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1.
J Sex Res ; : 1-20, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902238

RESUMO

Gender-based violence (GBV) against women and girls is pervasive and has negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health (SRH). In this systematic review of reviews, we aimed to synthesize research about the SRH outcomes of GBV for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). GBV exposures were child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting, child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and non-partner sexual violence. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus searches were supplemented with expert consultations, reference-list searches, and targeted organizational website searches. Reviews had to contain samples of girls and young women ages 10-24, although inclusion criteria were expanded post-hoc to capture adolescent-adult combined samples. Twenty-seven reviews were quality-rated. Study-level data were extracted from the 10 highest quality reviews (62 unique studies, 100 samples). Reviews were mostly from Africa and Asia and published between 2011 and 2015. We found consistent associations between GBV and number of sexual partners, gynecological conditions (e.g., sexually transmitted infections [STIs]), unwanted/unplanned pregnancy, and abortion. Some types of IPV also were associated with greater use of contraception/STI prevention. Addressing GBV is essential to improve SRH for girls and women in LMICs.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 247: 112803, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978705

RESUMO

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development prioritizes women's empowerment in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) #5: to achieve gender equality and empowerment among all women and girls. Research on the relationships of women's empowerment and nutrition has focused on the child's nutrition. Less is known about how women's empowerment influences their own nutritional status. We examined the pathways by which three domains of women's empowerment (WE)-assets, intrinsic agency, and instrumental agency-may influence women's nutritional status (WNS) in East Africa. We used data from 42,721 married non-pregnant women, 15-49 years old interviewed in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from five east Africa countries (2011-2016). WNS was operationalized through body mass index (BMI) and altitude-adjusted blood-hemoglobin level (Hb). A latent factor for women's human/social assets (assets) measured women's enabling resources. Two additional latent factors measured women's intrinsic agency (power within; women's non-justification of intimate partner violence (IPV) against wives) and instrumental agency (power to; influence in household decision-making). We used structural equation models with latent variables to estimate the strength of the hypothesized pathways from women's assets to WNS through measures of intrinsic and instrumental agency. All three domains of WE had direct, positive associations with women's BMI [(estimate (95% CI) (Assets: [0.17 (0.14,0.20)]; Intrinsic Agency: [0.25 (0.22,0.27)]; Instrumental Agency [0.08 (0.03,0.10)])]. Women's instrumental agency was positively associated with women's Hb [0.12 (0.09,0.14)]. Total associations, including direct and indirect effects, with women's BMI were positive through intrinsic agency & instrumental agency. Total associations with women's Hb were positive through instrumental agency. Direct and indirect effects from assets through both components of agency to BMI were higher in magnitude by household wealth category. Domains of WE were positively associated with WNS. Findings indicate that the process of women's empowerment may be an important driver of their nutritional status.

3.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 34(1): 38-45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996643

RESUMO

Comfort is a fundamental human need to seek relief, ease, and transcendence. Comfort is relevant to women in labor who experience intense pain and mixed emotions. The subjective meaning of comfort in labor for women is not fully understood. This work was part of a phenomenological study of the experience of childbirth, in which the dynamic of keeping-it-together-falling-apart was identified as an essential quality of women's perceptions of childbirth. Comfort was a salient element of keeping-it-together-falling-apart. In this report, the concept of comfort is explored in greater depth, using qualitative descriptive analysis. Eight participants, aged 23 to 38 years, with spontaneous vaginal births, were each interviewed twice about the childbirth experience. Comfort was a holistic experience of relaxation and relief, where the needs of the body and the person were being met. Comfort and pain coexisted with each other, and relief of pain did not always provide comfort. Women had an innate knowledge of comfort, but their capacity for choice was at times restricted by caregivers in the hospital. There are aspects of labor care that do not support comfort, particularly as it relates to mobility and choice. Prioritizing comfort as well as pain relief may contribute to a more holistic, satisfying birth experience for women.

