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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692770

RESUMO

In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Pesquisa/normas , África , Autoria/normas , Humanos , Publicações/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Pesquisadores/educação
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001615, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406592

RESUMO

Priority setting to identify topical and context relevant questions for systematic reviews involves an explicit, iterative and inclusive process. In resource-constrained settings of low-income and middle-income countries, priority setting for health related research activities ensures efficient use of resources. In this paper, we critically reflect on the approaches and specific processes adopted across three regions of Africa, present some of the outcomes and share the lessons learnt while carrying out these activities. Priority setting for new systematic reviews was conducted between 2016 and 2018 across three regions in Africa. Different approaches were used: Multimodal approach (Central Africa), Modified Delphi approach (West Africa) and Multilevel stakeholder discussion (Southern-Eastern Africa). Several questions that can feed into systematic reviews have emerged from these activities. We have learnt that collaborative subregional efforts using an integrative approach can effectively lead to the identification of region specific priorities. Systematic review workshops including discussion about the role and value of reviews to inform policy and research agendas were a useful part of the engagements. This may also enable relevant stakeholders to contribute towards the priority setting process in meaningful ways. However, certain shared challenges were identified, including that emerging priorities may be overlooked due to differences in burden of disease data and differences in language can hinder effective participation by stakeholders. We found that face-to-face contact is crucial for success and follow-up engagement with stakeholders is critical in driving acceptance of the findings and planning future progress.

4.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 36, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704523

RESUMO

AbstractFollowing publication of the original article [1], the author reported that their family name was misspelled.

5.
Afr J Emerg Med ; 8(4): 158-163, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534521

RESUMO

Introduction: An adaptive guideline development method, as opposed to a de novo guideline development, is dependent on access to existing high-quality up-to-date clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). We described the characteristics and quality of CPGs relevant to prehospital care worldwide, in order to strengthen guideline development in low-resource settings for emergency care. Methods: We conducted a descriptive study of a database of international CPGs relevant to emergency care produced by the African Federation for Emergency Medicine (AFEM) CPG project in 2016. Guideline quality was assessed with the AGREE II tool, independently and in duplicate. End-user documents such as protocols, care pathways, and algorithms were excluded. Data were imported, managed, and analysed in STATA 14 and R. Results: In total, 276 guidelines were included. Less than 2% of CPGs originated from low- and middle income-countries (LMICs); only 15% (n = 38) of guidelines were prehospital specific, and there were no CPGs directly applicable to prehospital care in LMICs. Most guidelines used de novo methods (58%, n = 150) and were produced by professional societies or associations (63%, n = 164), with the minority developed by international bodies (3%, n = 7). National bodies, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), produced higher quality guidelines when compared to international guidelines, professional societies, and clinician/academic-produced guidelines. Guideline quality varied across topics, subpopulations and producers. Resource-constrained guideline developers that cannot afford de novo guideline development have access to an expanding pool of high-quality prehospital guidelines to translate to their local setting. Discussion: Although some high-quality CPGs exist relevant to emergency care, none directly address the needs of prehospital care in LMICs, especially in Africa. Strengthening guideline development capacity, including adaptive guideline development methods that use existing high-quality CPGs, is a priority.

