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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenalectomy (BA) is a curative treatment for hypercortisolism in patients with corticotropin (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome. Indications include refractory Cushing's disease (CD) following failed pituitary surgery, and occult or unresectable ectopic ACTH-producing neoplasms (EA). METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective review (1995-2017) of patients undergoing BA for CD or EA. Demographics, laboratory findings, and intraoperative and postoperative variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 137 patients, 83 (61%) had CD and 54 (39%) had EA; 87% of CD patients were female versus 46% of EA patients (p < 0.0001). Mean age at diagnosis was 40 ± 15 years for CD and 49 ± 18 years for EA (p = 0.004). Preoperative serum cortisol concentrations were higher in the EA cohort (63 ± 40 µg/dL) versus the CD cohort (33 ± 19 µg/dL) [p < 0.001], with no significant differences in serum ACTH. Time from diagnosis until adrenalectomy was 54 ± 69 months for CD versus 4 ± 13 for EA (p = 0.002). Most patients underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS; 86% CD vs. 75% EA; p = 0.19). There was no difference between the rates of conversion to an open approach, intraoperative blood loss, or operative time between groups, and no difference between complications in CD versus EA (p = 1.0). Five-year survival was significantly shorter among the EA cohort (30% for EA vs. 80% for CD; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with EA presented with higher serum cortisol levels compared with patients with CD. EA patients were more likely to require intraoperative transfusion and postoperative intensive care. BA in patients with CD and EA can be performed safely in an MIS fashion, with similar morbidity; however, survival at 5 years was significantly less in the EA cohort.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive data about patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma are limited. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, genetic analysis, treatment and outcomes of patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma. DESIGN: A retrospective study at a tertiary care centre. PATIENTS: All patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma evaluated at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota between January 1951 and December 2015. MEASUREMENTS: Tumour size, genetic testing, plasma/urine metanephrines and catecholamines. RESULTS: A total of 94 patients (51% women) were diagnosed with bilateral pheochromocytoma at a median age at first presentation of 31 years (range, 4-70). Bilateral disease was noted in 8.0% of pheochromocytoma patient overall and 37.5% of patients 18 years of younger. Most patients presented with synchronous tumours (80%). Median time to metachronous tumours was 4.5 years (range, 1-38). Genetic disease was identified in 75 (80%) patients, including MEN 2A (42.6%), VHL (19.1%), MEN 2B (9.6%) and NF1 (8.5%). Excess catecholamines were present in 97% of patients. Patients with synchronous pheochromocytoma commonly underwent simultaneous bilateral adrenalectomy (99%), and 18 (24%) had cortical-sparing surgery. Multicentric tumours were reported in 23 of 77 (30%) patients with available data. Recurrent disease was found in 9.6% of patients, and 8.5% developed metastatic disease. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. At the study conclusion, 4 patients had died due to pheochromocytoma or adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral pheochromocytoma occurred in 7.0% of adults with pheochromocytoma and 37.5% of paediatric patients. Genetic disease was identified in 80% of patients, predominantly MEN2A. Multicentric tumours were common, but most were still cured following adrenalectomy.

3.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a safe and effective treatment for acromegaly. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of clinical and dosimetric factors predicting biochemical remission. METHODS: A single-institution cohort study of nonsyndromic, radiation-naïve patients with growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas (GHA) having single-fraction SRS between 1990 and 2017. Exclusions were treatment with pituitary suppressive medications at the time of SRS, or <24 mo of follow-up. The primary outcome was biochemical remission-defined as normalization of insulin-like growth factor-1 index (IGF-1i) off suppression. Biochemical remission was assessed using Cox proportional hazards. Prior studies reporting IGF-1i were assessed via systematic literature review and meta-analysis using random-effect modeling. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients met study criteria. Of these, 46 patients (45%) were female. The median age was 49 yr (interquartile range [IQR] = 37-59), and the median follow-up was 63 mo (IQR = 29-100). The median pre-SRS IGF-1i was 1.66 (IQR = 1.37-3.22). The median margin dose was 25 Gy (IQR = 21-25); the median estimated biologically effective dose (BED) was 169.49 Gy (IQR = 124.95-196.00). Biochemical remission was achieved in 58 patients (57%), whereas 22 patients (22%) had medication-controlled disease. Pre-SRS IGF-1i ≥ 2.25 was the strongest predictor of treatment failure, with an unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.51 (95% CI = 0.26-0.91, P = .02). Number of isocenters, margin dose, and BED predicted remission on univariate analysis, but after adjusting for sex and baseline IGF-1i, only BED remained significant-and was independently associated with outcome in continuous (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.01, P = .02) and binary models (HR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.39-5.22, P = .002). A total of 24 patients (29%) developed new post-SRS hypopituitarism. Pooled HR for biochemical remission given subthreshold IGF-1i was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.33-3.16, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: IGF-1i is a reliable predictor of biochemical remission after SRS. BED appears to predict biochemical outcome more reliably than radiation dose, but confirmatory study is needed.