4.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(1): e12871, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288300

RESUMO

In 2015, the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, which include fostering gender equality and women's empowerment and ending hunger and malnutrition. To monitor progress and evaluate programmes that aim to achieve these goals, survey instruments are needed that can accurately assess related indicators. The project-level Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) is being developed to address the need for an instrument that is sensitive to changes in empowerment over the duration of an intervention. The pro-WEAI includes new modules with previously untested survey questions, including a health and nutrition module (focused on women's agency in this area) and an intrahousehold relationships module. This study uses cognitive interviewing to identify how new survey questions might be misinterpreted and to understand what experiences women are referencing when they respond to these questions. This was undertaken with the goal of informing revision to the modules. The study was conducted in Bangladesh with women from nuclear, extended, and migrant-sending households and from two regions of the country to identify difficulties with interpretation and response formulation across these groups. Findings revealed that questions were generally understood, but participants occasionally responded to the wrong part of the question, did not understand key phrases, or were uncomfortable with questions. The findings also suggested ways to revise the modules and strengthen the pro-WEAI. The revised pro-WEAI health and nutrition and intrahousehold relationships modules will advance the ability to measure changes in these domains and their relationship with the health and nutritional status of women and their children.

5.
World Dev ; 124: 104639, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798204

RESUMO

Women's empowerment is a process that includes increases in intrinsic agency (power within); instrumental agency (power to); and collective agency (power with). We used baseline data from two studies-Targeting and Realigning Agriculture for Improved Nutrition (TRAIN) in Bangladesh and Building Resilience in Burkina Faso (BRB)-to assess the measurement properties of survey questions operationalizing selected dimensions of intrinsic, instrumental, and collective agency in the project-level Women's Empowerment in Agricultural Index (pro-WEAI). We applied unidimensional item-response models to question (item) sets to assess their measurement properties, and when possible, their cross-context measurement equivalence-a requirement of measures designed for cross-group comparisons. For intrinsic agency in the right to bodily integrity, measured with five attitudinal questions about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, model assumptions of unidimensionality and local independence were met. Four items showed good model fit and measurement equivalence across TRAIN and BRB. For item sets designed to capture autonomy in income, intrinsic agency in livelihoods activities, and instrumental agency in: livelihoods activities, the sale or use of outputs, the use of income, and borrowing from financial services, model assumptions were not met, model fit was poor, and items generally were weakly related to the latent (unobserved) agency construct. For intrinsic and instrumental agency in livelihoods activities and for instrumental agency in the sale or use of outputs and in the use of income, items sets had similar precision along the latent-agency continuum, suggesting that similar item sets could be dropped without a loss of precision. IRT models for collective agency were not estimable because of low reported presence and membership in community groups. This analysis demonstrates the use of IRT methods to assess the measurement properties of item sets in pro-WEAI, and empowerment scales generally. Findings suggest that a shorter version of pro-WEAI can be developed that will improve its measurement properties. We recommend revisions to the pro-WEAI questionnaire and call for new measures of women's collective agency.

6.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-13, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869280

RESUMO

Women comprise two-thirds of the global-health (GH) workforce but are underrepresented in leadership. GH departments are platforms to advance gender equality in GH leadership. Using a survey of graduates from one GH department, we compared women's and men's post-training career agency and GH employment and assessed whether gender gaps in training accounted for gender gaps in career outcomes. Master-of-Public-Health (MPH) and mid-career-fellow alumni since 2010 received a 31-question online survey. Forty-four per cent of MPH alum and 24% of fellows responded. Using logistic regression, we tested gender gaps in training satisfaction, career agency, and GH employment, unadjusted and adjusted for training received. Women (N = 293) reported lower satisfaction with training (M7.6 vs 8.2) and career agency (leadership ability: M6.3 vs 7.4) than men (N = 60). Women more often than men acquired methods-related skills (95% vs 78%), employment recommendations (42% vs 18%), and group membership. Men more often than women acquired leadership training (43% vs 23%), award recommendations (53% vs 17%), and conference support (65% vs 35%). Women and men had similar odds of GH employment. Accounting for confounders and gender-gaps in training eliminated gender gaps in five of six career-agency outcomes. Panel studies of women's and men's career trajectories in GH are needed.