6.
BMJ Open ; 8(11): e024777, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether regional biomedical journals in Africa had policies on plagiarism and procedures to detect it; and to measure the extent of plagiarism in their original research articles and reviews. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We selected journals with an editor-in-chief in Africa, a publisher based in a low or middle income country and with author guidelines in English, and systematically searched the African Journals Online database. From each of the 100 journals identified, we randomly selected five original research articles or reviews published in 2016. OUTCOMES: For included journals, we examined the presence of plagiarism policies and whether they referred to text matching software. We submitted articles to Turnitin and measured the extent of plagiarism (copying of someone else's work) or redundancy (copying of one's own work) against a set of criteria we had developed and piloted. RESULTS: Of the 100 journals, 26 had a policy on plagiarism and 16 referred to text matching software. Of 495 articles, 313 (63%; 95% CI 58 to 68) had evidence of plagiarism: 17% (83) had at least four linked copied or more than six individual copied sentences; 19% (96) had three to six copied sentences; and the remainder had one or two copied sentences. Plagiarism was more common in the introduction and discussion, and uncommon in the results. CONCLUSION: Plagiarism is common in biomedical research articles and reviews published in Africa. While wholesale plagiarism was uncommon, moderate text plagiarism was extensive. This could rapidly be eliminated if journal editors implemented screening strategies, including text matching software.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas Editoriais , Jornalismo Médico , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Plágio , África , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Software
7.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 203, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing against an existing burden of other diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Integrated models of care can help address the rising burden of multi-morbidity. Although integration of care can occur at various levels and has been defined in numerous ways, our aim is to assess the effects of integration of service delivery at primary healthcare level in LMICs. METHODS: We will consider randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series that examine integrated models of care among people with multi-morbidities, of which diabetes or hypertension is one, living in LMICs. We will compare fully integrated models of care to stand-alone care, partially integrated models of care to stand-alone care and fully integrated models to partially integrated models of care. Primary outcomes include all-cause mortality, disease-specific morbidity, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Secondary outcomes include access to care, retention in care, adherence, continuity of care, quality of care and cost of care. We will conduct a comprehensive search in the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, LILACS, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL and Web of Science. In addition, we will search trial registries, relevant conference abstracts and check references lists of included studies. Selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias will be performed independently by two review authors. We will resolve discrepancies through discussion with a third author. We will contact study authors in case of missing data. If included studies are sufficiently homogenous, we will pool results in a meta-analysis. Clinical heterogeneity related to the population, intervention, outcomes and context will be documented in table format and explored through subgroup analysis. We will assess χ2and I2 tests for statistical heterogeneity. We will use GRADE to make judgements about the certainty of evidence and present findings in a summary of findings table. DISCUSSION: In light of limited evidence on the provision of comprehensive care for diabetes and hypertension, and its comorbidity in LMCIs, we believe that the findings of this systematic review will provide a synthesis of evidence on effective models of integrated care for diabetes and hypertension and their comorbidities at primary healthcare level. This will enable policy-makers to device policies and programs that are evidence informed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018099314 .


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hipertensão/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , África , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mortalidade , Pobreza
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 29: 196, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061974

RESUMO

Cochrane Africa is a network of researchers and health stakeholders who aim to support the use of high quality Cochrane evidence to improve health outcomes in Africa. It comprises a coordinating centre in South Africa, a Francophone hub directed from Cameroon, a Southern and Eastern Africa Hub directed from South Africa and a West Africa Hub directed from Nigeria. The network supports the engagement with healthcare decision makers to guide priorities, production of high quality context-relevant Cochrane systematic reviews, capacity building to conduct and use reviews, dissemination of evidence, knowledge translation, partnerships for evidence-informed healthcare and the creation of opportunities to expand the network.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Cooperação Internacional , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
9.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 10: 151-155, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147378

RESUMO

As a response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and part of Canadian Institutes for Health Research's mandate to support international health research capacity building, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research Canadian HIV Trial Network (CTN) developed an international postdoctoral fellowship award under the CTN's Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards Program to support and train young HIV researchers in resource-limited settings. Since 2010, the fellowship has been awarded to eight fellows in Cameroon, China, Lesotho, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. These fellows have conducted research on a wide variety of topics and have built a strong network of collaboration and scientific productivity, with 40 peer-reviewed publications produced by six fellows during their fellowships. They delivered two workshops at international conferences and have continued to secure funding for their research, using the fellowship as a stepping stone. The CTN has been successful in building local HIV research capacity and forming a strong network of like-minded junior low- and middle-income country researchers with high levels of research productivity. They have developed into mentors, supervisors and faculty members, who, in turn, build local capacity. The sustainability of this international fellowship award relies on the recognition of its strengths and the involvement of other stakeholders for additional resources.

