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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2001592, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602131

RESUMO

Efficient heterogeneous photosensitizing materials require both large accessible surface areas and excitons of suitable energies and with well-defined spin structures. Confinement of the tetracationic cyclophane (ExBox4+ ) within a nonporous anionic polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) matrix leads to a surface area increase of up to 225 m2 g-1 in ExBox•PSS. Efficient intersystem crossing is achieved by combining the spin-orbit coupling associated to Br heavy atoms in 1,3,5,8-tetrabromopyrene (TBP), and the photoinduced electron transfer in a TBP⊂ExBox4+ supramolecular dyad. The TBP⊂ExBox4+ complex displays a charge transfer band at 450 nm and an exciplex emission at 520 nm, indicating the formation of new mixed-electronic states. The lowest triplet state (T1 , 1.89 eV) is localized on the TBP and is close in energy with the charge separated state (CT, 2.14 eV). The homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic activities of the TBP⊂ExBox4+ , for the elimination of a sulfur mustard simulant, has proved to be significantly more efficient than TBP and ExBox+4 , confirming the importance of the newly formed excited-state manifold in TBP⊂ExBox4+ for the population of the low-lying T1 state. The high stability, facile preparation, and high performance of the TBP⊂ExBox•PSS nanocomposites augur well for the future development of new supramolecular heterogeneous photosensitizers using host-guest chemistry.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 18(6)2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498449

RESUMO

Polar marine ecosystems hold the potential for bioactive compound biodiscovery, based on their untapped macro- and microorganism diversity. Characterization of polar benthic marine invertebrate-associated microbiomes is limited to few studies. This study was motivated by our interest in better understanding the microbiome structure and composition of the ascidian, Synoicum adareanum, in which palmerolide A (PalA), a bioactive macrolide with specificity against melanoma, was isolated. PalA bears structural resemblance to a hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide that has similarities to microbially-produced macrolides. We conducted a spatial survey to assess both PalA levels and microbiome composition in S. adareanum in a region of the Antarctic Peninsula near Anvers Island (64° 46'S, 64° 03'W). PalA was ubiquitous and abundant across a collection of 21 ascidians (3 subsamples each) sampled from seven sites across the Anvers Island Archipelago. The microbiome composition (V3-V4 16S rRNA gene sequence variants) of these 63 samples revealed a core suite of 21 bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs)-20 of which were distinct from regional bacterioplankton. ASV co-occurrence analysis across all 63 samples yielded subgroups of taxa that may be interacting biologically (interacting subsystems) and, although the levels of PalA detected were not found to correlate with specific sequence variants, the core members appeared to occur in a preferred optimum and tolerance range of PalA levels. These results, together with an analysis of the biosynthetic potential of related microbiome taxa, describe a conserved, high-latitude core microbiome with unique composition and substantial promise for natural product biosynthesis that likely influences the ecology of the holobiont.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551620

RESUMO

Switchable coupling between two qubits is important for quantum information science (QIS). As a proof of concept, a series of mesosubstituted porphyrins have been synthesized with a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl stable free radical (SFR) appended and metalated with Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) in order to explore the interaction between the SFR doublet state and metalloporphyrin. The spin state of the porphyrin varies upon metal insertion, where Zn(II) is a diamagnetic metal, Cu(II) is paramagnetic, and Ni(II) can be switched from a diamagnetic square-planar structure to a paramagnetic octahedral state by complexation with a solvent (i.e., pyridine or tetrahydrofuran). Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements reveal that upon photoexcitation, the Zn(II) and free-base porphyrin species demonstrate different magnetic exchange regimes between the porphyrin triplet excited states and the SFR doublet state, with the Zn derivative populating a quartet state (i.e., moderate magnetic exchange), whereas the free-base derivative remains a triplet (i.e., weak magnetic exchange). Transient absorption measurements corroborate the TREPR results, demonstrating a 66% increase in the singlet excited-state decay rate due to enhanced intersystem crossing for the Zn(II) derivative in comparison to a modest 14% enhancement for the free-base porphyrin. These results enable the realization of a switchable qubit coupler, depending upon Zn metal insertion to the free-base porphyrin, which has potential QIS applications.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(27): 11835-11846, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470290