4.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 93(1): 11-18, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe clinical course of myelolipoma and to identify predictors of tumour growth and need for surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective study. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with myelolipoma. RESULTS: A total of 321 myelolipomas (median size, 2.3 cm) were diagnosed in 305 patients at median age of 63 years (range, 25-87). Median follow-up was 54 months. Most myelolipomas were incidentally detected (86%), whereas 9% were discovered during cancer staging and 5% during workup of mass effect symptoms. Thirty-seven (12%) patients underwent adrenalectomy. Compared to myelolipomas <6 cm, tumours ≥6 cm were more likely to be bilateral (21% vs 3%, P < .0001), cause mass effect symptoms (32% vs 0%, P < .0001), have haemorrhagic changes (14% vs 1%, P < .0001) and undergo adrenalectomy (52% vs 5%, P < .0001). Among patients with ≥6 months of imaging follow-up, median size change was 0 mm (-10, 115) and median growth rate was 0 mm/y (-6, 14). Compared to <1 cm growth, ≥1 cm growth correlated with larger initial size (3.6 vs 2.3 cm, P = .02), haemorrhagic changes (12% vs 2%, P = .007) and adrenalectomy (35% vs 8%, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Most myelolipomas are incidentally discovered on cross-sectional imaging. Myelolipomas ≥6 are more likely to cause mass effect symptoms, have haemorrhagic changes and undergo resection. Tumour growth ≥1 cm is associated with larger myelolipoma and haemorrhagic changes. Adrenalectomy should be considered in symptomatic patients with large tumours and when there is evidence of haemorrhage or tumour growth.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare, autosomal-dominant tumor disorder characterized by the development of pituitary tumors and other endocrine neoplasms. Diagnosis is made clinically based on the development of 2 or more canonical lesions (parathyroid gland, anterior pituitary, and enteropancreatic tumors) or in family members of a patient with a clinical diagnosis of MEN1 and the occurrence of one of the MEN1-associated tumors. The goal of this study was to characterize pituitary tumors arising in the setting of MEN1 at a single institution. The probability of tumor progression and the likelihood of surgical intervention in patients with asymptomatic nonfunctional pituitary adenomas were also analyzed. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional database was performed for patients with MEN1 diagnosed from 1970 to 2017. Data included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes. RESULTS: A review of the database identified 268 patients diagnosed with MEN1, of whom 158 (59%) were female. Among the 268 patients, 139 (51.8%) had pituitary adenomas. There was a higher prevalence in women than in men (65% vs 35%, p < 0.005). Functional adenomas (57%) were more common. Prolactin-secreting adenomas were the most common functional tumors. Macroadenomas were seen in 27% of patients and were more likely to be symptomatic and locally aggressive (p < 0.001). Forty-nine patients (35%) underwent transsphenoidal resection at some point during their disease course. In 52 patients who were initially observed with MEN1 asymptomatic nonfunctional adenomas, only 5 (10%) progressed to need surgery. In MEN1 patients, an initial parathyroid lesion is most likely followed in order by pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and, finally, rare carcinoid tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic nonfunctional pituitary adenomas in patients with MEN1 may be followed safely with MRI. In this series, parathyroid tumors developed at the lowest median age of all cardinal tumors, and development of additional cardinal MEN1 lesions followed a predictable pattern. This pattern of disease progression could have significant implications for disease surveillance in clinical practice and may help to target clinical resources to the lesions most likely to develop next. This may aid with early detection and treatment and warrants further study.

