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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 87-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230374

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle development is a highly organized process controlled by evolutionarily conserved networks of transcription factors, transferrable signaling molecules, and noncoding RNAs that coordinate the expression of large numbers of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as prominent players of multiple biological processes by silence of specific mRNAs or by suppression of protein translation. It has become to be clear cumulatively that miRNAs control of expression of gene targets are particularly important during skeletal myogenesis. Signaling pathways, especially IGF/AKT/mTOR pathway and TGF-ß signaling, have also determined to act as critical regulators in the regulation of myogenic program. In the last decades, growing evidence has seen a rapid expansion of our knowledge of miRNA-mediated control of expression of target genes and signaling pathways, in which miRNAs coordinately regulate myogenic process through their targets or through signaling pathways. Here, we summarize the current findings of miRNAs and signaling pathways in the regulation of skeletal myogenesis, focusing on miRNAs' target genes and IGF/AKT/mTOR pathway and TGF-ß signaling.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 105798, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784403

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) on the growth performance, immune responses and intestinal health of weaned pigs challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). A total of 32 weaned pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments: non-challenged (fed with basal diet), ETEC-challenged (fed with basal diet) and ETEC-challenged plus 50 or 100 mg/kg LMWC supplementation, respectively. After 11 days feeding, the non-challenged pigs were infused with sterilised Luria-Bertani culture, while the remaining pigs were infused with 2.6 × 1011 colony-forming units of ETEC. At 3 days post-challenge, all pigs were administered d-xylose at 0.1 g/kg body weight. One hour later, blood samples were obtained, and the pigs then euthanised to collect intestinal samples. Data showed that only 100 mg/kg LMWC supplementation attenuated (P < 0.05) the average daily gain reduction caused by ETEC. Furthermore, besides the decreased (P < 0.05) serum tumour necrosis factor-α and immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations detected in ETEC-challenged pigs supplemented with LMWC at 50 or 100 mg/kg, the higher dose (100 mg/kg) also decreased (P < 0.05) the serum IgM concentration and increased (P < 0.05) the villus height and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio in both the jejunum and ileum, and the sucrase activity in the ileal mucosa. Moreover, LMWC supplementation (50 or 100 mg/kg) in ETEC-challenged pigs elevated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of jejunal mucosal peptide transporter 1 and ileal mucosal peptide transporter 1, divalent metal transporter 1 and zinc transporter 1, and decreased (P < 0.05) the ileal and caecal E. coli abundances, while 100 mg/kg LMWC additionally elevated (P < 0.05) the ileal Bacillus abundance, and caecal and colonic Bifidobacterium abundances. These results suggest that LMWC helps alleviate ETEC-induced growth retardation in weaned pigs, which could be associated with the inhibition of the immune responses and improved intestinal health.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788236

RESUMO

Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the leading bacterial causes of intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. However, the ETEC is frequently resistant to common antibiotics. In this study, we explored the role of a novel antibacterial peptide Bombyx mori gloverin A2 (BMGlvA2) in alleviating ETEC-induced inflammation and intestinal epithelium disruption in mice. Methods: An ETEC-challenged mice model was used, and the ETEC-challenged mice and non-challenged mice were treated by the BMGlvA2 at different doses. Results: ETEC challenge not only elevated the concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-6 and TNF-α (P < 0.01), but also elevated the concentrations of serum creatinine and urea (P < 0.05). However, BMGlvA2 attenuated the inflammatory responses by decreasing the serum inflammatory cytokines and improving the metabolisms in ETEC-challenged mice, and alleviated the ETEC-induced tissue damage in spleen. Moreover, BMGlvA2 treatment significantly elevated the duodenum villus height and decreased the crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum in ETEC-challenged mice (P < 0.05). Interestingly, BMGlvA2 improved the distribution and abundance of tight-junction protein ZO1 in duodenum and ileum epithelium after ETEC-challenge. Moreover, BMGlvA2 significantly down-regulated the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and the apoptosis-related genes (Caspase 8 and Caspase 9) in jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05) in the TETC-challenged mice. Importantly, BMGlvA2 significantly elevated the expression levels of critical genes related to mucosal barrier functions such as the mucins (MUC1 and MUC2) and glucose transporter (GLUT2) in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested a novel function of the conventional antibacterial peptides, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of BMGlvA2 may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.