RESUMO

We report how the nanoconfined environment, introduced by the mechanical bonds within an electrochemically switchable bistable [2]rotaxane, controls the rotation of a fluorescent molecular rotor, namely, an 8-phenyl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). The electrochemical switching of the bistable [2]rotaxane induces changes in the ground-state coconformation and in the corresponding excited-state properties of the BODIPY rotor. In the starting redox state, when no external potential is applied, the cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) ring component encircles the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit on the dumbbell component, leaving the BODIPY rotor unhindered and exhibiting low fluorescence. Upon oxidation of the TTF unit to a TTF2+ dication, the CBPQT4+ ring is forced toward the molecular rotor, leading to an increased energy barrier for the excited state to rotate the rotor into the state with a high nonradiative rate constant, resulting in an overall 3.4-fold fluorescence enhancement. On the other hand, when the solvent polarity is high enough to stabilize the excited charge-transfer state between the BODIPY rotor and the CBPQT4+ ring, movement of the ring toward the BODIPY rotor produces an unexpectedly strong fluorescence signal decrease as the result of photoinduced electron transfer from the BODIPY rotor to the CBPQT4+ ring. The nanoconfinement effect introduced by mechanical bonding can effectively lead to modulation of the physicochemical properties as observed in this bistable [2]rotaxane. On account of the straightforward synthetic strategy and the facile modulation of switchable electrochromic behavior, our approach could pave the way for the development of new stimuli-responsive materials based on mechanically interlocked molecules for future electro-optical applications, such as sensors, molecular memories, and molecular logic gates.

5.
Cancer Cell ; 37(4): 551-568.e14, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289277

RESUMO

The development of precision medicine approaches for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is confounded by its pronounced genetic, phenotypic, and clinical heterogeneity. Recent multiplatform genomic studies revealed the existence of genetic subtypes of DLBCL using clustering methodologies. Here, we describe an algorithm that determines the probability that a patient's lymphoma belongs to one of seven genetic subtypes based on its genetic features. This classification reveals genetic similarities between these DLBCL subtypes and various indolent and extranodal lymphoma types, suggesting a shared pathogenesis. These genetic subtypes also have distinct gene expression profiles, immune microenvironments, and outcomes following immunochemotherapy. Functional analysis of genetic subtype models highlights distinct vulnerabilities to targeted therapy, supporting the use of this classification in precision medicine trials.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(19): 8938-8945, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243141

RESUMO

We report the encapsulation of free-base and zinc porphyrins by a tricyclic cyclophane receptor with subnanomolar binding affinities in water. The high affinities are sustained by the hydrophobic effect and multiple [CH···π] interactions covering large [π···π] stacking surfaces between the substrate porphyrins and the receptor. We discovered two co-conformational isomers of the 1:1 complex, where the porphyrin is orientated differently inside the binding cavity of the receptor on account of its tricyclic nature. The photophysical properties and chemical reactivities of the encapsulated porphyrins are modulated to a considerable extent by the receptor. Improved fluorescence quantum yields, red-shifted absorptions and emissions, and nearly quantitative energy transfer processes highlight the emergent photophysical enhancements. The encapsulated porphyrins enjoy unprecedented chemical stabilities, where their D/H exchange, protonation, and solvolysis under extremely acidic conditions are completely blocked. We anticipate that the ultrahigh stabilities and improved optical properties of these encapsulated porphyrins will find applications in single-molecule materials, artificial photodevices, and biomedical appliances.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6092-6102, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127472

RESUMO

The KLHL14 gene acquires frequent inactivating mutations in mature B cell malignancies, especially in the MYD88L265P, CD79B mutant (MCD) genetic subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which relies on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling for survival. However, the pathogenic role of KLHL14 in DLBCL and its molecular function are largely unknown. Here, we report that KLHL14 is in close proximity to the BCR in the endoplasmic reticulum of MCD cell line models and promotes the turnover of immature glycoforms of BCR subunits, reducing total cellular BCR levels. Loss of KLHL14 confers relative resistance to the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib and promotes assembly of the MYD88-TLR9-BCR (My-T-BCR) supercomplex, which initiates prosurvival NF-κB activation. Consequently, KLHL14 inactivation allows MCD cells to maintain NF-κB signaling in the presence of ibrutinib. These findings reinforce the central role of My-T-BCR-dependent NF-κB signaling in MCD DLBCL and suggest that the genetic status of KLHL14 should be considered in clinical trials testing inhibitors of BTK and BCR signaling mediators in DLBCL.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Complexos Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD79/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteólise , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(23): 7498-7504, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730346

RESUMO

Designing molecular systems that exploit vibronic coherence to improve light harvesting efficiencies relies on understanding how interchromophoric interactions, such as van der Waals forces and dipolar coupling, influence these coherences in multichromophoric arrays. However, disentangling these interactions requires studies of molecular systems with tunable structural relationships. Here, we use a combination of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy to investigate the role of steric hindrance between chromophores in driving changes to vibronic and vibrational coherences in a series of substituted perylenediimide (PDI) cyclophane dimers. We report significant differences in the frequency power spectra from the cyclophane dimers versus the corresponding monomer reference. We attribute these differences to distortion of the PDI cores from steric interactions between the substituents. These results highlight the importance of considering structural changes when rationalizing vibronic coupling in multichromophoric systems.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(47): 18727-18739, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580664

