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2.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 99-109, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that ROCK1 participates in the progression of multiple diseases, including septic intestinal barrier, cardiac dysfunction and acute lung injury. However, its regulatory role and specific mechanism in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remain unclear. METHODS: Cecal ligation puncture (CLP) was conducted to establish sepsis mouse model, and in vitro model was achieved by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Genes expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blot or ELISA was conducted to assess the levels of proteins. Hoechst staining was performed to evaluate cell pyroptosis. LDH activity assay was detected to assess cytotoxicity. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect Ly-6G expression and neutrophils distribution in kidney tissues of mice. H&E and TUNEL staining were carried to evaluate kidney injury of mice. RESULTS: Our findings illuminated that ROCK1 was highly expressed in sepsis-induced AKI, and ROCK1 knockdown inhibited NLRP3-mediated cell pyroptosis in LPS-induced HK-2 cells. Moreover, ROCK1 modulated HK-2 cell pyroptosis by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). TLR2 inhibitor could suppress ERS mediated cell pyroptosis under LPS treatment. Further, TLR2 activator partially reversed the effects of ROCK1 inhibition on ERS mediated pyroptosis in LPS-treated HK-2 cells and CLP mice. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ROCK1 may regulate sepsis-induced AKI via TLR2-mediated ERS/pyroptosis axis. Our data demonstrated the role and underlying mechanism of ROCK1 in septic AKI, providing theoretical basis for sepsis-induced AKI treatment.

3.
Biochem Genet ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327615

RESUMO

The present study established a necroptosis model in vitro and investigated the role of HMGB1 in cell necroptosis. A combination of tumor necrosis factor-α and z-VAD-fmk was used to induce necroptosis in L929 cells with necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 applied as an intervention. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure cell necroptosis. Western blotting assay was applied to detect the expression of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) and HMGB1. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay was used to confirm the interaction between HMGB1 and RIPK3. Our study demonstrated that HMGB1 migrated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at the onset of necroptosis and was subsequently released passively to the extracellular matrix. Further experiments determined that the binding of HMGB1 with RIPK3 in the cytoplasm was loose during necroptosis. By contrast, when necroptosis was inhibited, the interaction in the cytoplasm was tight suggesting that this association between HMGB1 and RIPK3 might affect its occurrence. In conclusion, the transfer of HMGB1 from nucleus to cytoplasm, and its interaction with RIPK3 might be potentially involved in necroptosis.

4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(9): 1064-1069, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of thyroid function in lipid metabolism remains partly unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the causal association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism via a genetic analysis termed Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: The MR approach uses a genetic variant as the instrumental variable in epidemiological studies to mimic a randomized controlled trial. A two-sample MR was performed to assess the causal association, using summary statistics from the Atrial Fibrillation Genetics Consortium (n = 537,409) and the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (n = 188,577). The clinical measures of thyroid function include thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, FT3:FT4 ratio and concentration of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). The serum lipid metabolism traits include total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The MR estimate and MR inverse variance-weighted method were used to assess the association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that increased TSH levels were significantly associated with higher TC (ß = 0.052, P = 0.002) and LDL (ß = 0.041, P = 0.018) levels. In addition, the FT3:FT4 ratio was significantly associated with TC (ß = 0.240, P = 0.033) and LDL (ß = 0.025, P = 0.027) levels. However, no significant differences were observed between genetically predicted FT4 and TPOAb and serum lipids. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results of the present study suggest an association between thyroid function and serum lipid metabolism, highlighting the importance of the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis in dyslipidemia susceptibility.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Glândula Tireoide , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
5.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(1): 29-36, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645497

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case-control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576456

