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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826053

RESUMO

In the present study, bifunctional fusion proteins were designed by fusing the kringle 2 and protease domains of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to the C-terminal fragment of hirudin. The thrombolytic and anticoagulant activities of these recombinant proteins from mammalian cells were investigated using in vitro coagulation models and chromogenic assays. The results showed that all assayed tPA mutants retained catalytic activity. The C-terminal fragment of hirudin may have weak affinity to thrombin and thus was insufficient to suppress thrombin-mediated fibrin agglutination. The strength of the thrombolytic activity only relied on the selected tPA sequences, and the fibrinolytic efficiency of single-chain protein significantly decreased. Our data indicate that truncated tPA combined with a hirudin peptide may provide a framework for the further development of a new antithrombotic agent.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 186, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420036

RESUMO

Stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) is highly sought after for lithium metal batteries (LMB) owing to its efficient electrolyte consumption suppression and Li dendrite growth inhibition. However, current design strategies can hardly endow a multifunctional SEI formation due to the non-uniform, low flexible film formation and limited capability to alter Li nucleation/growth orientation, which results in unconstrained dendrite growth and short cycling stability. Herein, we present a novel strategy to employ electrolyte additives containing catechol and acrylic groups to construct a stable multifunctional SEI by in-situ anionic polymerization. This self-smoothing and robust SEI offers multiple sites for Li adsorption and steric repulsion to constrain nucleation/growth process, leading to homogenized Li nanosphere formation. This isotropic nanosphere offers non-preferred Li growth orientation, rendering uniform Li deposition to achieve a dendrite-free anode. Attributed to these superiorities, a remarkable cycling performance can be obtained, i.e., high current density up to 10 mA cm-2, ultra-long cycle life over 8500 hrs operation, high cumulative capacity over 4.25 Ah cm-2 and stable cycling under 60 °C. A prolonged lifespan can also be achieved in Li-S and Li-LiFePO4 cells under lean electrolyte content, low N/P ratio or high temperature conditions. This facile strategy also promotes the practical application of LMB and enlightens the SEI design in related fields.

3.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306358

RESUMO

The emerging applications of electrochemical gas sensors (EGSs) in Internet of Things-enabled smart city and personal health electronics bring out a new challenge for common EGSs, such as alcohol fuel cell sensors (AFCSs) to reduce the dependence on a pricy Pt catalyst. Here, for the first time, we propose a low-cost novel N,S-codoped metal catalyst (FeNSC) to accelerate oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and replace the Pt catalyst in the cathode of an AFCS. The optimal FeNSC shows high ORR activity, stability, and alcohol tolerance. Furthermore, the FeNSC-based AFCS not only demonstrates excellent linearity, low detection limit, high stability, and superior sensitivity to that of the commercial Pt/C-based AFCS but also outperforms commercial Pt/C-based AFCS in the exposed cell regarding great linearity, high sensitivity, and great stability. Such a promising sensor performance not just proves the concept of the FeNSC-based ACFS but enlightens the next-generation designs toward low-cost, highly sensitive, and durable EGSs.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226395

RESUMO

Microporous framework membranes such as metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes and covalent organic framework (COF) membranes are constructed by the controlled growth of small building blocks with large porosity and permanent well-defined micropore structures, which can overcome the ubiquitous tradeoff between membrane permeability and selectivity; they hold great promise for the enormous challenging separations in energy and environment fields. Therefore, microporous framework membranes are endowed with great expectations as next-generation membranes, and have evolved into a booming research field. Numerous novel membrane materials, versatile manipulation strategies of membrane structures, and fascinating applications have erupted in the last five years. First, this review summarizes and categorizes the microporous framework membranes with pore sizes lower than 2 nm based on their chemistry: inorganic microporous framework membranes, organic-inorganic microporous framework membranes, and organic microporous framework membranes, where the chemistry, fabrications, and differences among these membranes have been highlighted. Special attention is paid to the membrane structures and their corresponding modifications, including pore architecture, intercrystalline grain boundary, as well as their diverse control strategies. Then, the separation mechanisms of membranes are covered, such as diffusion-selectivity separation, adsorption-selectivity separation, and synergetic adsorption-diffusion-selectivity separation. Meanwhile, intricate membrane design to realize synergistic separation and some emerging mechanisms are highlighted. Finally, the applications of microporous framework membranes for precise gas separation, liquid molecule separation, and ion sieving are summarized. The remaining challenges and future perspectives in this field are discussed. This timely review may provide genuine guidance on the manipulation of membrane structures and inspire creative designs of novel membranes, promoting the sustainable development and steadily increasing prosperity of this field.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5858, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203863