7.
J Health Soc Behav ; 60(4): 416-433, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771346

RESUMO

In the Asia-Pacific region, individual sexual stigma contributes to elevated rates of depression among sexual minority men. Less well understood is the role of socio-structural sexual stigma despite evidence that social context influences the experience of stigma. We use data from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence to conduct a multilevel test of associations between individual- and cluster unit-level indicators of sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among sexual minority men (n = 562). In the full model, individual-level sexual stigma is not associated with depressive symptoms, although there is significant variation in the association between individual stigma and depressive symptoms across clusters. Contrary to expectation, at the community level, homophobic injunctive norms are negatively associated with depressive symptoms. We discuss the implications for policies, programs, and future research to improve mental health among sexual minority men in the region.

8.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 149, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to validate three mental health scales in a targeted sample of pregnant Arab women living in Qatar: the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. METHODS: Random split-half exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses (n = 336; n = 331), conducted separately, were used to evaluate scale dimensionality, factor loadings, and factor structure of the KUAS, the PSS, and the EPDS. RESULTS: Fit statistics for the three scales suggested adequate fit to the data and estimated factor loadings were positive, similar in magnitude, and were significant. The final CFA model for the KUAS supported a 19-item, two factor structure. CFA models also confirmed 8- and 10-item, single-factor structures for the PSS and EPDS, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The validation of scales for these aspects of mental health in Arab pregnant women is critical to ensure appropriate screening, identification, and treatment to reduce the risk of sequelae in women and their children. Findings offer a useful comparison to mental-health scale validations in other Arab contexts.

9.
World Dev ; 122: 675-692, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582871

RESUMO

With growing commitment to women's empowerment by agricultural development agencies, sound methods and indicators to measure women's empowerment are needed to learn which types of projects or project-implementation strategies do and do not work to empower women. The Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI), which has been widely used, requires adaptation to meet the need for monitoring projects and assessing their impacts. In this paper, the authors describe the adaptation and validation of a project-level WEAI (or pro-WEAI) that agricultural development projects can use to identify key areas of women's (and men's) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address identified deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women's empowerment. The 12 pro-WEAI indicators are mapped to three domains: intrinsic agency (power within), instrumental agency (power to), and collective agency (power with). A gender parity index compares the empowerment scores of men and women in the same household. The authors describe the development of pro-WEAI, including: (1) pro-WEAI's distinctiveness from other versions of the WEAI; (2) the process of piloting pro-WEAI in 13 agricultural development projects during the Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, phase 2 (GAAP2); (3) analysis of quantitative data from the GAAP2 projects, including intrahousehold patterns of empowerment/disempowerment; and (4) a summary of the findings from the qualitative work exploring concepts of women's empowerment in the project sites. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned from pro-WEAI and possibilities for further development of empowerment metrics.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393933

RESUMO

Studies from the social and health sciences have tended to view the household as the locus of access to and distribution of care, resources, monitoring and modeling for children's wellbeing. Obesity may present a special case for the study of investments in children, being a component of health for which more of certain inputs may not lead to better outcomes. We expanded on common measures of household structure in the child health literature by considering co-residence and relatedness of parents, grandparents, other relatives, and other children. Data were from a longitudinal sample of 6,700 children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), the largest U.S. national dataset with measures of child anthropometrics and household structure at seven time-points over nine years. We used lagged survey-adjusted regressions to estimate associations between household structure and subsequent changes in children's weight between ages 5 and 14 years in terms of BMI gain and incident obesity. Adjusting for household structure more thoroughly, children living in households with two parents rather than one parent did not experience advantages in terms of less excess weight gain or lower incidence of obesity during elementary and middle school. Children living with a grandmother gained more weight than children not living with a grandmother. Living with siblings and with non-related adults was associated with less weight gain. These findings corroborate a scenario in which, for health problems associated with caloric surplus, classic household factors have more complex associations with child wellbeing.