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common complication of sepsis. The current incidence of sepsis is high (0.3% of total population) worldwide, and septic AKI may cause death in patients. Long non­coding (lnc)RNAs serve important roles in the pathogenesis of AKI. Therefore, the present study investigated the mechanism underlying lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1)­mediated regulation of pyroptosis in septic AKI. Septic kidney injury was induced in mice using the caecal ligation and puncture method, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)­induced HK­2 cell models were also established. Haematoxylin­eosin staining was performed to assess pathological alterations of kidney tissues in the mice. The levels of IL­1ß, IL­18 and lactate dehydrogenase were determined by conducting ELISAs. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of PVT1 and microRNA (miR)­20a­5p. To assess pyroptosis, the protein expression levels of nucleotide­binding oligomerization domain­like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), IL­1ß, IL­18, apoptosis­associated speck­like protein containing a CARD and cleaved caspase­1 were measured via western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the rate of cell pyroptosis. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to assess the binding relationships of PVT1/miR­20a­5p and miR­20a­5p/NLRP3. PVT1 expression was significantly increased, whereas miR­20a­5p expression was significantly decreased in sepsis model mice and LPS­induced HK­2 cells compared with sham mice and control HK­2 cells, respectively. PVT1 knockdown significantly suppressed cell pyroptosis and downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors in LPS­induced HK­2 cells. The results also indicated that PVT1 served as a sponge of miR­20a­5p, and miR­20a­5p directly targeted NLRP3. miR­20a­5p knockdown significantly promoted LPS­induced cell pyroptosis. Moreover, PVT1 knockdown inhibited LPS­induced cell pyroptosis by targeting the miR­20a­5p/NLRP3 signalling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that PVT1 modulated NLRP3­mediated pyroptosis in septic AKI by targeting miR­20a­5p, which might suggest significant potential therapeutic targets for septic AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Piroptose/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Sepse/genética , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Ceco/cirurgia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Punções/efeitos adversos , Sepse/etiologia
7.
Inflammation ; 44(3): 999-1013, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417179

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory, complicated pancreatic disease, carrying significant morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in AP pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we explore the role of FOXF1 adjacent non-coding developmental regulatory RNA (FENDRR) in AP progression. Caerulein with or without LPS- induced or taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S)-induced AP mouse models and cell models were performed for the validation of FENDRR expression in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Histopathological examinations of pancreatic tissues were performed to evaluate the severity of AP. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to visualize the autophagic vacuoles. siRNA specifically targeting FENDRR was further applied. Flow cytometry was employed to assess cell apoptosis. ELISA, immunoflureoscence, and western blotting analysis were also performed to determine the levels of inflammatory cytokines and autophagy activity. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were carried out to reveal the epigenetic regulation of FENDRR on ATG7. Additionally, silencing FENDRR was also verified in AP mouse models. Higher FENDRR and impaired autophagy were displayed in both AP mouse models and cell models. FENDRR knockdown dramatically attenuated caerulein- or TLC-S-induced AR42J cells apoptosis and autophagy suppression. Further mechanistic experiments implied that the action of FENDRR is moderately attributable to its repression of ATG7 via direct interaction with the epigenetic repressor PRC2. Moreover, the silencing of FENDRR significantly induced the promotion of ATG7, thus alleviating the development of AP in vivo. Our study highlights FENDRR as a novel target that may contribute to AP progression, suggesting a therapeutic target for AP treatment.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 34, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a serious foliar disease of wheat. Identification of novel stripe rust resistance genes and cultivation of resistant cultivars are considered to be the most effective approaches to control this disease. In this study, we evaluated the infection type (IT), disease severity (DS) and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of 143 Chinese wheat landrace accessions for stripe rust resistance. Assessments were undertaken in five environments at the adult-plant stage with Pst mixture races under field conditions. In addition, IT was assessed at the seedling stage with two prevalent Pst races (CYR32 and CYR34) under a controlled greenhouse environment. RESULTS: Seventeen accessions showed stable high-level resistance to stripe rust across all environments in the field tests. Four accessions showed resistance to the Pst races CYR32 and CYR34 at the seedling stage. Combining phenotypic data from the field and greenhouse trials with 6404 markers that covered the entire genome, we detected 17 quantitative trait loci (QTL) on 11 chromosomes for IT associated with seedling resistance and 15 QTL on seven chromosomes for IT, final disease severity (FDS) or AUDPC associated with adult-plant resistance. Four stable QTL detected on four chromosomes, which explained 9.99-23.30% of the phenotypic variation, were simultaneously associated with seedling and adult-plant resistance. Integrating a linkage map of stripe rust resistance in wheat, 27 QTL overlapped with previously reported genes or QTL, whereas four and one QTL conferring seedling and adult-plant resistance, respectively, were mapped distantly from previously reported stripe rust resistance genes or QTL and thus may be novel resistance loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided an integrated overview of stripe rust resistance resources in a wheat landrace diversity panel from the southern autumn-sown spring wheat zone of China. The identified resistant accessions and resistance loci will be useful in the ongoing effort to develop new wheat cultivars with strong resistance to stripe rust.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , China , Resistência à Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 975-979, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of aerophagia in children. MEYJODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 46 children with aerophagia who were diagnosed and treated in Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from October 2011 to September 2019. RESULTS: Among these 46 children, 15 (33%) had Tourette syndrome. Abdominal distension was the most common symptom and was observed in 45 children (98%). The 24-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring showed a mean number of 341 times of air swallowing and a mean number of 212 times of gas reflux, and 95% of gas refluxes occurred in the upright body position. Compared with those without Tourette syndrome, the children with Tourette syndrome had a significantly higher incidence rate of air swallowing symptoms (67% vs 6%, P<0.001), but there were no significant differences in other symptoms and the results of 24-hour esophageal impedance. Dietary adjustment, psycho-behavioral therapy, and drug intervention significantly improved the scores of clinical symptoms and quality of life, among which psycho-behavioral therapy was an important intervention measure. CONCLUSIONS: Some children with aerophagia may have Tourette syndrome, and such children are more likely to have air swallowing symptoms. Psycho-behavioral therapy is one of the most important treatment methods, and children with aerophagia tend to have a good prognosis after treatment.