RESUMO

The implementation of pristine metal-organic frameworks as air electrode may spark fresh vitality to rechargeable zinc-air batteries, but successful employment is rare due to the challenges in regulating their electronic states and structural porosity. Here we conquer these issues by incorporating ligand vacancies and hierarchical pores into cobalt-zinc heterometal imidazole frameworks. Systematic characterization and theoretical modeling disclose that the ligand editing eases surmountable energy barrier for *OH deprotonation by its efficacy to steer metal d-orbital electron occupancy. As a stride forward, the selected cobalt-zinc heterometallic alliance lifts the energy level of unsaturated d-orbitals and optimizes their adsorption/desorption process with oxygenated intermediates. With these merits, cobalt-zinc heterometal imidazole frameworks, as a conceptually unique electrode, empowers zinc-air battery with a discharge-charge voltage gap of 0.8 V and a cyclability of 1250 h at 15 mA cm-2, outperforming the noble-metal benchmarks.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170995

RESUMO

The implementation of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for sub-angstrom scale gas separations remains a grand challenge. Meanwhile, the elucidation of structure and formation mechanism of elusive interface pathways is urgently needed yet largely unmet. Herein, a series of analogous mixed matrix membrane (AMMMs) were constructed via molecular-level hybridization by utilizing reactive ionic liquid (RIL) as continuous phase and graphene quantum dot (GQD) as nanofiller for sub-angstrom scale ethylene/ethane (0.416 nm / 0.443 nm) separation. With a small number of GQDs (3.5 wt.%) embedded in GQD/RIL AMMMs, ethylene permeability soared by 3.1 times, and ethylene/ethane selectivity simultaneously boosted by nearly 60% and reached up to 99.5, which outperformed most previously reported state-of-the-art membranes. Importantly, the interfacial pathway structure was visualized and their self-assembly mechanism was revealed, where the non-covalent interactions between RIL and GQDs induced the local arrangement of IL chains to self-assemble into plenty of compact and superfast interfacial pathways, contributing to the combination of superhigh permeability and selectivity. This study shed light on the rational design of interface pathways and sustainable prosperity of MMMs for energy-intensive gas molecule separations.

7.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 14947-14959, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174432

RESUMO

A graphene oxide (GO) membrane is an ideal separator for multiple applications due to its morphology, selectivity, controllable oxidation, and high aspect ratio of the 2D nanosheet. However, the anisotropic ion conducting nature caused by its morphology is not favorable toward through-plane conductivity, which is vital for solid-state electrolytes in electrochemical devices. Here, we present a strategy to selectively enhance the through-plane proton conductivity of a GO membrane by reducing its degree of anisotropy with pore formation on the nanosheets through the sonication-assisted Fenton reaction. The obtained porous GO (pGO) membrane is a near-isotropic, proton-conducting GO membrane, showing a degree of anisotropy as low as 2.77 and 47% enhancement of through-plane proton conductivity as opposed to the pristine GO membrane at 25 °C and 100% relative humidity. The anisotropic behavior shows an Arrhenius relationship with temperature, while the water interlayer formation between nanosheets plays a pivotal role in the anisotropic behavior under different values of relative humidity (RH); that is, as low RH increases, water molecules tend to orient in a bimodal distribution clinching the nanosheets and forming a subnanometer, high-aspect-ratio, water interlayer, resulting in its peak anisotropy. Further increase in RH fills the interlayer gap, resulting in behaviors akin to near-isotropic, bulk water. Lastly, implementation of the pGO membrane, as the solid proton-conductive electrolyte, in an alcohol fuel cell sensor has been demonstrated, showcasing the excellent selectivity and response, exceptional linearity, and ethanol detection limits as low as 25 ppm. The amalgamation of excellent performance, high customizability, facile scalability, low cost, and environmental friendliness in the present method holds considerable potential for transforming anisotropic GO membranes into near-isotropic ion conductors to further membrane development and sensing applications.