11.
Psychol Men Masc ; 20(1): 104-114, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983906

RESUMO

Depression is a worldwide problem, and is especially prevalent in lower-income countries with insufficient resources and widespread poverty, such as Bangladesh. Yet multilevel determinants of depressive symptoms in men have not been studied in this context. We leverage a novel dataset from men in Bangladesh to determine the community- and individual-level influences of masculine dominance strain and financial strain on the frequency of married men's depressive symptoms in Bangladesh. Data were collected between January and June, 2011, as part of the UN Multi-Country Study of Men and Violence, conducted by The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Masculine dominance strain at both levels was related to the frequency of depressive symptoms. Financial strain only at the individual level was related to the frequency of depressive symptoms. We conclude that community-level economic interventions may not directly influence individual-level depression; however, addressing customary conceptions of masculinity at the community and individual level and addressing individual-level financial strain are promising joint strategies to improve married men's mental health in Bangladesh and similar settings.

12.
J Health Soc Behav ; 60(1): 84-100, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614273

RESUMO

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC) is a human rights violation with adverse health consequences. Although prevalence is declining, the practice persists in many countries, and the individual and contextual risk factors associated with FGMC remain poorly understood. We propose an integrated theory about contextual factors and test it using multilevel discrete-time hazard models in a nationally representative sample of 7,535 women with daughters who participated in the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. A daughter's adjusted hazard of FGMC was lower if she had an uncut mother who disfavored FGMC, lived in a community that was more opposed to FGMC, and lived in a more ethnically diverse community. Unexpectedly, a daughter's adjusted FGMC hazard was higher if she lived in a community with more extrafamilial opportunities for women. Other measures of women's opportunities warrant consideration, and interventions to shift FGMC norms in more ethnically diverse communities show promise to accelerate abandonment.

13.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 22(1): 1-14, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721624

RESUMO

This systematic review synthesizes research on the influence of human and economic resources for women's empowerment on their pre- and postnatal mental health, understudied in the Arab world. We include articles using quantitative methods from PubMed and Web of Science. Two researchers reviewed databases and selected articles, double reviewing 5% of articles designated for inclusion. Twenty-four articles met inclusion criteria. All 24 articles measured depression as an outcome, and three included additional mental health outcomes. Nine of 17 studies found an inverse association between education and depression; two of 12 studies found contradictory associations between employment and depression, and four of six studies found a positive association between financial stress and depression. These results suggest that there is a negative association between education and depression and a positive association between financial stress and depression among women in the Arab world. Firm conclusions warrant caution due to limited studies meeting inclusion criteria and large heterogeneity in mental health scales used, assessment measures, and definitions of human and economic resources for women's empowerment. It is likely that education reduces depression among postpartum women and that financial stress increases their depression. These findings can be used to aid in the design of interventions to improve mother and child outcomes. However, more research in the Arab world is needed on the relationship between human and economic resources for women's empowerment and perinatal mental health, and more consistency is needed in how resources and mental health are measured.

14.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(21-22): 4421-4442, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294621

RESUMO

Semi-structured interviews with 31 men in Hung Yen Province in Northern Vietnam are used to elucidate a conceptual narrative to understand men's perceptions and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Vietnam. This narrative suggests that cultural definitions of masculinity and changes in women's participation in the labor force have contributed to status conflicts that normalize IPV as part of masculine superiority. The narratives of both IPV perpetrators and non-perpetrators demonstrate how violence is incorporated into the cultural definition of masculinity and illustrates how men use this definition to minimize their own and other men's perpetration. We suggest that attempts to reduce IPV in Vietnam must address constructions of masculinity and the socio-historical context of IPV by providing gender-sensitivity training and opportunities for men to evaluate critically how constructions of masculinity in their families and communities contribute to IPV perpetration.

15.
Psychol Violence ; 8(5): 580-595, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225157

RESUMO

Objective: Coercive control in marriage is common in patriarchal settings, but multilevel determinants are understudied. Method: Using a probability sample of 570 junior men (married, 18-34 years) from the Bangladesh survey of the 2011 UN Multi-Country Study of Men and Violence, we examined how exposure to violence in childhood and community-level gender norms were related to men's attitudes about gender equity and use of controlling behavior. We tested whether community-level gender norms moderated the relationship between men's exposure to violence in childhood and our outcomes. Results: According to results from multilevel Poisson regression models, as community gender norms become more equitable by 1 standard deviation, a junior married man's expected rate of controlling behavior is lower by 0.11, and his rate of agreement with gender equitable attitudes is higher by 0.27. More gender-equitable community norms were negatively related to a junior married man's use of controlling behavior. Childhood exposure to violence was not associated with use of controlling behavior. There was a significant cross-level interaction such that exposure to violence had a stronger negative impact on men's gender equitable attitudes in communities with lower overall gender equity than those with higher overall gender equity. The corresponding cross-level interaction effect was not significant for the controlling behavior outcome. Conclusions: More equitable community gender norms may encourage more gender-equitable attitudes and discourage use of controlling behavior among junior men, suggesting that interventions to change community gender norms may reduce coercive control of women in marriage.