10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 481, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the rise in pre-mature mortality rate from non-communicable disease (NCD), there is a need for evidence-based interventions. We evaluated existing systematic reviews on effectiveness of integration of healthcare services, in particular with focus on delivery of care designed to improve health and process outcomes in people with multi-morbidity, where at least one of the conditions was diabetes or hypertension. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Health Evidence to November 8, 2016 and consulted experts. One review author screened titles, abstracts and two review authors independently screened short listed full-texts and selected reviews for inclusion. We considered systematic reviews evaluating integration of care, compared to usual care, for people with multi-morbidity. One review author extracted data and another author verified it. Two review authors independently evaluated risk of bias using ROBIS and AMSTAR. Inter-rater reliability was analysed for ROBIS and AMSTAR using Cohen's kappa and percent agreement. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist was used to assess reporting. RESULTS: We identified five systematic reviews on integration of care. Four reviews focused on comorbid diabetes and depression and two covered hypertension and comorbidities of cardiovascular disease, depression, or diabetes. Interventions were poorly described. The health outcomes evaluated included risk of all-cause mortality, measures of depression, cholesterol levels, HbA1c levels, effect of depression on HbA1c levels, symptom improvement, systolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Process outcomes included access and utilisation of healthcare services, costs, and quality of care. Overall, three reviews had a low and medium risk of bias according to ROBIS and AMSTAR respectively, while two reviews had high risk of bias as judged by both ROBIS and AMSTAR. Findings have demonstrated that collaborative care in general resulted in better health and process outcomes when compared to usual care for both depression and diabetes and hypertension and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Several knowledge gaps were identified on integration of care for comorbidities with diabetes and/or hypertension: limited research on this topic for hypertension, limited reviews that included primary studies based in low-middle income countries, and limited reviews on collaborative care for communicable and NCDs.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hipertensão/terapia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(16): e0486, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668628