6.
Endocr Pract ; 26(4): 465, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293924
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154561

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Several studies have reported increased risk of fragility fractures in patients with mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS), discordant to the degree of bone density deterioration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of MACS on bone metabolism in patients with adrenal adenomas. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with prospective enrollment, 2014-2019. SETTING: Referral center. PATIENTS: 213 patients with adrenal adenomas: 22 Cushing syndrome (CS), 92 MACS and 99 nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (NFAT). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Osteocalcin, procollagen I intact N-terminal (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), sclerostin. RESULTS: Patients with CS demonstrated lower markers of bone formation compared with patients with MACS and NFAT (CS vs MACS vs NFAT: mean osteocalcin 14.8 vs 20.1 vs 21.3 ng/mL [P < 0.0001]; mean PINP 34.8 vs 48.7 vs 48.5 µg/L [P = 0.003]). Severity of cortisol excess was inversely associated with sclerostin (CS vs MACS vs NFAT: mean sclerostin 419 vs 538 vs 624 ng/L, [P < 0.0001]). In a multivariable model of age, sex, body mass index, cortisol, and bone turnover markers, sclerostin was a significant predictor of low bone mass in patients with MACS (OR 0.63 [CI 95%, 0.40-0.98] for each 100 ng/L of sclerostin increase).After adrenalectomy, osteocalcin, CTX, and sclerostin increased by a mean difference of 6.3 ng/mL, 0.12 ng/mL, and 171 pg/mL (P = 0.02 for all), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lower sclerostin level in patients with MACS reflects a reduction in osteocyte function or number associated with exposure to chronic cortisol excess. Increase in bone turnover markers after adrenalectomy suggests restoration of favorable bone metabolism.

8.
Endocrinology ; 161(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126137
9.
J Vasc Surg ; 71(5): 1602-1612.e2, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing to identify succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutations in patients with head and neck paraganglioma (HNP) has been in clinical practice for more than a decade. However, the recurrence and metachronous tumor occurrence risks in surgically treated mutation-positive patients are not well studied. METHODS: Clinical and procedural details of consecutive patients who underwent excision for HNP from January 1996 to October 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. End points included recurrence, metachronous tumor detection, and mortality. Germline DNA was tested to identify mutations in SDHx genes. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of genetic testing: group I, positive; group II, negative; and group III, unknown or offered but not tested. RESULTS: HNP was diagnosed in 268 patients, 214 (147 female; mean age, 47 years) included in this study. Directed genetic testing was performed in 68; mutations were detected in SDH in 47 (69%), a majority SDHD. In group I, 47 patients had 64 procedures for 81 tumors (52 carotid body tumors [CBTs]); 17 (36%) were bilateral, 7 (15%) multiple, 3 (6%) functional, and 7 (15%) malignant. Residual tumor in 10 was significant in 2, managed by radiation therapy and reoperation. Local recurrence was detected in 12 patients (25%) at a median of 8 years; 11 metachronous mediastinal and retroperitoneal paragangliomas were detected in 8 (17%) at a median of 13 years. Systemic metastases occurred in five (10%). Six patients (13%) had more than one recurrence. In group II, 21 patients had 22 procedures for 23 tumors, 17 CBTs. Two (9%) were bilateral and two (9%) malignant. Excision was complete in all with no recurrence or systemic metastasis at last follow-up. For group III, 146 patients underwent 153 procedures for 156 tumors, 95 CBTs; 7 (5%) were bilateral, 2 (1%) multiple, 8 (5%) functional, and 1 (0.6%) malignant. Local recurrence was detected in nine (6%) at a median of 9 years and metachronous HNP in three (2%) at a median of 5 years. Systemic metastases occurred in two (1%). Mortality was 4% in group I and 3% in group III, none procedure or tumor related. Group I (mutation positive) had 10-year overall, recurrence-free, and metachronous tumor-free survival rates of 93%, 69.4%, and 73%, respectively, lower than the other groups (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral, functional, malignant, recurrent, and metachronous tumors are more common in SDH mutation-positive patients with HNP. Overall survival in patients with HNP is high. Metachronous tumors or local recurrences occur late, and long-term follow-up is necessary.