4.
Cell Rep ; 29(10): 3212-3222.e4, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801084

RESUMO

Hepatocytes are the primary functional cells of the liver, performing its metabolic, detoxification, and endocrine functions. Functional hepatocytes are extremely valuable in drug discovery and evaluation, as well as in cell therapy for liver diseases. However, it has been a long-standing challenge to maintain the functions of hepatocytes in vitro. Even freshly isolated hepatocytes lose essential functions after short-term culture for reasons that are still not well understood. In the present study, we find that mechanical tension-induced yes-associated protein activation triggers hepatocyte dedifferentiation. Alleviation of mechanical tension by confining cell spreading is sufficient to inhibit hepatocyte dedifferentiation. Based on this finding, we identify a small molecular cocktail through reiterative chemical screening that can maintain hepatocyte functions over the long term and in vivo repopulation capacity by targeting actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction. Our work reveals the mechanisms underlying hepatocyte dedifferentiation and establishes feasible approaches to maintain hepatocyte functions.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15713, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673087

RESUMO

We report a nonconcurrent dual-modality fiber-optic microendoscope (named SmartME) that integrates quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging (FLI) into a smartphone platform. The FLI module has a spatial resolution of ~3.5 µm, which allows the determination of the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) of epithelial tissues. The DRS has a spectral resolution of ~2 nm and can measure the total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and scattering properties of epithelial tissues with mean errors of 4.7% and 6.9%, respectively, which are comparable to the errors achieved with a benchtop spectrometer. Our preliminary in vivo studies from a single healthy human subject demonstrate that the SmartME can noninvasively quantify the tissue parameters of normal human oral mucosa tissues, including labial mucosa tissue, gingival tissue, and tongue dorsum tissue. The THCs of the three oral mucosa tissues are significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.003). The reduced scattering coefficients of the gingival and labial tissues are significantly different from those of the tongue dorsum tissue (p < 0.001) but are not significantly different from each other. The N/Cs for all three tissue types are similar. The SmartME has great potential to be used as a portable, cost-effective, and globally connected tool to quantify the THC and scattering properties of tissues in vivo.

6.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676871

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691493

RESUMO

Despite their important roles in host nutrition and metabolism, and potential to cause disease, our knowledge of the fungal community in the mammalian gut is quite limited. To date, diversity and composition of fungi in swine gut still remains unknown. Therefore, the first internal transcribed spacer of fungi in faecal samples from three breeds of pigs (10 pigs for each breed) was sequenced based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, and the relationship between the fungal community and the concentrations of main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was also analysed. Results indicated that Chenghua (local, higher body fat rate), Yorkshire (foreign, higher lean meat and growth rate) and Tibetan (plateau, stronger disease resistance) pigs harboured distinct fungal community. The Basidiomycota and Ascomycota presented as the two predominant phyla, with Loreleia, Russula and Candida as the top three genera in all samples. Network analysis revealed a total of 35 correlations among different fungal genera, with 27 (77.14%) positive and 8 (22.86%) negative pairwise interactions. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that fungi in the faeces of pigs were more correlated to the concentration of acetate and butyrate rather than propionate. Spearman's correlation further showed that Tomentella was positively correlated to both acetate and butyrate, and Loreleia was positively correlated to propionate (P < 0.05), while Nephroma and Taiwanofungus were negatively correlated to acetate and propionate (P < 0.05). These findings expanded our knowledge on the intestinal fungi in pigs with different genotypes and phenotypes, indicating that fungi may play an indispensable role during the metabolism of host and the maintenance of intestinal health. The cross-feeding between fungi and other microorganisms may be crucial during the digestion of dietary carbohydrates and the associated physiological processes, which is worthy to be further studied.

