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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and replicate, using data-driven methods, a novel classification system in Takayasu's arteritis based on distribution of arterial lesions. METHODS: Patients were included from four international cohorts at major academic centres: India (Christian Medical College Vellore); North America (National Institutes of Health, Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium and Cleveland Clinic Foundation). All patients underwent whole-body angiography of the aorta and branch vessels, with categorization of arterial damage (stenosis, occlusion or aneurysm) in 13 territories. K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify subgroups of patients based on pattern of angiographic involvement. Cluster groups were identified in the Indian cohort and independently replicated in the North American cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 806 patients with Takayasu's arteritis from India (n = 581) and North America (n = 225) were included. Three distinct clusters defined by arterial damage were identified in the Indian cohort and replicated in each of the North American cohorts. Patients in cluster one had significantly more disease in the abdominal aorta, renal and mesenteric arteries (P < 0.01). Patients in cluster two had significantly more bilateral disease in the carotid and subclavian arteries (P < 0.01). Compared with clusters one and two, patients in cluster three had asymmetric disease with fewer involved territories (P < 0.01). Demographics, clinical symptoms and clinical outcomes differed by cluster. CONCLUSION: This large study in Takayasu's arteritis identified and replicated three novel subsets of patients based on patterns of arterial damage. Angiographic-based disease classification requires validation by demonstrating potential aetiological or prognostic implications.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated potential circulating biomarkers of disease activity in giant cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu's arteritis (TAK), polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss). METHODS: A panel of 22 serum proteins was tested in patients enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Longitudinal Studies of GCA, TAK, PAN, or EGPA. Mixed models were used for most analyses. A J48 classification tree method was used to find the most relevant markers to differentiate between active and inactive GCA. RESULTS: 418 samples from 152 patients (60 GCA, 29 TAK, 26 PAN, 37 EGPA), during both active vasculitis and remission, were tested. In GCA, BCA-1/CXCL13, ESR, IP-10/CXCL10, sIL-2Rα, and TIMP-1 showed significant (P<0.05) differences between disease states. In EGPA, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, and sIL-2Rα showed significant increases during active disease, as did BCA-1/CXCL13 but only after adjustment for treatment. In PAN, ESR and MMP-3 showed significant differences between disease states. Differences in biomarker levels between diseases were significant for 11 markers and were more striking (all P<0.01) than differences related to disease activity. A combination of lower values of TIMP-1, IL-6, INFÉ£, and MMP-3 correctly classified 87% of samples with inactive GCA. CONCLUSION: We identified novel biomarkers of disease activity in GCA and EGPA. Differences of biomarker levels between diseases, independent of disease activity, were more apparent than differences related to disease activity. Further studies are needed to determine whether these serum proteins have potential for clinical use in distinguishing active disease from remission or in predicting longer-term outcomes.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1769-1780, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between adult- and childhood-onset biopsy-proven IgA vasculitis (IgAV) in North America. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with IgAV diagnosed from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2016, were retrospectively identified. Data were abstracted from direct medical record review. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 243 patients with IgAV were included (227 [93.4%] white, 141 [58.0%] male); 174 patients were adults (≥21 years), and 69 were younger than 21 years. Compared with patients younger than 21 years, adults at baseline more frequently had ulcerative skin lesions (19 [10.9%] vs 1 [1.4%]; P=.02) and nephrotic-range proteinuria (21 of 96 [21.9%] vs 1 of 38 [2.6%]; P=.007) but less commonly had abdominal pain (59 [33.9%] vs 42 [60.9%]; P<.001), ischemic gastrointestinal tract involvement (18 [10.3%] vs 14 [20.3%]; P=.04), and arthralgias (66 [37.9%] vs 42 [60.8%]; P<.001). During 389 person-years of follow-up, 29 deaths were observed. Five-year survival rates for patients aged younger than 21, 21 to 50, and 51 years or older were 100%, 94%, and 40%, respectively. In comparison to data from the United States life tables for whites, patients 51 years or older at diagnosis had a greater than 7-fold increased risk of mortality (standardized mortality, 7.60 [95% CI, 5.01-11.06]; P<.001). CONCLUSION: IgA vasculitis in adults is associated with more severe skin/kidney involvement and poorer renal outcome. Among adults with IgAV, patients aged 51 years or older at diagnosis have significantly higher mortality (P<.001).