RESUMO

Mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) is high, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to compare mortality and predictors of mortality in those who were antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve to those with prior ART exposure.This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Serowe/Palapye District, Botswana, a predominantly urban district with a large burden of HIV-associated TB with a high case fatality. Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013, patients confirmed with HIV-associated TB were enrolled and followed up. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modeling was undertaken to identify predictors of mortality, with ART initiation included as time-updated variable.Among the 300 patients enrolled in the study, 131 had started ART before TB diagnosis (44%). There were 45 deaths. There was no difference in mortality between ART-naïve patients and those with prior ART exposure. In the multivariate analysis, no ART use during TB treatment (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-11; P < .001), opportunistic infections other than TB (HR = 8.5, 95% CI = 4-18.4; P = .013), age ≥60 years (HR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.8-13; P = .002), hemoglobin <10 g/dL (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.5) and hepatotoxicity (HR = 5, 95% CI = 1.6-17; P = .007) were associated with increased mortality. In the subgroup analysis, among ART-naïve patients, no ART use during TB treatment (HR = 8.1, 95% CI = 3.4-19.4; P < .001), opportunistic infections other than TB (HR = 16, 95% CI = 6.2-42; P < .001), and hepatotoxicity (HR = 8.3, 95% CI = 2.6-27; P < .001) were associated with mortality. Among patients with prior ART exposure, opportunistic infections other than TB (HR = 6, 95% CI = 2.6-27; P < .001) were associated with mortality.Mortality in patients with HIV-associated TB is still high. To reduce mortality, close clinical monitoring of patients together with initiation of ART during TB treatment is indicated.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Tuberculose , Adulto , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/terapia
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 219, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home-based care is used in many countries to increase quality of life and limit hospital stay, particularly where public health services are overburdened. Home-based care objectives for HIV/AIDS can include medical care, delivery of antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support. This review assesses the effects of home-based nursing on morbidity in people infected with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The trials studied are in HIV positive adults and children, regardless of sex or setting and all randomised controlled. Home-based care provided by qualified nurses was compared with hospital or health-facility based treatment. The following electronic databases were searched from January 1980 to March 2015: AIDSearch, CINAHL, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO/LIT, with an updated search in November 2016. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts from the electronic search based on the study design, interventions and types of participant. For all selected abstracts, full text articles were obtained. The final study selection was determined with use of an eligibility form. Data extraction was performed independently from assessment of risk of bias. The results were analysed by narrative synthesis, in order to be able to obtain relevant effect measures plus 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The trial size varied from 37 to 238 participants. Only one trial was conducted in children. Five studies were conducted in the USA and two in China. Four studies looked at home-based adherence support and the rest at providing home-based psychosocial support. Reported adherence to antiretroviral drugs improved with nurse-led home-based care but did not affect viral load. Psychiatric nurse support in those with existing mental health conditions improved mental health and depressive symptoms. Home-based psychological support impacted on HIV stigma, worry and physical functioning and in certain cases depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse-led home-based interventions could help adherence to antiretroviral therapy and improve mental health. Further larger scale studies are needed, looking in more detail at improving medical care for HIV, especially related to screening and management of opportunistic infections and co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/enfermagem , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/enfermagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0195025, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agreed international development standards underpin high quality de novo clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). There is however, no international consensus on how high quality CPGs should 'look'; or on whether high quality CPGs from one country can be viably implemented elsewhere. Writing de novo CPGs is generally resource-intensive and expensive, making this challenging in resource-poor environments. This paper proposes an alternative, efficient method of producing high quality CPGs in such circumstances, using existing CPGs layered by local knowledge, contexts and products. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods case study in South African (SA) primary healthcare (PHC), building on findings from four independent studies. These comprised an overview of international CPG activities; a rapid literature review on international CPG development practices; critical appraisal of 16 purposively-sampled SA PHC CPGs; and additional interrogation of these CPGs regarding how, why and for whom, they had been produced, and how they 'looked'. RESULTS: Despite a common aim to improve SA PHC healthcare practices, the included CPGs had different, unclear and inconsistent production processes, terminology and evidence presentation styles. None aligned with international quality standards. However many included innovative succinct guidance for end-users (which we classified as evidence-based summary recommendations, patient management tools or protocols). We developed a three-tiered model, a checklist and a glossary of common terms, for more efficient future production of better quality, contextually-relevant, locally-implementable SA PHC CPGs. Tier 1 involves transparent synthesis of existing high quality CPG recommendations; Tier 2 reflects local expertise to layer Tier 1 evidence with local contexts; and Tier 3 comprises tailored locally-relevant end-user guidance. CONCLUSION: Our model could be relevant for any resource-poor environment. It should reduce effort and costs in finding and synthesising available research evidence, whilst efficiently focusing scant resources on contextually-relevant evidence-based guidance, and implementation.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Internacionalidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Padrões de Referência , África do Sul
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 97, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Methods on developing new (de novo) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have received substantial attention. However, the volume of literature is not matched by research into alternative methods of CPG development using existing CPG documents-a specific issue for guideline development groups in low- and middle-income countries. We report on how we developed a context specific prehospital CPG using an alternative guideline development method. Difficulties experienced and lessons learnt in applying existing global guidelines' recommendations to a national context are highlighted. RESULTS: The project produced the first emergency care CPG for prehospital providers in Africa. It included > 270 CPGs and produced over 1000 recommendations for prehospital emergency care. We encountered various difficulties, including (1) applicability issues: few pre-hospital CPGs applicable to Africa, (2) evidence synthesis: heterogeneous levels of evidence classifications and (3) guideline quality. Learning points included (1) focusing on key CPGs and evidence mapping, (2) searching other resources for CPGs, (3) broad representation on CPG advisory boards and (4) transparency and knowledge translation. Re-inventing the wheel to produce CPGs is not always feasible. We hope this paper will encourage further projects to use existing CPGs in developing guidance to improve patient care in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , África do Sul
15.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 28(1): 8-22, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260884