RESUMO

A series of donor-acceptor (D-A) naphthalene-viologen-based cyclophanes of different shapes, sizes, and symmetries have been synthesized and characterized. Solution optical studies on these cyclophanes reveal the existence of photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer (CT) at 465 nm from naphthalene (D) to viologen (A) units, resulting in a conformational change in the viologen units and the emergence of an emission at 540 nm. The D-A cyclophanes with box-like and hexagon-like shapes offer an opportunity to control the arrangement within 2D layers where D-A interactions direct the superstructures. While a box-like 2,6-disubstituted naphthalene-based tetracationic cyclophane does not form square tiling patterns, a truncated hexagon-like congener self-assembles to form a hexagonal superstructure which, in turn, adopts a hexagonal tiling pattern. Tessellation of the more rigid and highly symmetrical 2,7-disubstituted naphthalene-based cyclophanes leads to the formation of 2D square and honeycomb tiling patterns with the box-like and hexagon-like cyclophanes, respectively. Co-crystallization of the box-like cyclophanes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) results in the formation of D-A CT interactions between TTF and viologen units, leading to tubular superstructures. Co-crystallization of the hexagon-like cyclophane with TTF generates well-ordered and uniform tubular superstructures in which the TTF-viologen CT interactions and naphthalene-naphthalene [π···π] interactions propagate with 2D topology. In the solid state, the TTF-cyclophane co-crystals are paramagnetic and display dual intra- and intermolecular CT behavior at ∼470 and ∼1000 nm, respectively, offering multi-responsive materials with potential pathways for electron transport.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17512-17516, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647646

RESUMO

Guanine-quadruplex (G-quadruplex) assemblies provide a useful platform for studying the spatial, structural, and photophysical effects of intermolecular interactions. Coupling a single guanine moiety to terrylenediimide (TDI)-a chromophore with a large extended π-surface-produces a structure (GTDI) that assembles in plate-like tetramers, with the potential of undergoing tunable π-stacking. At high concentrations (3 × 10-3 M), GTDI self-assembles into a nearly monodisperse G-quadruplex structure of 16 layers, with strong π-overlap between TDI moieties, observed by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that excitation of TDI in the G-quadruplex results in symmetry-breaking charge separation to form ion pairs within the structure, owing to the strong π-overlap enforced by the hydrogen-bonding. These assemblies yield important insights into the interplay of noncovalent interactions in the assembly of ordered chromophoric arrays.

11.
Nat Chem ; 11(11): 981-986, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548665

RESUMO

Quantum teleportation transfers the quantum state of a system over an arbitrary distance from one location to another through the agency of quantum entanglement. Because quantum teleportation is essential to many aspects of quantum information science, it is important to establish this phenomenon in molecular systems whose structures and properties can be tailored by synthesis. Here, we demonstrate electron spin state teleportation in an ensemble of covalent organic donor-acceptor-stable radical (D-A-R•) molecules. Following preparation of a specific electron spin state on R• in a magnetic field using a microwave pulse, photoexcitation of A results in the formation of an entangled electron spin pair D•+-A•-. The spontaneous ultrafast chemical reaction D•+-A•--R• → D•+-A-R- constitutes the Bell state measurement step necessary to carry out spin state teleportation. Quantum state tomography of the R• and D•+ spin states using pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the spin state of R• is teleported to D•+ with high fidelity.

12.
Immunol Rev ; 291(1): 190-213, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402495

RESUMO

Signals emanating from the B-cell receptor (BCR) promote proliferation and survival in diverse forms of B-cell lymphoma. Precision medicine strategies targeting the BCR pathway have been generally effective in treating lymphoma, but often fail to produce durable responses in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), a common and aggressive cancer. New insights into DLBCL biology garnered from genomic analyses and functional proteogenomic studies have identified novel modes of BCR signaling in this disease. Herein, we describe the distinct roles of antigen-dependent and antigen-independent BCR signaling in different subtypes of DLBCL. We highlight mechanisms by which the BCR cooperates with TLR9 and mutant isoforms of MYD88 to drive sustained NF-κB activity in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of DLBCL. Finally, we discuss progress in detecting and targeting oncogenic BCR signaling to improve the survival of patients with lymphoma.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfoide/etiologia , Leucemia Linfoide/metabolismo , Linfoma/etiologia , Linfoma/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfoide/terapia , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética
13.
J Chem Phys ; 151(4): 044501, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370542

