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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469249

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabes (LM), Willmotts index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabes (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e271574, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37255176

RESUMO

The study explores the Ichthyofaunal diversity of freshwater Cyprinidae fish in the Panjkora River of Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 911 fish samples were collected from 5 different sites along the river and identified using standard identification keys. Out of the 911 fish samples, 204 were related to family Cyprinidae, having 4 sub families, i.e Cyprininae representing 3 species i.e Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinus watsoni, Danioninae representing 6 species i.e Barilius modestus, Barilius vagra, Barilius pakistanicus, Amblypharangodon mola, Salmophasia punjabensis, Rasbora daniconius, Labeoninae representing 5 species i.e Tor putitora, Crossocheilus diplocheilus, Gara gotyla, Labeo rohita, Labeo diplocheilus, and Barbinae representing 6 species i.e Puntius ticto, Puntius sophore, Puntius chonchonius, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax labiatus and Schizothorax plagiostomus. This study adds 6 new species i.e Amblypharangodon mola, Salmophasia punjabensis, Labeo rohita, Labeo diplocheilus, Puntius chonchonius and Rasbora daniconius for the 1st time which are not reported earlier. EXCEL 2019 and XLSTAT were used for principal components analysis to study richness and correlation of fish diversity. Eigenvalues obtained from Sheringal to Zulam are 3.72, 0.511, 0.37, 0.29 and 0.09 respectively. The higher eigenvalue of Sheringal site shows higher diversity. Water quality study shows that the mean values of water temperature was 16.8°C, pH 7.08, total hardness134.6 mg/L, alkalinity 89.3 mg/L, Nitrate 5.93 mg/L, Chlorine 0.87 mg/L, Nitrite0.02 mg/L and Copper 0.04 mg/L, Iron 0.07 mg/L, Lead 0.002 mg/L. The physicochemical parameters of river Panjkora during the study time remained within the permissible limits as prescribed by the WHO (2005). Gut analysis revealed the presence of algae, nymphs insect's larvae, macroinvertebrates and protozoans.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cyprinidae , Animais , Rios , Paquistão , Cobre
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469104

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P 0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P 0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P 0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos terapêuticos das folhas metanólicas de Zizyphus oxyphyla (ZOX-LME) no fígado, rim e hematologia séricos, juntamente com outros parâmetros séricos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, seis coelhos em cada. Estes foram: grupo NC (controle normal), grupo TC (controle tóxico) e grupo ST, isto é, grupo administrado com silimarina na taxa de dose (50) mg / kg de peso corporal (PC). Grupo ET1 e grupo ET2 tratado com (ZOX-LME) na dose de 200 mg / kg de peso corporal e 400 mg / kg de peso corporal. A administração de CCl4 causou prejuízo significativo (P > 0,05) nas enzimas hepáticas séricas, fatores sanguíneos e outros índices séricos. O tratamento com (ZOX-LME) reduziu significativamente (P 0,05) e normalizou os níveis de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e os índices hematológicos. Também foi observada redução significativa (P 0,05) nas concentrações de creatinina, ureia, ácido úrico, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), albumina e glicose. Os níveis alterados de perfil lipídico e eletrólitos séricos (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K e P) foram significativamente (P 0,05) mudando em direção aos níveis normais com a alimentação (ZOX-LME). Além disso, a ingestão de (ZOX-LME) causou melhora significativa nos níveis de GSH, GST e CAT, enquanto reduzia os níveis de TBARS, exibindo capacidade antioxidante. Também (ZOX-LME) mostrou inibição aumentada contra a eliminação percentual do radical livre 2, 2-difenila-1-picrilehidrazila (DPPH). Efeitos de normalização significativos (P 0,05) foram observados com altas doses de 400 mg / kg de peso corporal de (ZOX-LME) e foram equivalentes aos grupos administrados com silimarina. O estudo histológico do fígado confirmou a atividade hepatoprotetora e curativa renal de (ZOX-LME).