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate, using computer-driven methods, patterns of arterial disease in Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: Patients with TAK or GCA were studied from the Diagnostic and Classification Criteria for Vasculitis (DCVAS) cohort and a combined North American (NA) cohort. Case inclusion required evidence of large-vessel involvement, defined as stenosis, occlusion, or aneurysm by angiography/ultrasonography, or increased FDG uptake by positron-emission tomography (PET) in at least one of 11 specified arterial territories. K-means cluster analysis identified groups of patients based on pattern of arterial involvement. Cluster groups were identified in the DCVAS cohort and independently validated in the NA cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1,068 patients were included (DCVAS: TAK=461, GCA=217; NA: TAK=225, GCA=165). Six distinct clusters of patients were identified in DCVAS and validated in the NA cohort. Patients with TAK were more likely to have disease in the abdominal vasculature, bilateral disease of the subclavian and carotid arteries, or focal disease limited to the left subclavian artery than GCA (p<0.01). Patients with GCA were more likely to have diffuse disease, involvement of bilateral axillary/subclavian arteries, or minimal disease without a definable pattern than TAK (p<0.01). Patients with TAK were more likely to have damage by angiography, and patients with GCA were more likely to have arterial FDG-uptake by PET without associated vascular damage. CONCLUSION: Arterial patterns of disease highlight both shared and divergent vascular patterns between TAK and GCA and should be incorporated into classification criteria for large-vessel vasculitis.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1888-1893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of venous thromboembolism (VTE) events in the Rituximab in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (RAVE) trial and identify novel potential risk factors. METHODS: VTE events in 197 patients enrolled in the RAVE trial were analyzed. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with VTE in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). RESULTS: VTE occurred in 16 patients (8.1%) with an overall average time to event of 1.5 months (range 1.0-2.75). In univariate analyses with calculation of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), heart involvement (HR 17.408 [95% CI 2.247-134.842]; P = 0.006), positive proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA (HR 7.731 [95% CI 1.021-58.545]; P = 0.048), pulmonary hemorrhage (HR 3.889 [95% CI 1.448-10.448]; P = 0.008), and the presence of red blood cell casts (HR 15.617 [95% CI 3.491-69.854]; P < 0.001) were associated with the onset of VTE. In multivariate models adjusted for age and sex, the significant associations between VTE events and heart involvement (HR 21.836 [95% CI 2.566-185.805]; P = 0.005), PR3-ANCA (HR 9.12 [95% CI 1.158-71.839]; P = 0.036), pulmonary hemorrhage (HR 3.91 [95% CI 1.453-10.522]; P = 0.007), and urinary red blood cell casts (HR 16.455 [95% CI 3.607-75.075]; P < 0.001) remained. CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed as having AAV with pulmonary hemorrhage, positive PR3-ANCA, heart involvement, and the presence of red blood cell casts are at an increased risk to develop VTE. Further studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings and to explore the mechanisms of hypercoagulability in these patients with the aim of informing potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the indication, outcomes and adverse effects of rituximab treatment in a large single-center cohort of patients with systemic rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 17 patients treated with rituximab for systemic RV from 2000 to 2017. Clinical characteristics, outcomes and adverse effects were analyzed. RESULTS: At RV diagnosis, mean age was 59 years, 59% were female, 94% were Caucasian and 82% had positive rheumatoid factor. At time of initiating rituximab, median BVAS/RA was 4.0 (IQR, 2.0-7.5). RV presented in the skin in 8 patients (47%), as mononeuritis multiplex in 2 (12%), inflammatory ocular disease in 2 (12%), and affected multiple organ systems in 5 (29%). Rituximab was used for induction in 8 (47%) patients, relapsing RV in 4 (24%), second-line in 2 (12%), and salvage therapy or in combination with another agent in 3 (18%). At 3 months, 2 (13%) of 15 patients with available follow up information achieved complete remission (CR), and 10 (67%) achieved partial response (PR). At 6 months, 6 patients (40%) achieved CR, 8 (53%) achieved PR, and one had no response. At 12 months, 8 of 13 patients with available records (62%) had CR and 5 patients (38%) had PR. CONCLUSION: Systemic RV is difficult to treat effectively. Complete remission of RV was achieved in 62% and partial response in 38% of patients within 12 months of rituximab use. Further evidence is needed to inform treatment for patients with RV.