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) converts a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons in two or more electronically coupled organic chromophores, which may then be used to increase solar cell efficiency. Many known SF chromophores are unsuitable for device applications due to chemical instability or low triplet state energies. The results described here show that efficient SF occurs in derivatives of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene (BPEA), which is a highly robust and tunable chromophore. Fluoro and methoxy substituents at the 4- and 4'-positions of the BPEA phenyl groups control the intermolecular packing in the crystal structure, which alters the interchromophore electronic coupling, while also changing the SF energetics. The lowest excited singlet state (S1) energy of 4,4'-difluoro-BPEA is higher than that of BPEA so that the increased thermodynamic favorability of SF results in a (16 ± 2 ps)-1 SF rate and a 180% ± 16% triplet yield, which is about an order of magnitude faster than BPEA with a comparable triplet yield. By contrast, 4-fluoro-4'-methoxy-BPEA and 4,4'-dimethoxy-BPEA have slower SF rates, (90 ± 20 ps)-1 and (120 ± 10 ps)-1, and lower triplet yields, (110 ± 4)% and (168 ± 7)%, respectively, than 4,4'-difluoro-BPEA. These differences are attributed to changes in the crystal structure controlling interchromophore electronic coupling as well as SF energetics in these polycrystalline solids.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13410-13420, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379156

RESUMO

Achieving efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) requires a structurally optimal donor-acceptor heterojunction morphology. Here we report the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of a benzodithiophene-benzothiadiazole donor polymer series (PBTZF4-R; R = alkyl substituent) blended with the non-fullerene acceptor ITIC-Th and analyze the effects of substituent dimensions on blend morphology, charge transport, carrier dynamics, and PSC metrics. Varying substituent dimensions has a pronounced effect on the blend morphology with a direct link between domain purity, to some extent domain dimensions, and charge generation and collection. The polymer with the smallest alkyl substituent yields the highest PSC power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11%), reflecting relatively small, high-purity domains and possibly benefiting from "matched" donor polymer-small molecule acceptor orientations. The distinctive morphologies arising from the substituents are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which reveal that substituent dimensions dictate a well-defined set of polymer conformations, in turn driving chain aggregation and, ultimately, the various film morphologies and mixing with acceptor small molecules. A straightforward energetic parameter explains the experimental polymer domain morphological trends, hence PCE, and suggests strategies for substituent selection to optimize PSC materials morphologies.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(31): 12236-12239, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302997

RESUMO

When a molecular electron donor interacts with multiple electron acceptors, quantum coherence can enhance the electron transfer (ET) rate. Here we report photodriven ET rates in a pair of donor-acceptor (D-A) compounds that link one anthracene (An) donor to one or two equivalent 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) acceptors. Subpicosecond ET from the lowest excited singlet state of An to two BQs is about 2.4 times faster than ET to one BQ at room temperature, but about 5 times faster at cryogenic temperatures. This factor of 2 increase results from a transition from ET to one of two acceptors at room temperature to ET to a superposition state of the two acceptors with correlated system-bath fluctuations at low temperature.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(31): 12296-12304, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256588

RESUMO

Prompted by a knowledge of the photoprotective mechanism operating in photosystem supercomplexes and bacterial antenna complexes by pigment binding proteins, we have appealed to a boxlike synthetic receptor (ExBox·4Cl) that binds a photosensitizer, 5,15-diphenylporphyrin (DPP), to provide photoprotection by regulating light energy. The hydrophilic ExBox4+ renders DPP soluble in water and modulates the phototoxicity of DPP by trapping it in its cavity and releasing it when required. While trapping removes access to the DPP triplet state, a pH-dependent release of diprotonated DPP (DPPH22+) restores the triplet deactivation pathway, thereby activating its ability to generate reactive oxygen species. We have employed the ExBox4+-bound DPP complex (ExBox4+⊃DPP) for the safe delivery of DPP into the lysosomes of cancer cells, imaging the cells by utilizing the fluorescence of the released DPPH22+ and regulating photodynamic therapy to kill cancer cells with high efficiency.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(13): 3509-3515, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188611

RESUMO

Recent advances in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) have enabled identification of fragile quantum coherences in condensed-phase systems near the equilibrium molecular geometry. In general, traditional 2DES cannot measure such coherences associated with photophysical processes that occur at times significantly after the initially prepared state has dephased, such as the evolution of the initial excited state into a charge transfer state. We demonstrate the use of transient two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (t-2DES) to probe coherences in an electron donor-acceptor dyad consisting of a perylenediimide (PDI) acceptor and a perylene (Per) donor. An actinic pump pulse prepares the lowest excited singlet state of PDI followed by formation of the PDI•--Per•+ ion pair, which is probed at different times following the actinic pulse using 2DES. Analysis of the observed coherences provides information about electronic, vibronic, and vibrational interactions at any time along the reaction coordinate for ion pair formation.