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469150

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468888

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos terapêuticos das folhas metanólicas de Zizyphus oxyphyla (ZOX-LME) no fígado, rim e hematologia séricos, juntamente com outros parâmetros séricos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono (CCl4). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, seis coelhos em cada. Estes foram: grupo NC (controle normal), grupo TC (controle tóxico) e grupo ST, isto é, grupo administrado com silimarina na taxa de dose (50) mg / kg de peso corporal (PC). Grupo ET1 e grupo ET2 tratado com (ZOX-LME) na dose de 200 mg / kg de peso corporal e 400 mg / kg de peso corporal. A administração de CCl4 causou prejuízo significativo (P > 0,05) nas enzimas hepáticas séricas, fatores sanguíneos e outros índices séricos. O tratamento com (ZOX-LME) reduziu significativamente (P < 0,05) e normalizou os níveis de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e os índices hematológicos. Também foi observada redução significativa (P < 0,05) nas concentrações de creatinina, ureia, ácido úrico, nitrogênio ureico no sangue (BUN), albumina e glicose. Os níveis alterados de perfil lipídico e eletrólitos séricos (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K e P) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) mudando em direção aos níveis normais com a alimentação (ZOX-LME). Além disso, a ingestão de (ZOX-LME) causou melhora significativa nos níveis de GSH, GST e CAT, enquanto reduzia os níveis de TBARS, exibindo capacidade antioxidante. Também (ZOX-LME) mostrou inibição aumentada contra a eliminação percentual do radical livre 2, 2-difenila-1-picrilehidrazila (DPPH). Efeitos de normalização significativos (P < 0,05) foram observados com altas doses de 400 mg / kg de peso corporal de (ZOX-LME) e foram equivalentes aos grupos administrados com silimarina. O estudo histológico do fígado confirmou a atividade hepatoprotetora e curativa renal de (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Ziziphus , Coelhos
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468934

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Chenopodium/química , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730700

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
12.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797516

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effects of the Typha elephantina aqueous extract (TE.AQ), ethanolic extract (TE.ET) and T. elephantina methanolic extract (TE.ME) against eight selected clinical pathogens. The test samples were tested for in-vitro analysis (by disc diffusion method) at different concentrations of 5, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/dL against both gram positive and gram-negative strains. The highest potential was observed in TE.ME at a concentration of 100 mg/dL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting 19.67 ± 0.577 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI). The same fraction also showed good activity against Staphylococus aureus with ZOI of 17.50 ± 0.70 mm. The TE.ET was found most active against P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes having ZOI of 18.53 ± 0.503 and 16.2 ± 1.55 mm respectively at a concentration of 100 mg/dL. The most sensitive bacteria P. aeruginosa was selected for in-vivo study (using poultry chicks) for induction of infection in chicks. The effects of TE.AQ, TE.ET and TE.ME were determined at concentrations of 300 mg/kg body weight based on hematological parameters, liver enzymes and gross pathological findings of lungs and livers. The findings of the in-vivo study in chick's model showed that treatment of experimental animals with TE.ME significantly restored the hematological parameters, liver enzymes and architecture of lungs and livers. Based on scientific evidence, the current study suggests that TE.ME may serve as a best and new natural antibacterial agent and can be used against infections caused by P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Typhaceae/química , Animais , Galinhas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 1-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-882169

RESUMO

@#The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effects of the Typha elephantina aqueous extract (TE.AQ), ethanolic extract (TE.ET) and T. elephantina methanolic extract (TE.ME) against eight selected clinical pathogens. The test samples were tested for in-vitro analysis (by disc diffusion method) at different concentrations of 5, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/dL against both gram positive and gram-negative strains. The highest potential was observed in TE.ME at a concentration of 100 mg/dL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting 19.67 ± 0.577 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI). The same fraction also showed good activity against Staphylococus aureus with ZOI of 17.50 ± 0.70 mm. The TE.ET was found most active against P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes having ZOI of 18.53 ± 0.503 and 16.2 ± 1.55 mm respectively at a concentration of 100 mg/dL. The most sensitive bacteria P. aeruginosa was selected for in-vivo study (using poultry chicks) for induction of infection in chicks. The effects of TE.AQ, TE.ET and TE.ME were determined at concentrations of 300 mg/kg body weight based on hematological parameters, liver enzymes and gross pathological findings of lungs and livers. The findings of the in-vivo study in chick’s model showed that treatment of experimental animals with TE.ME significantly restored the hematological parameters, liver enzymes and architecture of lungs and livers. Based on scientific evidence, the current study suggests that TE.ME may serve as a best and new natural antibacterial agent and can be used against infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

