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Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279


This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522


The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).

Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797516


The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effects of the Typha elephantina aqueous extract (TE.AQ), ethanolic extract (TE.ET) and T. elephantina methanolic extract (TE.ME) against eight selected clinical pathogens. The test samples were tested for in-vitro analysis (by disc diffusion method) at different concentrations of 5, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/dL against both gram positive and gram-negative strains. The highest potential was observed in TE.ME at a concentration of 100 mg/dL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting 19.67 ± 0.577 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI). The same fraction also showed good activity against Staphylococus aureus with ZOI of 17.50 ± 0.70 mm. The TE.ET was found most active against P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes having ZOI of 18.53 ± 0.503 and 16.2 ± 1.55 mm respectively at a concentration of 100 mg/dL. The most sensitive bacteria P. aeruginosa was selected for in-vivo study (using poultry chicks) for induction of infection in chicks. The effects of TE.AQ, TE.ET and TE.ME were determined at concentrations of 300 mg/kg body weight based on hematological parameters, liver enzymes and gross pathological findings of lungs and livers. The findings of the in-vivo study in chick's model showed that treatment of experimental animals with TE.ME significantly restored the hematological parameters, liver enzymes and architecture of lungs and livers. Based on scientific evidence, the current study suggests that TE.ME may serve as a best and new natural antibacterial agent and can be used against infections caused by P. aeruginosa.