8.
J Biomech ; : 109482, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733820

RESUMO

Hamstring muscle strain injury is one of the most common injuries in sports involving sprinting and kicking. Studies examining hamstring kinematics and activations are rich for sprinting but lacking for kicking. The purpose of this study was to examine kinematics and activations of hamstring muscles in instep and cut-off kicking tasks frequently performed in soccer. Videographic and electromyographic (EMG) data were collected for 11 male soccer-majored college students performing the two kicking tasks. Peak hamstring muscle-tendon unit lengths, elongation velocities, and maximum linear envelop EMG data were identified and compared among hamstring muscles and between kicking tasks. Hamstring muscles exhibited activated elongations before and after the contact of the kicking foot with the ball. The muscle-tendon unit lengths peaked in the follow-through phase. The peak elongation velocity of the semimembranosus was significantly greater than that of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris (p = 0.001). The maximum linear envelop EMG of the biceps femoris was significantly greater than that of the semimembranosus (p = 0.026). The potential for hamstring injury exists in the follow-through phase of each kicking task. The increased hamstring muscle-tendon unit elongation velocities in kicking tasks may explain the more severe hamstring injuries in kicking compared to sprinting.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671050

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Ht49T, was isolated from sea sand sampled in Sanya and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NEAU-Ht49T was most closely related to Actinomadura rhizosphaerae SDA37T (98.8 %), Actinomadura logoneensis NEAU-G17T (98.6 %), Actinomadura oligospora ATCC 43269T (98.6 %) and Actinomadura gamaensis NEAU-Gz5T (98.6 %). The results of phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-Ht49T formed a cluster with A. rhizosphaerae SDA37T, A. logoneensis NEAU-G17T, A. oligospora ATCC 43269T, A. gamaensis NEAU-Gz5T and Actinomadura rupiterrae CS5-AC15T (96.4 %). Meso-diaminopimelic acid was detected in its cell walls and glucose, madurose, mannose and ribose were detected in whole-cell hydrolysate. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannoside and two unidentified lipids. The majoy menaquinone was MK-10(H6) and the minor menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, 10-methyl C18 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. Moreover, morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of properties of strain NEAU-Ht49T also confirmed the affiliation of the isolate to the genus Actinomadura. However, DNA-DNA relatedness, physiological and biochemical data showed that strain NEAU-Ht49T could be distinguished from its closest relatives. Therefore, strain NEAU-Ht49T represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura harenae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain NEAU-Ht49T (=CGMCC 4.7499T=JCM 32659T) as the type strain.

10.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779731

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether arginine promotes porcine type I muscle fibers formation via improving mitochondrial biogenesis. In the in vivo study, a total of sixty DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaning piglets with an average body weight of 6.55 ± 0.36 kg were randomly divided into four treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% L-arginine, respectively, in a four-week trial. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 1.0% arginine significantly enhanced the activity of succinate dehydrogenase, upregulated the protein expression of myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I), and increased the mRNA levels of MyHC I, Tnni1, Tnnc1 and Tnnt1 in longissimus dorsi muscle compared with the control group. In addition, ATPase staining analysis indicated that 1.0% arginine supplementation significantly increased the number of type I muscle fibers and significantly decreased the number of type II muscle fibers. Furthermore, 1.0% arginine supplementation significantly upregulated PGC-1α, Sirt1 and Cytc protein expressions, increased PGC-1α, NRF1, TFB1M, Cytc and TP5G mRNA levels and increased mitochondrial DNA content. In the in vitro study, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (Rot) was used. We found that Rot annulled Arg-induced type I muscle fibers formation. Together, our results provide for the first time the evidence that Arg promotes porcine type I muscle fibers formation through improvement of mitochondrial biogenesis.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(26): 8171-8181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754388