16.
SSM Popul Health ; 5: 257-266, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094321

RESUMO

Emerging qualitative research suggests women's sanitation experiences may impact mental health. However, specific associations remain unclear. We aimed to determine if sanitation access and sanitation experiences were associated with mental health among women in rural Odisha, India. Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated the association between sanitation access and sanitation experiences and selected mental health outcomes. Data were collected from 1347 randomly selected women across four life course stages in 60 rural communities (December 2014-February 2015). Our four primary outcomes included: mental well-being, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and distress. The primary exposures were (1) access to a functional latrine within the household compound and (2) sanitation insecurity (SI), evaluated using a seven domain measure assessing women's negative sanitation experiences and concerns. We used hierarchical linear modeling to determine associations between the exposures and mental health outcomes, adjusting for covariates (life stage, poverty, current health status, social support). Mean well-being scores were moderate and mean anxiety, depression, and distress scores were above a threshold indicating the potential presence of any of the three conditions. Access to a functional household latrine was associated with higher well-being scores, but not with anxiety, depression or distress. Women's SI domains were associated with all four outcomes: four domains were significantly associated with lower well-being scores, two were significantly associated with higher anxiety scores, three were significantly associated with higher depression scores, and three were significantly associated with higher distress scores, all independent of functional household latrine access. Women in rural Odisha, India may suffer assaults to their well-being and have higher symptoms of anxiety, depression, and distress when urinating and defecating, even if they have an available facility. These findings suggest that sanitation-related interventions should consider how to accommodate women's experiences beyond excreta management to comprehensively impact health.

17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 92: 142-154, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628283

RESUMO

The Weathering Effect is a theory that links stress exposure, over the life-course, with racial disparities in reproductive outcomes, through the effects of social adversity on a woman's body. The concept of maternal "weathering" captures cumulative somatic and psychological adversities that can exacerbate the effects of aging. Much of the evidence for weathering comes from observational studies linking self-report measures with reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore biological mechanisms that underlie these observations. We focus on spontaneous abortion because this event is understudied despite evidence of racial disparities in this outcome. Spontaneous abortion is the most common pregnancy failure, and it happens early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy is a time most susceptible to the harmful effects of immune dysregulation that may, in part, result from adversities experienced before pregnancy begins. In exploring these mechanisms, we draw on well-defined signaling processes observed in the stressor-depression relationship. Pro-inflammatory dysregulation, for example, has particular relevance to immunological control occurring early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy immunologic changes affect the trajectories of pregnancy via control of trophoblastic invasion. Within the first few weeks of pregnancy, uterine derived cytokines operate within cytokine networks and play a critical role in this invasion. Programming for pro-inflammatory dysregulation can occur before conception. This dysregulation, brought into early pregnancy, has implications for viability and success of the index pregnancy. These patterns suggest early pregnancy health is susceptible to stress processing pathways that influence this immunologic control in the first six to eight weeks of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the known mediating role of immune factors in the stressor-depression relationship. We also discuss how adversity experienced before the index pregnancy, or "pre-pregnancy" may influence these pathways, and subsequently influence early pregnancy health. There is a need to understand adversity, experienced before pregnancy, and mechanisms driving the effects of these experiences on pregnancy outcomes. This approach is a useful entry point for understanding racial inequities in pregnancy health through an understanding of differences in exposures to adversity. We hypothesize that spontaneous abortion involves cyclical changes within a woman's reproductive tract in response to stressors that are established well before a woman enters into pregnancy. Furthermore, we propose mechanisms that potentially drive weathering processes relevant to reproductive disparities. We also examine what is known about pre-pregnancy stress exposures associated with race, inequity, and adversity, and their potential impact on neuroendocrine and immune changes affecting early pregnancy risk.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Psychol Men Masc ; 19(1): 117-130, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520198