14.
Child Care Health Dev ; 43(4): 577-587, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition contributes to at least half the estimated six million annual childhood deaths worldwide. Furthermore, one in three children fails to meet their developmental potential because of risks including stunting, illness, under-stimulation, poor responsive interactions and maternal depressive symptoms. Our study investigates the role of caregiving processes on children's height-for-age at 2 and 4 years. METHODS: The Pakistan Early Child Development Scale-up study assessed the longitudinal effectiveness of early nutrition and responsive stimulation interventions on growth and development at 4 years of age. In total, 1302 children were followed up from birth to 4 years. We leveraged path analyses to explore potential mediators of early intervention effects on children's height-for-age at 4 years, including maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interaction quality, diarrhoeal illness and height-for-age at 2 years. RESULTS: Our final model had excellent model fit (comparative fix index = 0.999, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.998, root mean square error of approximation = 0.008) and showed that mother-child interaction quality mediated the effects of both enhanced nutrition and responsive stimulation interventions on height-for-age at 4 years via its longitudinal stability from 2 years of age (ß = 0.016, p = 0.005; ß = 0.048, p < 0.001, respectively). Further, diarrhoeal illness mediated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms at 1 year post partum on children's height-for-age at 4 years via the longitudinal stability of height-for-age z-score from 2 years of age onwards (ß = -0.007, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of early caregiving experience mediated the association between both interventions and height-for-age. The effect of maternal depressive symptoms on growth was mediated by diarrhoeal illness. Programmatic approaches to child nutrition and growth must address all these potentially modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Transtornos do Crescimento , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/complicações , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/educação , Estado Nutricional , Paquistão , Pobreza
15.
Child Care Health Dev ; 43(3): 427-434, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the significance of early language for later academic achievement, language development can be an important outcome measure in evaluation of early childhood intervention programmes. Language development may be challenging to assess in settings where trained personnel are hard to find; therefore, maternal report can be a reliable alternative measure. AIM: The aim of this study was to adapt a maternal report measure, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory II-Short Form, in the Sindhi language and to examine its psychometric properties as a measure of language outcome in 2-year-old children in rural Pakistan. METHODS: A three-phase process was followed to produce a Sindhi adaptation of the tool comprising 100 words. The first phase was a review of the original 258 words through a focus group discussion with a team familiar with the context; the second phase was testing 258 words to compile a 100-word list of easy, moderate and difficult words. The third phase was a pilot of the 100-word list followed by administration in a larger intervention study population. RESULTS: On administration with 1381 children, concurrent validity with the Bayley Scale of Infant Development III using the Pearson's correlation test showed a moderate association for comprehension (r = 0.45, p = 0.01, n = 1381) and good association for expression (r = 0.51, p = 0.01, n = 1381). Internal consistency was high with alphas of 0.98 for comprehension items and 0.96 for expression items. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Sindhi adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory followed a feasible and rigorous methodology to create a reliable and sensitive tool to assess young children's language development for use in a child assessment battery for early childhood health, nutrition and development studies.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pais/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural
16.
Child Care Health Dev ; 41(6): 1161-71, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the development and reliability testing of an observational tool to measure mother-child interactions with toddlers aged 2 years in a rural low-income country setting. METHODS: The development protocol comprised five phases with iterative revisions: (1) identification of the theoretical framework for responsive behaviours and selection of items; (2) field testing; (3) expert review; (4) training of the data collection team; and (5) piloting. The final tool was a structured live observational measure assessing a 5-min interaction of a shared picture-book-reading activity. Maternal behaviours assessed included affect, touch, verbal statements and language stimulation; child behaviours assessed included affect, communication and attention. RESULTS: Following development, the mother-child interaction tool was administered on a cohort of 1390 children at 2 years of age. Using a video strategy, inter-observer reliability assessed by the Bland-Altman test for mother-child dyads suggested moderate agreement between expert and field assessors on total scores (r = 0.681**, P < 0.001, n = 154). Significant associations of the total interaction score correlations using Pearson's' correlations were found with the Responsiveness (r = 0.271**, P < 0.001, n = 1345) and Involvement (r = 0.325**, P < 0.001, n = 1345) subscales of the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment-Infant Toddler Inventory, maternal knowledge (r = 0.203**, P < 0.001, n = 1345), maternal depression (r = .-063**, P < 0.001, n = 1345), child cognitive development (r = 0.392**, P < 0.001, n = 1345) and language development (r = 0.620**, P < 0.001, n = 1345) assessed using the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that this tool can be reliably used by trained assessors to measure mother-child interactions in field studies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Observação , Paquistão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Gravação de Videoteipe
17.
East Mediterr Health J ; 17(5): 446-52, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21796959