RESUMO

The gut-brain axis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is attracting more and more attention. However, the mechanism of gut-brain axis based cognitive disorders in ESRD patients remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linkages between the gut microbiota, inflammatory cytokines, brain default mode network (DMN) and cognitive function in ESRD patients. Methods: This prospective study enrolled 28 ESRD patients (13 males and 15 females, mean age of 44 ± 14 years) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) (12 males and 7 females, mean age of 44 ± 10 years). All subjects underwent stool microbiota analysis, blood inflammatory cytokines examination, brain MRI scans and cognitive assessments. Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data were used to construct DMN and graph theory was applied to characterize network topological properties. Two samples t-test was applied for the comparisons between ESRD and HCs. Correlation analysis and mediation analysis were conducted among factors with significant group differences. Results: ESRD patients displayed gut microbiota alterations, increased systemic inflammation and worse cognitive performance compared to HCs (all p < 0.05). Graph analysis revealed disrupted DMN topological organization, aberrant nodal centralities and functional connectivities (FCs) in ESRD patients relative to HCs (all p < 0.05, FDR corrected). Significant correlations were found between gut microbiota, inflammatory cytokines, DMN network measures and cognitive assessments. Mediation analysis found that gut microbiota alteration impaired DMN connectivity by increasing systemic inflammation. Conclusion: The present study first revealed gut microbiota alterations, systemic inflammation, DMN dissociation and cognitive dysfunction in ESRD patients simultaneously and further illuminated their inner relationship.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755684

RESUMO

A highly stretchable conductor was fabricated through dip-coating a new liquid metal (LM) electric ink on a polydopamine (PDA) modified three-dimensional (3D) polyurethane sponge (PUS) followed by mechanical sintering. The LM was first sonicated to nanodroplets to reduce the consumption of LM and then modified by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (LMNPS-MPA) to improve the interfacial adhesion between LM and PUS. The denser and even distribution of LMNPS-MPA self-assembling on PDA treated PUS (PUS-PDA) was successfully prepared via hydrogen bonding interaction. Mechanical sintering of 3D PUS-PDA coated by 2D LM layer was then conducted to obtain a continuous conductive network. Comparing with the reported 3D conductors, the resulting PUS-PDA-LM composite conductor shows both high electrical conductivity (478 S cm-1) under a low LM consumption of 10 vol.% and excellent conductive stability with the relative resistance change ΔR/R0 of 2% at 50% strain under stretching deformation. The as prepared PUS-PDA-LM composites was then successfully applied as flexible and stretchable light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with excellent conductivity and conductive stability at different deformations. We believe that 3D stretchable PUS-PDA-LM conductor have many potential applications in flexible sensors, flexible circuits, rollable displays etc.

13.
Sports Biomech ; : 1-13, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762383

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of shank mass manipulation on the sprinting technique in maximal-speed sprinting. Sixteen well-trained male athletes sprinted with and without an additional 15% of shank mass attached to the shank centre of mass. Kinematic data were collected using a 12-camera motion analysis system and analysed using linear regression analyses with categorical variables and paired t-tests. The sprinting speed (p < 0.01), knee flexion angle at landing (p = 0.028), and maximum hip flexion angular velocity (p = 0.029) decreased; contact time (p < 0.01) increased; and step length, step frequency, and other analysed technique measures of maximal-speed sprinting were unchanged (p ≥ 0.12) with shank mass manipulation, compare with no manipulation. The relationships of sprinting speed with critical linear and angular kinematics at landing, take-off and swing in maximal-speed sprinting were not affected by the shank mass manipulation. These results suggest that 15% shank mass manipulation does not change the sprinting technique of well-trained male athletes in maximal-speed sprinting. This supports the use of shank mass manipulation as a training method for well-trained sprinters; however, a change in correlations between sprinting speed and technique measures should be considered during such training.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1862531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781594

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes watery diarrhea, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal pigs, due to its clinical pathogenesis of the intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction. The host's innate immune system is the first line of defence upon virus invasion of the small intestinal epithelial cells. In turn, the virus has evolved to modulate the host's innate immunity during infection, resulting in pathogen virulence, survival, and the establishment of successful infection. In this review, we gather current knowledge concerning the interplay between PEDV and components of host innate immunity, focusing on the role of cytokines and interferons in intestinal antiviral innate immunity, and the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion strategies of PEDV invasion. Finally, we provide some perspectives on the potential prevention and treatment for PEDV infection.