10.
Neurosurgery ; 86(4): 557-564, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing disease (CD) after prior transsphenoidal surgery require further treatment to reduce the disease's metabolic consequences. OBJECTIVE: To assess patient outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for persistent or recurrent CD from adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas and propose a management algorithm. METHODS: Retrospective review of 38 patients without prior radiation treatment having SRS for ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas from 1990 to 2015. Favorable outcome was defined as biochemical remission and tumor growth control. Patients were evaluated separately if they underwent bilateral adrenalectomy (Adx). RESULTS: Twenty patients (53%) were treated with Adx and SRS (median margin dose, 25 Gy) and 18 patients (47%) received SRS alone (median margin dose, 22.5 Gy). Median follow-up after SRS was 76 mo. Of patients undergoing Adx, 18/20 (90%) had a favorable outcome. Two patients (10%) had tumor growth requiring additional treatment. A favorable outcome was achieved in 13/18 patients (72%) having SRS alone (median, 14 mo; interquartile range, 8-23). Five patients (28%) required additional treatment due to persistent hypercortisolemia (n = 4) or hypercortisolemia and tumor growth (n = 1). Favorable outcomes were more frequent in the Adx and SRS group at 1 yr (100% vs 33%; P < .001) and 3 yr (100% vs 62%; P < .01), but no different at 5 yr (88% vs 77%; P = .63). CONCLUSION: SRS was effective for patients with persistent or recurrent CD. Patients with mild to moderate CD can be safely managed with SRS alone; patients with severe CD should be considered for Adx with either concurrent SRS or SRS performed at a later date if tumor growth occurs.

12.
Surgery ; 167(1): 216-223, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While roughly half of adrenocortical carcinomas are functional, whether functional status impacts outcomes remains controversial. We compared presentation and survival for functional and nonfunctional neoplasms. METHODS: Adult patients presented with adrenocortical carcinomas at the Mayo Clinic were included. Tumor characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The 266 identified patients presented with stage I (6%), II (33%), III (26%), and IV disease (32%); stage was unknown in 3%. Fifty-three percent of tumors were functional; patients with functional adrenocortical carcinomas were younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to present with metastatic disease. Surgical resection was undertaken in 84% of patients with 69% having R0 resection. While 30-day morbidity was similar between functional and nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinomas, median overall survival was better for nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinomas (median 66 vs 22 months, P = .01). Functional adrenocortical carcinomas was independently associated with shorter survival after adjusting for age, sex, grade, stage, and resection attempt: hazard ratio = 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.14, P = .03). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, long term survival was worse for all patients with functional tumors. However, when analyzing patients with R0 resection, there was no survival difference between functional and nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinomas, signaling need for better understanding of adrenocortical carcinomas behavior to individualize and optimize treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Adrenalectomia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Adolescente , Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/cirurgia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198898, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397861

RESUMO

Importance: Large studies investigating long-term outcomes of patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas treated with either total or cortical-sparing adrenalectomies are needed to inform clinical management. Objective: To determine the association of total vs cortical-sparing adrenalectomy with pheochromocytoma-specific mortality, the burden of primary adrenal insufficiency after bilateral adrenalectomy, and the risk of pheochromocytoma recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from a multicenter consortium-based registry for 625 patients treated for bilateral pheochromocytomas between 1950 and 2018. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2018, to June 1, 2019. Exposures: Total or cortical-sparing adrenalectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary adrenal insufficiency, recurrent pheochromocytoma, and mortality. Results: Of 625 patients (300 [48%] female) with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 30 (22-40) years at diagnosis, 401 (64%) were diagnosed with synchronous bilateral pheochromocytomas and 224 (36%) were diagnosed with metachronous pheochromocytomas (median [IQR] interval to second adrenalectomy, 6 [1-13] years). In 505 of 526 tested patients (96%), germline mutations were detected in the genes RET (282 patients [54%]), VHL (184 patients [35%]), and other genes (39 patients [7%]). Of 849 adrenalectomies performed in 625 patients, 324 (52%) were planned as cortical sparing and were successful in 248 of 324 patients (76.5%). Primary adrenal insufficiency occurred in all patients treated with total adrenalectomy but only in 23.5% of patients treated with attempted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy. A third of patients with adrenal insufficiency developed complications, such as adrenal crisis or iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. Of 377 patients who became steroid dependent, 67 (18%) developed at least 1 adrenal crisis and 50 (13%) developed iatrogenic Cushing syndrome during median (IQR) follow-up of 8 (3-25) years. Two patients developed recurrent pheochromocytoma in the adrenal bed despite total adrenalectomy. In contrast, 33 patients (13%) treated with successful cortical-sparing adrenalectomy developed another pheochromocytoma within the remnant adrenal after a median (IQR) of 8 (4-13) years, all of which were successfully treated with another surgery. Cortical-sparing surgery was not associated with survival. Overall survival was associated with comorbidities unrelated to pheochromocytoma: of 63 patients who died, only 3 (5%) died of metastatic pheochromocytoma. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients undergoing cortical-sparing adrenalectomy did not demonstrate decreased survival, despite development of recurrent pheochromocytoma in 13%. Cortical-sparing adrenalectomy should be considered in all patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma.