8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(23): 8790-8839, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107869

RESUMO

All-solid-state lithium ion batteries (ASSLBs) are considered next-generation devices for energy storage due to their advantages in safety and potentially high energy density. As the key component in ASSLBs, solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) with non-flammability and good adaptability to lithium metal anodes have attracted extensive attention in recent years. Among the current SSEs, composite solid-state electrolytes (CSSEs) with multiple phases have greater flexibility to customize and combine the advantages of single-phase electrolytes, which have been widely investigated recently and regarded as promising candidates for commercial ASSLBs. Based on existing investigations, herein, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in CSSEs. Initially, we introduce the historical development from solid-state ionic conductors to CSSEs, and then summarize the fundamentals including mechanisms of lithium ion transport, key evaluation parameters, design principles, and key materials. Four main types of advanced structures for CSSEs are classified and highlighted according to the recent progress. Moreover, advanced characterization and computational simulation techniques including machine learning are reviewed for the first time, and the main challenges and perspectives of CSSEs are also provided for their future development.

9.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperselective neurectomy is used to treat spastic arm paralysis. The aim of the study was to analyze the nerve branching patterns of elbow and wrist flexors/pronator to inform hyperselective neurectomy approached. METHODS: Eighteen upper extremities of fresh cadaver specimen were dissected. The number of motor branches from the musculocutaneous nerve to biceps brachii and brachialis, median nerve to pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis and ulnar nerve to flexor carpi ulnaris were counted. The origin site of each primary motor branch was documented. RESULTS: Either biceps or brachialis was innervated by one or two primary motor branches. Pronator teres was innervated by one to three motor trunks and the pattern for flexor carpi radialis was a common trunk with other branches. The origin of the biceps and brachialis nerve trunk was located approximately 30% to 60% of the length of the arm. The median nerve branched to pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis at the region about 34mm (SD 18.8mm) above and 50mm (SD 14.9mm) below the medial epicondyle. Flexor carpi ulnaris was innervated by one to three motor trunks and the mean distance from the medial epicondyle to the origin of flexor carpi ulnaris nerve on ulnar nerve was 18.7 mm (SD 6.5mm). CONCLUSION: Primary motor branches to elbow flexors, wrist flexors and pronators were various, while the regions of their origins were relatively settled. It was recommended the incisions be designed according to the location of the primary motor trunks.

12.
Small ; 16(37): e2001089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776459

RESUMO

The practical application of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries is hindered by the "shuttle" of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) and sluggish Li-S kinetics issues. Herein, a synergistic strategy combining mesoporous architecture design and defect engineering is proposed to synthesize multifunctional defective 3D ordered mesoporous cobalt sulfide (3DOM N-Co9 S8- x ) to address the shuttling and sluggish reaction kinetics of polysulfide in Li-S batteries. The unique 3DOM design provides abundant voids for sulfur storage and enlarged active interfaces that reduce electron/ion diffusion pathways. Meanwhile, X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the surface defect engineering tunes the CoS4 tetrahedra to CoS6 octahedra on Co9 S8 , endowing abundance of S vacancies on the Co9 S8 octahedral sites. The ever-increasing S vacancies over the course of electrochemical process further promotes the chemical trapping of LiPS and its conversion kinetics, rendering fast and durable Li-S chemistry. Benefiting from these features, the as-developed 3DOM N-Co9 S8- x /S cathode delivers high areal capacity, superb rate capability, and excellent cyclic stability with ultralow capacity fading rate under raised sulfur loading and low electrolyte content. This design strategy promotes the development of practically viable Li-S batteries and sheds lights on the material engineering in related energy storage application.

13.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(15): 5407-5445, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658219

RESUMO

Developing high-safety Li-metal anodes (LMAs) is extremely important for the application of high-energy Li-metal batteries (LMBs), especially Li-S and Li-O2 battery systems. However, the notorious Li-dendrite growth problem results in serious safety concerns for any energy storage application. Through a recent combination of interface-based science, nanotechnology-based solutions and characterization methods, the LMA is now primed for a technological boom. In this review, the recent emerging strategies and perspectives on LMAs are summarized, following which the current huge evolution in interfacial chemistry regulation, optimizing electrolyte components, designing a rational 'host' for lithium metal, optimizing "solid-state electrolytes" and other emerging strategies for developing high-safety LMAs is highlighted. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art in situ/operando synchrotron-based X-ray techniques for high safety LMB research are introduced. With the further development of LMAs in the future, subsequent application in high energy LMBs is to be expected.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20582, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702814