15.
ChemSusChem ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713317

RESUMO

Using water as a reaction medium, a large number of 2-phosphorylated thioflavones were prepared via the reaction of methylthiolated alkynones and phosphine oxides catalyzed by 4CzIPN under visible-light irradiation. These reactions can be carried out at ambient temperature, feature simple operation, wide reaction scope, and recyclability of aqueous media.

16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GSTM1 encodes glutathione S-transferase µ-1 (GSTM1), which belongs to a superfamily of phase 2 antioxidant enzymes. The highly prevalent GSTM1 deletion variant is associated with kidney disease progression in human cohorts: the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: We generated a Gstm1 knockout mouse line to study its role in a CKD model (involving subtotal nephrectomy) and a hypertension model (induced by angiotensin II). We examined the effect of intake of cruciferous vegetables and GSTM1 genotypes on kidney disease in mice as well as in human ARIC study participants. We also examined the importance of superoxide in the mediating pathways and of hematopoietic GSTM1 on renal inflammation. RESULTS: Gstm1 knockout mice displayed increased oxidative stress, kidney injury, and inflammation in both models. The central mechanism for kidney injury is likely mediated by oxidative stress, because treatment with Tempol, an superoxide dismutase mimetic, rescued kidney injury in knockout mice without lowering BP. Bone marrow crosstransplantation revealed that Gstm1 deletion in the parenchyma, and not in bone marrow-derived cells, drives renal inflammation. Furthermore, supplementation with cruciferous broccoli powder rich in the precursor to antioxidant-activating sulforaphane significantly ameliorated kidney injury in Gstm1 knockout, but not wild-type mice. Similarly, among humans (ARIC study participants), high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with fewer kidney failure events compared with low consumption, but this association was observed primarily in participants homozygous for the GSTM1 deletion variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a role for the GSTM1 enzyme in the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and protective metabolites in CKD.

17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111682, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731077

RESUMO

Development of highly robust and solar-light-responsive photocatalysts for the disposal of organic dyes from wastewater is a matter of great significance in order to solve the problems of water pollution. Solar-driven photocatalytic degradation of dyes is considered as a quite efficient, sustainable and cost-effective approach as it involved the inexhaustible and renewable source of energy. In photocatalytic processes, the generation of electron-hole pairs at the surface of the photocatalyst is accomplished by harvesting solar energy. The electron-hole pairs are converted into •OH radicals that are responsible for the degradation of dyes. Herein, we reported the synthesis of nanosized iron (FeNPs) using the aqueous fruit extract of Actinidia chinensis as a reducing as well as the stabilizing agent. The structure and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using various advanced techniques. The TEM micrographs showed that the synthesized FeNPs was predominantly cubic and rod-shaped having the size in the range of 91.78-107 nm. The as-prepared FeNPs were acted as effective photocatalysts and their photocatalytic activity evaluated against alizarin yellow R (AYR) dye. The effect of different reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, time and catalyst loading on photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye was investigated under sunlight irradiation. The FeNPs showed promising photocatalytic activity and up to 93.7% of the dye was degraded in 42 h. The kinetics parameter of the reaction was also evaluated which showed that the photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye followed the pseudo-first-order reaction. In terms of better degradation, the role of FeNPs might be extended for the treatment of different organic dyes from wastewater.

18.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4548-4556, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603198