16.
World J Surg ; 43(10): 2469-2476, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA) may have a solitary adenoma, unilateral hyperplasia, or multiple adenomas on final pathology. This study investigated whether the underlying pathological diagnosis was associated with differences in clinical presentation and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy for PA from 2004 to 2015 at our institution was performed. Baseline clinical and laboratory parameters, as well as postoperative biochemical and hypertension cure rates, were compared across the three aforementioned pathological groups. RESULTS: Of 206 patients who met criteria for inclusion, 152 (73.8%) had a single adenoma, 33 (16%) had unilateral hyperplasia, and 21 (10.2%) had multiple unilateral adenomas. Patients with unilateral hyperplasia were more likely to be male (81.2% vs 57.9%, P = .03), undergo left-sided adrenalectomy (78.8% vs 47.4%, P < .01), and had a lower median adrenal venous sampling lateralization index (9.8 vs 19.8, P = .04) compared to those with solitary, but not multiple unilateral adenomas. No differences were seen in age, duration of hypertension, preoperative plasma aldosterone levels, plasma renin activities, 24-h urinary aldosterone excretion, serum potassium concentrations, and the number of preoperative antihypertensive medications across all three pathological groups. All patients achieved biochemical cure following adrenalectomy, and no significant differences in the rates of hypertension cure or improvement were observed in comparisons across pathological subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical presentation and postoperative outcomes are similar regardless of underlying pathology in patients with PA. Because one in four patients may harbor unilateral hyperplasia or multiple adenomas, total unilateral adrenalectomy should be performed as the operation of choice over adrenal-sparing approaches.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adrenalectomia , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Aldosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/etiologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Hiperplasia/complicações , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Renina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Endocr Pract ; 25(4): 340-352, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995432

RESUMO

Objective: To describe outcomes of patients with giant prolactinoma (≥4 cm) and identify predictors of therapeutic response. Methods: In this retrospective study, complete biochemical and structural response were defined as prolactin (PRL) ≤25 ng/mL and no visible tumor at follow-up, respectively. Results: Giant prolactinoma (median size, 4.8 cm [range, 4 to 9.8 cm]; median PRL, 5,927 ng/mL [range, 120 to 100,000 ng/mL]) was diagnosed in 71 patients. Treatments included: dopamine agonists (DAs) (n = 70, 99%), surgery (n = 30, 42%), radiation (n = 10, 14%), and somatostatin analogs (n = 2, 3%). Patients treated with DA monotherapy were older compared with those who received subsequent therapies (47 years vs. 28 years; P = .003) but had similar initial PRL and tumor size. Surgically managed patients were younger compared with the nonsurgical group (35 years vs. 46 years; P = .02) and had lower initial PRL (3,121 ng/mL vs. 6,920 ng/mL; P = .02), yet they had similar tumor response. Hypopituitarism was more common following surgery compared to medical management: adrenal insufficiency (69% vs. 27%; P<.001), hypothyroidism (67% vs. 38%; P = .02), growth hormone deficiency (24% vs. 6%; P = .04), and diabetes insipidus (17% vs. 3%; P = .04). Therapeutic response did not correlate with sex, age, initial PRL, tumor size, or first-line therapy mode. At median follow-up of 4.8 years, the median PRL was 18.3 ng/mL (range, 0.6 to 12,680 ng/mL), and final volume was 0.9 cm3 (range, 0 to 43.0 cm3). In those with available data, 36/65 (55%) patients achieved PRL normalization, and 16/61 (26%) had no visible tumor at follow-up. Conclusion: Most patients with giant prolactinoma have excellent response to DA. Sex, age, initial PRL, and tumor size do not predict therapeutic response. Abbreviations: BRC = bromocriptine; CAB = cabergoline; CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; DA = dopamine agonist; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; PRL = prolactin.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Prolactinoma , Adulto , Bromocriptina , Agonistas de Dopamina , Ergolinas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolactina , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897549