RESUMO

A Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach to map programmes aimed at inducing change in a specific context, with the goal of increasing their impact. We applied this approach to the specific case of handwashing and sanitation practices in low- and middle-income countries and developed a ToC as part of a systematic review exercise. Different existing sources of information were used to inform the initial draft of the ToC. In addition, stakeholder involvement occurred and peer review took place. Our stakeholders included methodological (ToC/quantitative and qualitative research) and content experts (WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)/behaviour change), as well as end-users/practitioners, policy-makers and donors. In conclusion, the development of a ToC, and the involvement of stakeholders in its development, was critical in terms of understanding the context in which the promotional programmes are being implemented. We recommend ToC developers to work with stakeholders to create a ToC relevant for practice.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saneamento , Humanos
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(6): e001130, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613428

RESUMO

Dialogue and exchange between researchers and policy personnel may increase the use of research evidence in policy. We piloted and evaluated a programme of formalised dialogue between researchers and provincial health policymakers in South Africa, called the buddying programme. An external evaluation examined implementation and short-term impact, drawing on documents, in-depth interviews with policymakers, a researcher buddies focus group and our own reflection on what we learnt. We set up buddying with seven policymakers and five researchers on six policy questions. Researchers knew little about policymaking or needs of policymakers. Policymakers respected the contact with researchers, respected researchers' objectivity and appreciated the formalised approach. Having policymaker champions facilitated the dialogue. Scenarios for policy questions and use were different. One topic was at problem identification stage (contraceptives and HIV risk), four at policy formulation stage (healthy lifestyles, chronic illness medication adherence, integrated care of chronic illness and maternal transmission of HIV to infants) and one at implementation stage (task shifting). Research evidence were used to identify or solve a policy problem (two scenarios), to legitimise a predetermined policy position (three scenarios) or the evidence indirectly influenced the policy (one scenario). The formalised dialogue required in this structured buddying programme took time and commitment from both sides. The programme illustrated the importance of researchers listening, and policymakers understanding what research can offer. Both parties recognised that the structured buddying made the dialogue happen. Often the evidence was helpful in supporting provincial policy decisions that were in the roll-out phase from the national government.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(2): e180281, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646073

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is necessary for improving the quality of health care as well as patient outcomes. Evidence-based practice is commonly integrated into the curricula of undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing professional development health programs. There is, however, inconsistency in the curriculum content of EBP teaching and learning programs. A standardized set of minimum core competencies in EBP that health professionals should meet has the potential to standardize and improve education in EBP. Objective: To develop a consensus set of core competencies for health professionals in EBP. Evidence Review: For this modified Delphi survey study, a set of EBP core competencies that should be covered in EBP teaching and learning programs was developed in 4 stages: (1) generation of an initial set of relevant EBP competencies derived from a systematic review of EBP education studies for health professionals; (2) a 2-round, web-based Delphi survey of health professionals, selected using purposive sampling, to prioritize and gain consensus on the most essential EBP core competencies; (3) consensus meetings, both face-to-face and via video conference, to finalize the consensus on the most essential core competencies; and (4) feedback and endorsement from EBP experts. Findings: From an earlier systematic review of 83 EBP educational intervention studies, 86 unique EBP competencies were identified. In a Delphi survey of 234 participants representing a range of health professionals (physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals) who registered interest (88 [61.1%] women; mean [SD] age, 45.2 [10.2] years), 184 (78.6%) participated in round 1 and 144 (61.5%) in round 2. Consensus was reached on 68 EBP core competencies. The final set of EBP core competencies were grouped into the main EBP domains. For each key competency, a description of the level of detail or delivery was identified. Conclusions and Relevance: A consensus-based, contemporary set of EBP core competencies has been identified that may inform curriculum development of entry-level EBP teaching and learning programs for health professionals and benchmark standards for EBP teaching.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Adulto , Consenso , Currículo/normas , Técnica Delfos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e018467, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To document low/middle-income country (LMIC) health researchers' views about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest and how common poor practice was in their institutions. DESIGN: We developed a questionnaire based on scenarios about authorship, redundant publication, plagiarism and conflicts of interest. We asked participants whether the described practices were acceptable and whether these behaviours were common at their institutions. We conducted in-depth interviews with respondents who agreed to be interviewed. PARTICIPANTS: We invited 607 corresponding authors of Cochrane reviews working in LMICs. From the 583 emails delivered, we obtained 199 responses (34%). We carried out in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. RESULTS: Seventy-seven per cent reported that guest authorship occurred at their institution, 60% reported text recycling. For plagiarism, 12% of respondents reported that this occurred 'occasionally', and 24% 'rarely'. Forty per cent indicated that their colleagues had not declared conflicts of interest in the past. Respondents generally recognised poor practice in scenarios but reported that they occurred at their institutions. Themes identified from in-depth interviews were (1) authorship rules are simple in theory, but not consistently applied; (2) academic status and power underpin behaviours; (3) institutions and culture fuel bad practices and (4) researchers are uncertain about what conflict of interests means and how this may influence research. CONCLUSIONS: LMIC researchers report that guest authorship is widely accepted and common. While respondents report that plagiarism and undeclared conflicts of interest are unacceptable in practice, they appear common. Determinants of poor practice relate to academic status and power, fuelled by institutional norms and culture.