RESUMO

The objectives of the current study were to explore the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation in the diets of sow and (or) their offspring on intestinal bacteria, intestinal and systemic inflammation in the piglet. A total of 60 multiparous sows (4 ± 1 parity; Landrace × Yorkshire) were fed either control diet (sCON, n = 30) or a diet containing 400 mg kg-1 MOS (sMOS, n = 30) from day 86 of gestation until weaning (day 20 of postpartum). On day 7 of age, offspring (Duroc × Landrace Yorkshire) were assigned within sow treatments and fed control diet (pCON) or diet containing 800 mg kg-1 MOS (pMOS) for 28 d (end at 35 d of age), resulting in four piglet diet groups (n = 15 litters per diet group): sCON-pCON, sCON-pMOS, sMOS-pCON, and sMOS-pMOS. Results found that piglet diet MOS increased or tend to increase Lactobacillus amount in the ileum digesta (P < 0.01) and jejunum digesta (P = 0.07), respectively; while tend to decrease Escherichia coli amount in jejunum digesta (P =0.06) and cecum digesta (P = 0.08). Both sow and piglet diets add MOS (sMOS-pMOS) increased Lactobacillus amount but decreased E. coli amount in jejunum digesta (P < 0.05) compared with the sCON-pCON diet group. In addition, sow diet MOS (rather than piglet diet MOS) increased sIgA content in piglet jejunum mucosa compared with control (P = 0.04). Sow diet MOS decreased toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA levels (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA level (P = 0.07) in piglet intestinal lymphatic. The interaction effects between sow and piglet diets were found on the mRNA levels of NF- κB p65 (P = 0.03) and IL-8 (P = 0.02) in piglet jejunum. Finally, the sow diet MOS decreased proinflammatory cytokines IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IL-4 (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet serum. Piglets diet MOS decreased the contents of IL-2 (P = 0.03), IL-4 (P = 0.01) and interferon (IFN)-γ (P < 0.01) while increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.01) content in serum. The interaction effects between sows and piglet diets on IL-4 (P = 0.02), IL-10 (P < 0.01), and IFN-γ (P = 0.08) were observed. In conclusion, sow and/or piglet diet MOS could improve intestinal microbiota, enhance intestinal mucosal immune competence, and suppress intestinal and systemic inflammation in the piglet.

19.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7426-7434, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660546

RESUMO

As health awareness is increasing, consumers have changed their focus with a desire to purchase safer, healthier, and higher quality and nutritional value meat. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary apple polyphenol (APP) supplementation in finishing pigs could provide pork with high quality and nutritional value. In the present study, 36 castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs with an average body weight of 71.25 ± 2.40 kg were randomly divided into three treatments and fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 400, or 800 mg kg-1 APPs for 7 weeks. The results showed that dietary 800 mg kg-1 APP supplementation not only decreased backfat thickness and abdominal adipose tissue index but also decreased L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness) in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. The LD muscle crude protein content, the proportions of essential amino acids, flavor amino acids, and total amino acids, as well as the amino acid transporter (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A7, SLC1A2) mRNA levels were increased by 800 mg kg-1 APPs. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid in LD muscle were increased by 400 mg kg-1 APPs. Meanwhile, dietary 400 mg kg-1 and 800 mg kg-1 APP supplementation decreased the contents of blood urea nitrogen and total cholesterol, as well as increased the content of inosinic acid in LD muscle. In conclusion, these results suggested that dietary 800 mg kg-1 APP supplementation improved the carcass traits, meat color, and meat flavor in finishing pigs. These results also suggested that dietary 400 mg kg-1 and 800 mg kg-1 APP supplementation improved the meat nutritional value in finishing pigs. The present study provides effective evidence for the application of APP supplementation for healthy high-quality and nutritional value pork production.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636641

RESUMO

Defensins have attracted considerable research interest worldwide because of their potential to serve as a substitute for antibiotics. In this study, we characterized a novel porcine ß-defensin (pBD129) and explored its role in alleviating bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation and intestinal epithelium atrophy. The pBD129 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A recombinant pBD129 protein was also purified. To explore its role in alleviating the endotoxin-induced inflammation, mice, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were treated by pBD129 at different doses. The recombinant pBD129 showed significant antimicrobial activities against the E. coli and Streptococcus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of 32 µg/mL. Hemolytic assays showed that the pBD129 had no detrimental impact on cell viabilities. Interestingly, we found that pBD129 attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by decreasing serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, such as the IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α (P < 0.05). Moreover, pBD129 elevated the intestinal villus height (P < 0.05) and enhanced the expression and localization of the major tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 in LPS-challenged mice. Additionally, pDB129 at a high dose significantly decreased serum diamine oxidase (DAO) concentration (P < 0.05) and reduced intestinal epithelium cell apoptosis (P < 0.05) in LPS-challenged mice. Importantly, pBD129 elevated the expression level of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bcl-2), but down-regulated the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes such as the B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax), BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3), and caspase-9 in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). These results suggested a novel function of the mammalian defensins, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of pBD129 may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.

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