18.
Faraday Discuss ; 216(0): 319-338, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066389

RESUMO

Coherent interactions are prevalent in photodriven processes, ranging from photosynthetic energy transfer to superexchange-mediated electron transfer, resulting in numerous studies aimed towards identifying and understanding these interactions. A key motivator of this interest is the non-statistical scaling laws that result from coherently traversing multiple pathways due to quantum interference. To that end, we employed ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to measure electron transfer in two donor-acceptor molecular systems comprising a p-(9-anthryl)-N,N-dimethylaniline chromophore/electron donor and either one or two equivalent naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) electron acceptors at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. The two-acceptor compound shows a statistical factor of 2.1 ± 0.2 rate enhancement at room temperature and a non-statistical factor of 2.6 ± 0.2 rate enhancement at cryogenic temperatures, suggesting correlated interactions between the two acceptors with the donor and with the bath modes. Comparing the charge recombination rates indicates that the electron is delocalized over both acceptors at low temperature but localized on a single acceptor at room temperature. These results highlight the importance of shielding the system from bath fluctuations to preserve and ultimately exploit the coherent interactions.

19.
Chem Sci ; 10(15): 4282-4292, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057755

RESUMO

Constructing functional molecular systems for solar energy conversion and quantum information science requires a fundamental understanding of electron transfer in donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems as well as competitive reaction pathways in acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) and acceptor-donor-acceptor' (A-D-A') systems. Herein we present a supramolecular complex comprising a tetracationic cyclophane having both phenyl-extended viologen (ExV2+) and dipyridylthiazolothiazole (TTz2+) electron acceptors doubly-linked by means of two p-xylylene linkers (TTzExVBox4+), which readily incorporates a perylene (Per) guest in its cavity (Per ⊂ TTzExVBox4+) to establish an A-D-A' system, in which the ExV2+ and TTz2+ units serve as competing electron acceptors with different reduction potentials. Photoexcitation of the Per guest yields both TTz+˙-Per+˙-ExV2+ and TTz2+-Per+˙-ExV+˙ in <1 ps, while back electron transfer in TTz2+-Per+˙-ExV+˙ proceeds via the unusual sequence TTz2+-Per+˙-ExV+˙ → TTz+˙-Per+˙-ExV2+ → TTz2+-Per-ExV2+. In addition, selective chemical reduction of TTz2+ gives Per ⊂ TTzExVBox3+˙, turning the complex into a D-B-A system in which photoexcitation of TTz+˙ results in the reaction sequence 2*TTz+˙-Per-ExV2+ → TTz2+-Per-ExV+˙ → TTz+˙-Per-ExV2+. Both reactions TTz2+-Per+˙-ExV+˙ → TTz+˙-Per+˙-ExV2+ and TTz2+-Per-ExV+˙ → TTz+˙-Per-ExV2+ occur with a (16 ± 1 ps)-1 rate constant irrespective of whether the bridge molecule is Per+˙ or Per. These results are explained using the superexchange mechanism in which the ionic states of the perylene guest serve as virtual states in each case and demonstrate a novel supramolecular platform for studying the effects of bridge energetics within D-B-A systems.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(17): 8178-8183, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948629

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) is a photophysical process in which one of two adjacent organic molecules absorbs a single photon, resulting in rapid formation of a correlated triplet pair (T1T1) state whose spin dynamics influence the successful generation of uncorrelated triplets (T1). Femtosecond transient visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of a linear terrylene-3,4:11,12-bis(dicarboximide) dimer (TDI2), in which the two TDI molecules are directly linked at one of their imide positions, reveals ultrafast formation of the (T1T1) state. The spin dynamics of the (T1T1) state and the processes leading to uncoupled triplets (T1) were studied at room temperature for TDI2 aligned in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), a nematic liquid crystal. Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the (T1T1) state has mixed 5(T1T1) and 3(T1T1) character at room temperature. This mixing is magnetic field dependent, resulting in a maximum triplet yield at ∼200 mT. The accessibility of the 3(T1T1) state opens a pathway for triplet-triplet annihilation that produces a single uncorrelated T1 state. The presence of the 5(T1T1) state at room temperature and its relationship with the 1(T1T1) and 3(T1T1) states emphasize that understanding the relationship among different (T1T1) spin states is critical for ensuring high-yield T1 formation from singlet fission.

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