Assuntos
Autoria/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Conflito de Interesses , Plágio , Má Conduta Científica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Má Conduta Científica/ética
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 17(1): 196, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, medical students are trained at sites away from the tertiary academic health centre. A growing body of literature identifies the benefits of decentralised clinical training for students, the health services and the community. A scoping review was done to identify approaches to decentralised training, how these have been implemented and what the outcomes of these approaches have been in an effort to provide a knowledge base towards developing a model for decentralised training for undergraduate medical students in lower and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Using a comprehensive search strategy, the following databases were searched, namely EBSCO Host, ERIC, HRH Global Resources, Index Medicus, MEDLINE and WHO Repository, generating 3383 references. The review team identified 288 key additional records from other sources. Using prespecified eligibility criteria, the publications were screened through several rounds. Variables for the data-charting process were developed, and the data were entered into a custom-made online Smartsheet database. The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS: One hundred and five articles were included. Terminology most commonly used to describe decentralised training included 'rural', 'community based' and 'longitudinal rural'. The publications largely originated from Australia, the United States of America (USA), Canada and South Africa. Fifty-five percent described decentralised training rotations for periods of more than six months. Thematic analysis of the literature on practice in decentralised medical training identified four themes, each with a number of subthemes. These themes were student learning, the training environment, the role of the community, and leadership and governance. CONCLUSIONS: Evident from our findings are the multiplicity and interconnectedness of factors that characterise approaches to decentralised training. The student experience is nested within a particular context that is framed by the leadership and governance that direct it, and the site and the community in which the training is happening. Each decentralised site is seen to have its own dynamic that may foreground certain elements, responding differently to enabling student learning and influencing the student experience. The insights that have been established through this review have relevance in informing the further expansion of decentralised clinical training, including in LMIC contexts.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Estudantes de Medicina
20.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 9(1): e1-e6, 2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041802

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health professions training institutions are challenged to produce greater numbers of graduates who are more relevantly trained to provide quality healthcare. Decentralised training offers opportunities to address these quantity, quality and relevance factors. We wanted to draw together existing expertise in decentralised training for the benefit of all health professionals to develop a model for decentralised training for health professions students. METHOD: An expert panel workshop was held in October 2015 initiating a process to develop a model for decentralised training in South Africa. Presentations on the status quo in decentralised training at all nine medical schools in South Africa were made and 33 delegates engaged in discussing potential models for decentralised training. RESULTS: Five factors were found to be crucial for the success of decentralised training, namely the availability of information and communication technology, longitudinal continuous rotations, a focus on primary care, the alignment of medical schools' mission with decentralised training and responsiveness to student needs. CONCLUSION: The workshop concluded that training institutions should continue to work together towards formulating decentralised training models and that the involvement of all health professions should be ensured. A tripartite approach between the universities, the Department of Health and the relevant local communities is important in decentralised training. Lastly, curricula should place more emphasis on how students learn rather than how they are taught.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Universidades/normas , Consenso , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Política , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , África do Sul , Universidades/organização & administração
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