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe tracheobronchial disease in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and evaluate the utility of dynamic expiratory CT to detect large-airway disease. METHODS: Demographic and clinical features associated with the presence of subglottic stenosis (SGS) or endobronchial involvement were assessed in a multicentre, observational cohort of patients with GPA. A subset of patients with GPA from a single-centre cohort underwent dynamic chest CT to evaluate the airways. RESULTS: Among 962 patients with GPA, SGS and endobronchial disease were identified in 95 (10%) and 59 (6%) patients, respectively. Patients with SGS were more likely to be female (72% vs 53%, P < 0.01), younger at time of diagnosis (36 vs 49 years, P < 0.01), and have saddle-nose deformities (28% vs 10%, P < 0.01), but were less likely to have renal involvement (39% vs 62%, P < 0.01). Patients with endobronchial disease were more likely to be PR3-ANCA positive (85% vs 66%, P < 0.01), with more ENT involvement (97% vs 77%, P < 0.01) and less renal involvement (42% vs 62%, P < 0.01). Disease activity in patients with large-airway disease was commonly isolated to the subglottis/upper airway (57%) or bronchi (32%). Seven of 23 patients screened by dynamic chest CT had large-airway pathology, including four patients with chronic, unexplained cough, discovered to have tracheobronchomalacia. CONCLUSION: SGS and endobronchial disease occur in 10% and 6% of patients with GPA, respectively, and may occur without disease activity in other organs. Dynamic expiratory chest CT is a potential non-invasive screening test for large-airway involvement in GPA.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 46(8): 928-934, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a collection of item banks of self-reported health. This study assessed the feasibility and construct validity of using PROMIS instruments in vasculitis. METHODS: Data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort of subjects with systemic vasculitis were used. Instruments from 10 PROMIS item banks were selected with direct involvement of patients. Subjects completed PROMIS instruments using computer adaptive testing (CAT). The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) was also administered. Cross-sectional construct validity was assessed by calculating correlations of PROMIS scores with SF-36 measures and physician and patient global scores for disease activity. Longitudinal construct validity was assessed by correlations of between-visit differences in PROMIS scores with differences in other measures. RESULTS: During the study period, 973 subjects came for 2306 study visits and the PROMIS collection was completed at 2276 (99%) of visits. The median time needed to complete each PROMIS instrument ranged from 40 to 55 s. PROMIS instruments correlated cross-sectionally with individual scales of the SF-36, most strongly with subscales of the SF-36 addressing the same domain as the PROMIS instrument. For example, PROMIS fatigue correlated with both the physical component score (PCS; r = -0.65) and with the mental component score (MCS; r = -0.54). PROMIS physical function correlated strongly with PCS (r = 0.81) but weakly with MCS (r = 0.29). Weaker correlations were observed longitudinally between change in PROMIS scores with change in PCS and MCS. CONCLUSION: Collection of data using CAT PROMIS instruments is feasible among patients with vasculitis and has some cross-sectional and longitudinal construct validity.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 32-39, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterise the presenting features and outcomes of patients with vasculitis and gastrointestinal perforation. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, this study included 20 cases with verified vasculitis and gastrointestinal perforation at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA, between 1998 and 2017. RESULTS: Four of the twenty cases experienced vasculitis-induced perforation. Cases with perforations due to vasculitic involvement had more small bowel involvement, longer duration of abdominal pain prior to perforation (41 days vs. 0 days, p=0.005), and a higher proportion of active tobacco use (75% vs. 7%, p=0.01) compared to the cases with non-vasculitis perforation. A majority (88%) of the non-vasculitis perforations were associated with glucocorticoid use. The median cumulative glucocorticoid dose prior to perforation in patients with additional, non-vasculitic risk factors for perforation was 4,320 mg prednisone and was 22,170 mg for those without additional risk factors. Mortality rates for the whole cohort were higher than the general population (standardised mortality ratio: 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 4.02). The cases with vasculitis-induced perforation tended to have increased number of surgeries and length of stay compared to the non-vasculitis cases; however, those differences failed to reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Small bowel location and longer abdominal pain duration may help distinguish vasculitis-induced bowel perforation from other etiologies. Overall mortality in patients with vasculitis and bowel perforation is increased, highlighting the importance of prompt diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Perfuração Intestinal , Vasculite , Dor Abdominal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Intestino Delgado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vasculite/complicações