RESUMO

There is a general scarcitly of resources for delivery of services to the population in all social welfare and development sectors, with the health sector being no exception. In developing countries, lack of trained manpower, illiteracy and compliance issues make health care interventions even more complex. Various community-based projects have used women as a specific group for delivery of health care interventions. The objective of this paper was to review published studies that evaluated women's groups for the promotion of health and prevention of disease. A total of 8 studies were reviewed. Women's groups have proved to be a convenient and workable option for delivering health care interventions in several developing countries.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Mulheres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos
18.
(East. Mediterr. health j).
em Inglês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-118639

RESUMO

There is a general scarcity of resources for delivery of services to the population in all social welfare and development sectors, with the health sector being no exception. In developing countries, lack of trained manpower, illiteracy and compliance issues make health care interventions even more complex. Various community-based projects have used women as a specific group for delivery of health care interventions. The objective of this paper was to review published studies that evaluated women's groups for the promotion of health and prevention of disease. A total of 8 studies were reviewed. Women's groups have proved to be a convenient and workable option for delivering health care interventions in several developing countries


Assuntos
Mulheres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Promoção da Saúde
19.
Disabil Rehabil ; 29(5): 367-71, 2007 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17364788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies both in North America and Europe have found that deaf individuals lack access to AIDS information, due to problems in communication, low literacy and tightly woven social networks within the deaf community. However few comparable studies are available from countries in the Developing World. The present study was undertaken in Nigeria where there is an estimated adult HIV prevalence rate of 5.4%. We sought to compare HIV knowledge among deaf and hearing individuals in order to identify how effectively deaf members of the community are being reached by HIV/AIDS messages. METHODS: A survey comparing knowledge about HIV/AIDS among deaf and hard of hearing adolescents (n = 50) and young adults (n = 50) was undertaken. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05) in levels of understanding about certain aspects of how AIDS is spread were identified as well as differences in available resources for access to accurate information among deaf members of the population. CONCLUSION: These findings from Nigeria speak strongly to the need for the development of interventions that include people with disabilities in public health and HIV/AIDS strategies and that address their specific vulnerabilities. Evaluating the adaptation of education material and the inclusion of the deaf population in HIV awareness programmes is an urgent 'next step.'


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria
20.
Disabil Rehabil ; 27(22): 1357-63, 2005 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16372430

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study had two aims: (2) To explore whether knowledge about HIV and AIDS was similar among adolescents with disabilities compared with their non-disabled peers; and (2) To determine factors which may increase vulnerability of disabled adolescents to HIV infection and/or inappropriate access to HIV-related services. METHOD: A qualitative study using focus group discussions and sem-structured interviews was conducted with purposefully selected participants in Rwanda and Uganda. The participants included disabled adolescents, non-disabled adolescents, parents, teachers, members of disabled people's organisations and representatives of HIV/AIDS organisations. Interviews explored issues of HIV/AIDS knowledge, access to HIV/AIDS services and perceptions of personal risk. RESULTS: Barriers preventing adequate access to information about HIV and AIDS experienced by adolescents with disabilities depended on the nature and severity of the impairment. For example, parents and health workers were unable to communicate with deaf adolescents using sign language, adolescents with physical impairments were often unable to access community meetings about HIV and print material was not adapted for those with visual impairments. Further, assumptions by health workers and community members that people with disabilities were not sexually active led to the marginalisation of disabled people from HIV services. Adolescents with disability described low self-esteem and issues of self-efficacy affecting control of safer sexual relationships. A high level of targeted abuse, rape and exploitation was reported leading to vulnerability among this population. CONCLUSION: The impact of the HIV epidemic among people with disabilities is a neglected area. This study supports the need to develop strategies in HIV prevention programmes that include people with disabilities.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Infecções por HIV , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atenção à Saúde , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Relações Pais-Filho , Relações Profissional-Paciente , População Rural , Ruanda , Uganda , População Urbana
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