novel intervention and try to determine whether it offers a benefit beyond the usual or routine care provided. Researchers commonly focus attention on describing the intervention, yet the comparator condition of usual or routine care can be anything but standard, reducing the effect size of the intervention and introducing threats to the overall validity of the study. The current article describes clinical trial guidelines, then illustrates the complexity of characterizing usual care for interventions addressing type 2 diabetes. The authors provide recommendations for improving description of usual care and discuss implications for gerontological nursing research. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].

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