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380100

RESUMO

Background: Prior work has shown that urinary soluble CD163 (usCD163) displays excellent biomarker characteristics for detection of active renal vasculitis using samples that included new diagnoses with highly active renal disease. This study focused on the use of usCD163 in the detection of the more clinically relevant state of mild renal flare and compared results of usCD163 testing directly to testing of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1). Methods: Patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV, n = 88) were identified within a serially sampled, longitudinal and multicentre cohort. Creatinine-normalized usCD163 and uMCP-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and, both alone and in combination, were compared between times of active renal AAV and during remission and/or active non-renal AAV. Results: Samples from 320 study visits included times of active renal vasculitis (n = 39), remission (n = 233) and active extrarenal vasculitis (n = 48). Median creatinine levels were 0.9 mg/dL [interquartile range (IQR) 0.8-1.2] in remission and 1.4 mg/dL (IQR 1.0-1.8) during renal flare. usCD163 levels were higher in patients with active renal vasculitis compared with patients in remission and those with active extrarenal vasculitis, with median values of 162 ng/mmol (IQR 79-337), 44 (17-104) and 38 (7-76), respectively (P < 0.001). uMCP-1 levels were also higher in patients with active renal vasculitis compared with patients in remission and those with active extrarenal vasculitis, with median values of 10.6 pg/mmol (IQR 4.6-23.5), 4.1 (2.5-8.4) and 4.1 (1.9-6.8), respectively (P < 0.001). The proposed diagnostic cut-points for usCD163 and uMCP-1 were 72.9 ng/mmol and 10.0 pg/mmol, respectively. usCD163 and uMCP-1 levels were marginally correlated (r2 = 0.11, P < 0.001). Combining novel and existing biomarkers using recursive tree partitioning indicated that elevated usCD163 plus either elevated uMCP-1 or new/worse proteinuria improved the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of active renal vasculitis to 19.2. Conclusion: A combination of usCD163 and uMCP-1 measurements appears to be useful in identifying the diagnosis of subtle renal vasculitis flare.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205768, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identification of a biomarker for disease activity in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss) remains an unmet need. This study examined the value of serum periostin, a marker of type 2 inflammation, as a measure of disease activity in patients with EGPA. METHODS: Participants enrolled in a multicenter, prospective cohort of patients with EGPA were included in this study if they had disease activity (defined as Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS] > 0) during follow-up. Serum levels of periostin were measured at flare visit as well as two pre- and two post-flare visits, if available. The outcome of disease activity was assessed either with BVAS or Physician Global Assessment (PGA). Mixed-effect models were used to examine the association between periostin levels and disease activity. Comparisons were made with a historical cohort of healthy individuals and patients with asthma. RESULTS: In the 49 patients included in the study, the median periostin level was 60 ng/ml (IQR 50 to 73) in all visits and did not significantly change across visits. Multivariate analyses found no association between periostin level and presence or absence of flare according to the BVAS (adjusted OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.98 to 1.02], p = 0.98) but an increase in periostin level was significantly associated with greater disease severity during a flare according to the PGA (adjusted beta-coefficient 0.02 [95% CI 0.004 to 0.03], p = 0.01). Periostin levels in EGPA were significantly higher than previously studied healthy controls and patients with asthma. CONCLUSION: In EGPA serum periostin level is modestly associated with greater disease severity during a flare but does not discriminate active from inactive disease. Periostin levels in EGPA are higher than in other previously studied cohorts, including healthy populations and patients with asthma, and are relatively stable over time.