RESUMO

Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome leading to the diagnosis of CNC due to a novel PRKAR1A pathogenic variant. Learning points: PPNAD should be considered in the differential for ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome, especially when adrenal imaging appears normal. The diagnosis of PPNAD should prompt screening for CNC. CNC is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome caused by inactivating pathogenic variants in the PRKAR1A gene. Timely diagnosis of CNC and careful surveillance can help prevent potentially fatal complications of the disease.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822354

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as a first-choice modality for tumor localization in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is widely used for functional imaging but the added diagnostic value is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To establish the virtual impact of adding 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT or MRI on diagnosis and treatment of PPGL. DESIGN: International multicenter retrospective study. INTERVENTION: None. PATIENTS: 236 unilateral adrenal, 18 bilateral adrenal, 48 unifocal extra-adrenal, 12 multifocal and 26 metastatic PPGL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients underwent both anatomical imaging (CT and/or MRI) and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Local imaging reports were analyzed centrally by two independent observers who were blinded to the diagnosis. Imaging-based diagnoses determined by CT/MRI only, 123I-MIBG only, and CT/MRI combined with 123I-MIBG scintigraphy were compared with the correct diagnoses. RESULTS: The rates of correct imaging-based diagnoses determined by CT/MRI only versus CT/MRI plus 123I-MIBG scintigraphy were similar: 89.4 versus 88.8%, respectively, (P=0.50). Adding 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT/MRI resulted in a correct change in the imaging-based diagnosis and ensuing virtual treatment in four cases (1.2%: two metastatic instead of non-metastatic, one multifocal instead of single, one unilateral instead of bilateral adrenal) at the cost of an incorrect change in seven cases (2.1%: four metastatic instead of non-metastatic, two multifocal instead of unifocal and one bilateral instead of unilateral adrenal). CONCLUSIONS: For the initial localization of PPGL, the addition of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT/MRI rarely improves the diagnostic accuracy at the cost of incorrect interpretation in others, even when 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is restricted to patients who are at risk for metastatic disease. In this setting, the impact of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy on clinical decision-making appears very limited.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(5): 1386-1393, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462226

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Modern pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) are often discovered by incidental finding on cross-sectional imaging or mutation-based genetic case detection testing. Little is known about how these PHEOs behave. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and behavior of PHEOs discovered incidentally on imaging or through mutation-based genetic case detection testing. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Referral center. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients with pathology-confirmed PHEOs, treated from 2005 to 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Tumor size, plasma/urine fractionated metanephrines and catecholamines, and preoperative management. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-one patients (52% women, median age 52.0 years) presented with 296 PHEOs. Discovery method was most often incidental finding on cross-section imaging (61%) rather than PHEO-related symptoms (27%) or mutation-based case detection testing (12%). Patients with incidentally discovered PHEOs were older than symptomatic and mutation-based case detection testing patients (median age 56.6 vs 43 vs 35 years, P < 0.0001). Mutation-based case detection PHEOs were smaller than those discovered due to symptoms (median size 29.0 vs 50.5 mm, P = 0.0027). Patients with PHEOs discovered due to symptoms had the highest median concentration of 24-hour urinary metanephrines and total plasma metanephrines (P < 0.0001). These patients required a higher cumulative phenoxybenzamine dose than patients with incidental or case detection PHEO (median 450 vs 375 vs 270 mg, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: PHEOs are primarily discovered due to incidental finding on cross-sectional imaging rather than PHEO-related symptoms. PHEOs discovered through mutation-based genetic case detection testing were smaller and required less α-adrenergic blockade preoperatively compared with PHEOs found due to symptoms, which supports routine case detection testing for patients genetically predisposed for PHEOs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/genética , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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