RESUMO

The morbidity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Uygur population of Xinjiang was much higher than the national average. Clopidogrel is the most commonly used medication worldwide in dual antiplatelet therapy for CAD, and the response of clopidogrel is affected by CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms. The distribution of CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, and PON1 genetic polymorphisms in Han and Uygur populations with CAD of Xinjiang has not been investigated.This study aimed to investigate the frequencies of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms, and to identify the metabolizer phenotype of CYP2C19 in Han and Uygur populations with CAD in Northwestern Xinjiang, China. We identified 602 Han and 527 Uygur patients from 2014 through 2019 and studied genotypes for selected allele polymorphisms using sequencing by hybridization.There were significantly different allele frequencies and genotype frequencies between the 2 ethnic groups in terms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, ABCB1 and PON1, (P < .05). For CYP2C19*17, the frequency of TT genotype was 2.5% in Uygur patients, but it was undetectable in Han patients. In both the intermediate and poor metabolizer groups, the genotypes polymorphisms CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 were significantly less common in Uygur patients than in Han patients (P < .001). By contrast, the proportion of ultra-metabolizers as defined by CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 polymorphisms significantly higher in Uygur patients (18.6%) than in Han patients (1.7%, P < .001). The CYP2C19*2 frequency was significantly different between Han patients and Han healthy groups (P < .001), while the CYP2C19*3 frequency was significantly different between Uygur patients and Uygur healthy groups (P < .001).Our study supports the notion of interethnic differences in terms of CYP2C19, PON1, and ABCB1 polymorphisms and CYP2C19 genotype-defined clopidogrel metabolic groups. These finding could provide valuable data and insights into personalized CAD treatment for the Uygur and Han populations in Xinjiang.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Idoso , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , China/etnologia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
15.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(10): 852-861, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539490

RESUMO

Diversity of genotypes and prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) are challenges for the epidemic control and vaccine development of HIV-1. However, little is known about the situation in Tianjin. Blood samples were collected from newly diagnosed, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV/AIDS patients from January 2016 to November 2019. The target fragment in the pol gene was sequenced after RNA extraction and gene amplification. The HIV-1 genotype was identified by phylogenetic analysis. Drug resistance was carried out using the Stanford University HIVdb algorithm. A total of 305 pol sequences from 279 non-PDR individuals and 35 PDR individuals were successfully amplified. The most prevalent genotype was CRF01_AE (65.6%, 200/305), followed by CRF07_BC (22.0%, 67/305) and B (3.0%, 9/305). A variety of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms were found. The overall incidence of PDR was 11.5% (35/305), with 9.8% (30/305) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs). The most frequent mutation pattern against NNRTIs was V179D/E/T (6.9%, 21/305), with M184V (1.0%, 3/305) and K65R (1.0%, 3/305) against nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs). M64L (0.1%, 1/305) was the sole mutation found against protease inhibitors (PIs). Eight variants generated at least low-level resistance to NNRTIs (2.6%, 8/305), which was much higher than that to NRTIs (1.6%, 5/305) and PIs (0/305) (p < .05). Genotypic drug resistance testing before initiating ART in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients may be necessary in Tianjin, China. The non-NNRTI-based regimen may be preferred as initial therapy in Tianjin.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1952, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327651

RESUMO

Recent fruitful studies on rechargeable zinc-air battery have led to emergence of various bifunctional oxygen electrocatalysts, especially metal-based materials. However, their electrocatalytic configuration and evolution pathway during battery operation are rarely spotlighted. Herein, to depict the underlying behaviors, a concept named dynamic electrocatalyst is proposed. By selecting a bimetal nitride as representation, a current-driven "shell-bulk" configuration is visualized via time-resolved X-ray and electron spectroscopy analyses. A dynamic picture sketching the generation and maturation of nanoscale oxyhydroxide shell is presented, and periodic valence swings of performance-dominant element are observed. Upon maturation, zinc-air battery experiences a near two-fold enlargement in power density to 234 mW cm-2, a gradual narrowing of voltage gap to 0.85 V at 30 mA cm-2, followed by stable cycling for hundreds of hours. The revealed configuration can serve as the basis to construct future blueprints for metal-based electrocatalysts, and push zinc-air battery toward practical application.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271975

RESUMO

Pt-based electrocatalysts are considered as one of the most promising choices to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and the key factor enabling their success is to reduce the required amount of platinum. Herein, we focus on illuminating both the theoretical mechanisms which enable enhanced and sustained ORR activity and the practical methods to achieve them in catalysts. The various multi-step pathways of ORR are firstly reviewed and the rate-determining steps based on the reaction intermediates and their binding energies are analyzed. We then explain the critical aspects of Pt-based electrocatalysts to tune oxygen reduction properties from the viewpoints of active sites exposure and altering the surface electronic structure, and further summarize representative research progress towards practically achieving these activity enhancements with a focus on platinum size reduction, shape control and core Pt elimination methods. We finally outline the remaining challenges and provide our perspectives with regard to further enhancing their activities.