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(12): 2077-2086, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in human subjects, and to assess the role of MIF in a murine model of granulomatous vasculitis. METHODS: The human study involved 1,077 patients with GPA and healthy controls whose serum was genotyped by capillary electrophoresis for the MIF -794 CATT5-8 promoter microsatellite (rs5844572). MIF promoter, CATT-length-dependent gene expression in response to ß-glucan was assessed by gene reporter assays. In mouse studies, granulomatous disease was induced by injection of Candida albicans ß-glucan into wild-type (WT) or Mif-knockout (Mif-KO) C57BL/6 mice and C57BL/6 mice transgenically overexpressing Mif in lung epithelium (Mif lung-Tg2.1). Mice were treated with a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody and analyzed for the density of pulmonary granulomas, expression of inflammatory chemokines, and frequency of mortality. RESULTS: The percentage of human subjects carrying >5 CATT repeats in each MIF allele (high genotypic MIF expressers) was 60.2% among patients with GPA and 53.9% among healthy controls (adjusted P = 0.049). In response to granulomatous stimulation, human MIF gene expression increased proportionally with CATT length. Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice exhibited more pulmonary granulomas than WT mice, which in turn showed more granulomas than Mif-KO mice. A significantly higher percentage of Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice, compared to Mif-KO or WT mice, died when injected with Candida albicans ß-glucan, and treatment of these mice with an anti-MIF monoclonal antibody protected against a lethal outcome. Levels of MIF-dependent neutrophil/macrophage chemokines were elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or plasma of Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice. CONCLUSION: Patients with GPA have an increased frequency of high MIF expression CATT alleles. Higher Mif expression increases the incidence of mortality and pulmonary granulomas in Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice, while anti-MIF treatment protects these mice against death. Blockade of MIF in high genotypic MIF expressers may therefore offer a selective pharmacologic therapy for GPA.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate large-vessel (LV) abnormalities on serial imaging in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and discern predictors of new lesions. METHODS: Clinical and imaging data from patients with GCA (including subjects diagnosed by LV imaging) enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study and/or a randomized clinical trial were included. New arterial lesions were defined as a lesion in a previously unaffected artery. RESULTS: The study included 187 patients with GCA, 146 (78%) female, mean (±SD) age at diagnosis 68.5 ± 8.5 years; 39% diagnosed by LV imaging. At least one arterial lesion was present in 123 (66%) on the first study. The most frequently affected arteries were subclavian (42%), axillary (32%), and thoracic aorta (20%). In 106 patients (57%) with serial imaging, new arterial lesions were noted in 41 patients (39%), all of whom had a baseline abnormality, over a mean (±SD) follow-up of 4.39 (2.22) years. New abnormalities were observed in 33% patients by year 2; clinical features of active disease were present at only 50% of these cases. There were no differences in age, sex, temporal artery biopsy positivity, or disease activity in patients with or without new lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with GCA, LV abnormalities on first imaging were common. Development of new arterial lesions occurred in patients with arterial abnormalities at first imaging, often in the absence of symptoms of active disease. Arterial imaging should be considered in all patients with GCA at diagnosis and serial imaging at least in patients with baseline abnormalities.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is associated with immune-mediated disorders. We explored the contribution of smoking to polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) phenotypes and attempted to determine whether cigarette smoking effects differ by race and genotype. METHODS: Associations of tobacco smoking with disease features, autoantibodies, HLA types, and race were evaluated using multiple logistic regressions in 465 patients. RESULTS: Caucasian ever-smokers (n = 140) were more likely to have PM (adjusted OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.41-3.57), anti-synthetase (adjusted OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.12-3.34) and anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies (adjusted OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.08-3.46) and less likely to have anti-p155/140 autoantibodies (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.92). In Caucasians, ever-smokers had a greater interstitial lung disease (ILD) frequency than never-smokers, while in African-Americans this relationship was inverted, but neither trend reached statistical significance. Pack-years of cigarette smoking showed significant positive associations with PM (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.002-1.04) and ILD (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.001-1.03) and was inversely associated with anti-p155/140 autoantibodies (adjusted OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99) in Caucasians. Caucasian heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were more likely to have PM (adjusted OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.25-5.09), ILD (adjusted OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.23-5.00) and anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies (adjusted OR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.08) than never-smokers. In Caucasians, compared to never-smokers without HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele, ever-smokers with HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele had the highest odds of PM, ILD, ASA, and anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies. Risks for those with only one of these two factors were intermediate. An inverse pattern was observed regarding anti-p155/140 autoantibodies. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking was associated with clinical and autoantibody phenotypes in Caucasians. Our findings also suggest possible interactions among HLA-DRB1*03:01 and smoking on the risk of PM and ILD, as well as, anti-synthetase, anti-Jo-1, and anti-p155/140 autoantibodies in Caucasians.

17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(2): 322-328, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112740

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate damage and variables associated with damage in GCA. Methods: Patients with GCA enrolled in a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal study were included. Per-protocol assessments were made with the Vasculitis Damage Index and the Large-Vessel Vasculitis Index of Damage. Results: The study included 204 patients: 156 women (76%), mean age at diagnosis 71.3 years (s.d. 8.3), mean follow-up of 3.5 years (s.d. 1.9). One or more damage item was present in 54% at baseline and 79% at the last follow-up on the Vasculitis Damage Index, and 60% at baseline and 82% at the last follow-up on the Large-Vessel Vasculitis Index of Damage. The most frequently observed damage items were large-artery complications (29% cohort) and ocular (22%). Among 117 patients with new damage, most new items were ocular (63 patients), cardiac/vascular (48) and musculoskeletal (34). Of these, treatment-associated items were frequently observed, including cataracts (46 patients), osteoporosis (22) and weight gain (22). Disease-associated new damage included ischaemic optic neuropathy (3 patients), limb claudication (13), arterial occlusions (10) and damage requiring vascular intervention (10). In univariate analysis, the risk of damage increased 22% for every additional year of disease duration [odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.04, 1.45)]. In 94 patients enrolled within ⩽90 days of diagnosis of GCA, the risk of new damage at the last follow-up decreased 30% for each additional relapse [OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.51, 0.97)]. Conclusions: Large-artery complications and ocular manifestations are the most commonly occurring items of damage in GCA. Most new damage is associated with treatment. These findings emphasize the cumulative burden of disease in GCA.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Arterite de Células Gigantes/complicações , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
RMD Open ; 3(2): e000507, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177080

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the methodology used to develop new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and their major subgroups. Methods: An international, multidisciplinary group of myositis experts produced a set of 93 potentially relevant variables to be tested for inclusion in the criteria. Rheumatology, dermatology, neurology and paediatric clinics worldwide collected data on 976 IIM cases (74% adults, 26% children) and 624 non-IIM comparator cases with mimicking conditions (82% adults, 18% children). The participating clinicians classified each case as IIM or non-IIM. Generally, the classification of any given patient was based on few variables, leaving remaining variables unmeasured. We investigated the strength of the association between all variables and between these and the disease status as determined by the physician. We considered three approaches: (1) a probability-score approach, (2) a sum-of-items approach criteria and (3) a classification-tree approach. Results: The approaches yielded several candidate models that were scrutinised with respect to statistical performance and clinical relevance. The probability-score approach showed superior statistical performance and clinical practicability and was therefore preferred over the others. We developed a classification tree for subclassification of patients with IIM. A calculator for electronic devices, such as computers and smartphones, facilitates the use of the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR) classification criteria. Conclusions: The new EULAR/ACR classification criteria provide a patient's probability of having IIM for use in clinical and research settings. The probability is based on a score obtained by summing the weights associated with a set of criteria items.