RESUMO

Men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is common, but its multilevel determinants are understudied. We leveraged novel data from a probability sample of 570 junior men (married, 18-34 years) from 50 urban and 62 rural communities who took part in the Bangladesh survey of the 2011 UN Multi-Country Study of Men and Violence. We tested whether more equitable community gender norms among senior men (N=938; married, 35-49 years) was negatively associated, and a junior man's greater exposure to childhood violence was positively associated, with his lifetime count (or scope) of physical IPV acts perpetrated. We also tested whether more equitable community gender norms mitigated the association of more violence in childhood with the lifetime scope of physical IPV acts perpetrated. Among younger married men, 50% reportedly ever perpetrated physical IPV, the mean lifetime scope of physical IPV types perpetrated was 1.1 (SD 1.3) out of 5.0 listed. A majority (64%) reported childhood exposure to violence. In multilevel Poisson models, a man with more childhood exposure to violence had a higher log scope (Est. 0.31, SE 0.04, p<.001) and a man living amidst the most equitable gender norms had a lower log scope (Est. -0.52, SE 0.19, p<.01) of physical IPV acts perpetrated; however, no significant cross-level interaction was observed. Interventions that address the trauma of childhood violence and that promote more equitable community gender norms may be needed to mitigate IPV perpetration by younger men.

19.
Soc Sci Med ; 202: 162-169, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549822

RESUMO

Social norms increasingly are the focus of intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention strategies but are among the least examined contextual factors in quantitative violence research. This study assesses the within-community, between-community, and contextual effect of a new measure of social norms (PVNS: Partner Violence Norms Scale) on women's risk of IPV. Data come from baseline surveys collected from 1435 female, married, reproductive-age participants, residing in 72 wards in three districts (Chitwan, Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi) in Nepal who were enrolled in a cluster randomized trial testing the impact of a social behavioral change communication intervention designed to prevent IPV. Results of unconditional multilevel logistic regression models indicated that there was cluster-level variability in the 12-month prevalence of physical (ICC = 0.07) and sexual (ICC = 0.05) IPV. Mean PVNS scores also varied across wards. When modeled simultaneously, PVNS scores aggregated to the ward-level and at the individual-level were associated with higher odds of physical (ORind = 1.12, CI = 1.04, 1.20; ORward = 1.40, CI = 1.15, 1.72) and sexual (ORind = 1.15, CI = 1.08, 1.24; ORward = 1.47, CI = 1.24, 1.74) IPV. The contextual effect was significant in the physical (0.23, se = 0.11, t = 2.12) and sexual (0.24, se = 0.09, t = 2.64) IPV models, suggesting that the ward-level association was larger than that at the individual-level. Adjustment for covariates slightly attenuated the ward-level association and eliminated the contextual association, suggesting that individual perceptions and the collective community phenomena were equally strong predictors of women's risk of IPV and should be taken into consideration when planning interventions. PVNS is a promising measure of social norms underpinning women's risk of IPV and warrants further psychometric testing.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Child Abuse Negl ; 79: 164-172, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger. No studies have examined correlates of SV disclosure in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to assess the correlates of disclosing SV among Kenyan youth ages 13-24 who reported an SV experience before age 18. METHODS: In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Violence Prevention, the UNICEF Kenya Country Office, and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) conducted a national survey of violence against children. These data were used to conduct weighted logistic regression analyses to determine which factors were correlated with reporting SV disclosure. RESULTS: Among the 27.8% of girls/women and 14.5% of boys/men who reported SV before age 18, 44.6% of girls/women and 28.2% of boys/men reported to have disclosed the experience. In weighted logistic regression analysis, the odds of disclosure were lower among survivors who were boys/men and among survivors who reported more SV events, and higher when any perpetrator was a family member. CONCLUSION: More context-specific research on SV disclosure among young people is needed globally.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Revelação , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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