18.
ACS Nano ; 14(4): 4849-4860, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182038

RESUMO

The notorious shuttling behaviors and sluggish conversion kinetics of the intermediate lithium polysulfides (LPS) are hindering the practical application of lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Herein, an ultrafine, amorphous, and oxygen-deficient niobium pentoxide nanocluster embedded in microporous carbon nanospheres (A-Nb2O5-x@MCS) was developed as a multifunctional sulfur immobilizer and promoter toward superior shuttle inhibition and conversion catalyzation of LPS. The A-Nb2O5-x nanocluster implanted framework uniformizes sulfur distribution, exposes vast active interfaces, and offers a reduced ion/electron transportation pathway for expedited redox reaction. Moreover, the low crystallinity feature of A-Nb2O5-x manipulates the LPS chemical affinity, while the defect chemistry enhances the intrinsic conductivity and catalytic activity for rapid electrochemical conversions. Attributed to these superiorities, A-Nb2O5-x@MCS delivers good Li-S battery performances, that is, high areal capacity of 6.62 mAh cm-2 under high sulfur loading and low electrolyte/sulfur ratio, superb rate capability, and cyclability over 1200 cycles with an ultralow capacity fading rate of 0.024% per cycle. This work provides a synergistic regulation on crystallinity and oxygen deficiency toward rapid and durable sulfur electrochemistry, holding a great promise in developing practically viable Li-S batteries and enlightening material engineering in related energy storage and conversion areas.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(7): 3583-3592, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992044

RESUMO

Rational regulation on polysulfide behaviors is of great significance in pursuit of reliable solution-based lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery chemistry. Herein, we develop a unique polymeric zwitterion (PZI) to establish a smart polysulfide regulation in Li-S batteries. The zwitterionic nature of PZI integrates sulfophilicity and lithiophilicity in the matrix, fostering an ionic environment for selective ion transfer through the chemical interactions with lithium polysulfides (LiPS). When implemented as a functional interlayer in the cell configuration, PZI empowers strong obstruction against polysulfide permeation but simultaneously allows fast Li+ conduction, thus contributing to significant shuttle inhibition as well as the resultant facile and stable sulfur electrochemistry. The PZI-based cells realize excellent cyclability over 1000 cycles with a minimum capacity fading rate of 0.012% per cycle and favorable rate capability up to 5 C. Moreover, a high areal capacity retention of 5.3 mAh cm-2 after 300 cycles can be also obtained under raised sulfur loading and limited electrolyte, demonstrating great promise in developing high-efficiency and long-lasting Li-S batteries.

20.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1833-1841, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899470

RESUMO

Hollow porous prismatic graphitic carbon nitride with nitrogen vacancies and oxygen doping was successfully constructed using dicyandiamidine as the only raw material via a facile two-step strategy of a low-temperature hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent calcination process. The as-obtained graphitic carbon nitride showed a hollow prismatic morphology with loose spongy-like walls, a hierarchical pore structure, and a specific surface area of 220.16 m2 g-1. Such graphitic carbon nitride exhibited an ultrahigh nitrogen fixation rate of 118.8 mg L-1 h-1 gcat-1 under visible light irradiation and showed excellent stability during the reactions. A possible mechanism for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation on the catalyst was proposed as follows: under visible-light irradiation, graphitic carbon nitride with nitrogen vacancies and oxygen doping underwent charge separation to generate electron-hole pairs, and then the photogenerated electrons on the conduction band were quickly transferred to the nitrogen vacancy induced mid-gap state; consequently, the trapped electrons reacted with the activated nitrogen on the nitrogen vacancies to produce ammonia. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic nitrogen fixation performance of graphitic carbon nitride can be attributed to its unique hollow prismatic morphology with a loose porous structure, fully exposed active sites of nitrogen vacancies, more negative conduction band, suitable visible-light response and the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

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