19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(12): 2271-2282, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and their major subgroups. METHODS: Candidate variables were assembled from published criteria and expert opinion using consensus methodology. Data were collected from 47 rheumatology, dermatology, neurology, and pediatric clinics worldwide. Several statistical methods were utilized to derive the classification criteria. RESULTS: Based on data from 976 IIM patients (74% adults; 26% children) and 624 non-IIM patients with mimicking conditions (82% adults; 18% children), new criteria were derived. Each item is assigned a weighted score. The total score corresponds to a probability of having IIM. Subclassification is performed using a classification tree. A probability cutoff of 55%, corresponding to a score of 5.5 (6.7 with muscle biopsy) "probable IIM," had best sensitivity/specificity (87%/82% without biopsies, 93%/88% with biopsies) and is recommended as a minimum to classify a patient as having IIM. A probability of ≥90%, corresponding to a score of ≥7.5 (≥8.7 with muscle biopsy), corresponds to "definite IIM." A probability of <50%, corresponding to a score of <5.3 (<6.5 with muscle biopsy), rules out IIM, leaving a probability of ≥50-<55% as "possible IIM." CONCLUSION: The European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR) classification criteria for IIM have been endorsed by international rheumatology, dermatology, neurology, and pediatric groups. They employ easily accessible and operationally defined elements, and have been partially validated. They allow classification of "definite," "probable," and "possible" IIM, in addition to the major subgroups of IIM, including juvenile IIM. They generally perform better than existing criteria.


Assuntos
Miosite/classificação , Miosite/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reumatologia/normas , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia/normas , Criança , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(12): 1955-1964, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29079590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and their major subgroups. METHODS: Candidate variables were assembled from published criteria and expert opinion using consensus methodology. Data were collected from 47 rheumatology, dermatology, neurology and paediatric clinics worldwide. Several statistical methods were used to derive the classification criteria. RESULTS: Based on data from 976 IIM patients (74% adults; 26% children) and 624 non-IIM patients with mimicking conditions (82% adults; 18% children), new criteria were derived. Each item is assigned a weighted score. The total score corresponds to a probability of having IIM. Subclassification is performed using a classification tree. A probability cut-off of 55%, corresponding to a score of 5.5 (6.7 with muscle biopsy) 'probable IIM', had best sensitivity/specificity (87%/82% without biopsies, 93%/88% with biopsies) and is recommended as a minimum to classify a patient as having IIM. A probability of ≥90%, corresponding to a score of ≥7.5 (≥8.7 with muscle biopsy), corresponds to 'definite IIM'. A probability of <50%, corresponding to a score of <5.3 (<6.5 with muscle biopsy), rules out IIM, leaving a probability of ≥50 to <55% as 'possible IIM'. CONCLUSIONS: The European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR) classification criteria for IIM have been endorsed by international rheumatology, dermatology, neurology and paediatric groups. They employ easily accessible and operationally defined elements, and have been partially validated. They allow classification of 'definite', 'probable' and 'possible' IIM, in addition to the major subgroups of IIM, including juvenile IIM. They generally perform better than existing criteria.


Assuntos
Miosite/classificação , Miosite/diagnóstico , Reumatologia/normas , Adulto , Biópsia/normas , Criança , Consenso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Probabilidade , Valores de Referência , Reumatologia/organização & administração , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
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