Assuntos
Aerofagia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(5): 2241-2256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509216

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the top deaths causing cancers with low 5-year survival rate. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recognized as a crucial type of nonprotein-coding transcripts implicated in tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence has implied that LINC00152 exerts the potential oncogenic functions in various cancers. Nevertheless, the role of LINC00152 in PC remains elusive. In the present study, we found that LINC00152 was significantly up-regulated while miR-150 was down-regulated both in tissues and cell lines of PC, indicating their negative correlation in PC progression. Functionally, overexpression of LINC00152 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while LINC00152 knockdown reversed these effects. Mechanistic experiments reveal that miR-150 acted as a target of LINC00152 confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, inhibition of miR-150 could markedly attenuate the suppression of cell proliferation, migration and invasion by knocking down LINC00152. Altogether, our findings concluded that LINC00152 facilitated PC progression through inhibiting miR-150 expression, indicating an innovative therapeutic target for PC.

11.
Pancreas ; 49(4): 543-551, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs have been considered to be closely related with the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and microRNA-375 (miR-375) was believed to be a marker of SAP. We aim to investigate the role of miR-375 in regulating SP. METHODS: Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to establish the models of SAP. AR42J cell line was chosen for study in vitro. Flow cytometry was applied for assessing apoptosis. The contents of inflammatory factors were detected with related enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied to observe the pathological changes of pancreatic tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis was conducted for investigating the expression of light chain 3. RESULTS: The level of miR-375 in pancreatitis tissues and cell lines was upregulated. Overexpression of miR-375 promoted inflammation and the apoptosis of acinar cells through inhibiting autophagy. The binding site between miR-375 and ATG7 was identified, and miR-375 could directly regulate the ATG7. microRNA-375 suppressed autophagy and promoted inflammation and the apoptosis of acinar cells via targeting ATG7. CONCLUSIONS: We proved that miR-375 could inhibit autophagy and promote inflammation and the apoptosis of acinar cells through regulating ATG7. This study first proves that miR-375 modulates the development of SAP through targeting ATG7.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/patologia , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/antagonistas & inibidores , Autofagia/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Ceruletídeo/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Pancreatite/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Regulação para Cima
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(12): 5618-5626, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130002

RESUMO

Harvesting solar energy for catalytic conversion of CO2 into valuable chemical fuels/feedstocks is an attractive yet challenging strategy to realize a sustainable carbon-cycle utilization. Homogeneous catalysts typically exhibit higher activity and selectivity as compared with heterogeneous counterparts, benefiting from their atomically dispersed catalytic sites and versatile coordination structures. However, it is still a "black box" how the coordination and electronic structures of catalysts dynamically evolve during the reaction, forming the bottleneck for understanding their reaction pathways. Herein, we demonstrate to track the mechanistic pathway of photocatalytic CO2 reduction using a terpyridine nickel(II) complex as a catalyst model. Integrated with a typical homogeneous photosensitizer, the catalytic system offers a high selectivity of 99% for CO2-to-CO conversion with turnover number and turnover frequency as high as 2.36 × 107 and 385.6 s-1, respectively. We employ operando and time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in combination with other in situ spectroscopic techniques and theoretical computations, to track the intermediate species of Ni catalyst in the photocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction for the first time. Taken together with the charge dynamics resolved by optical transient absorption spectroscopy, the investigation elucidates the full mechanistic reaction pathway including some key factors that have been often overlooked. This work opens the "black box" for CO2 reduction in the system of homogeneous catalysts and provides key information for developing efficient catalysts toward artificial photosynthesis.

13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1109): 20190505, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) is recommended as the first choice to treat stenosis of Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas (B-C AVFs). The ability to predict which B-C AVFs are at risk for recurrent stenosis post-PTA would allow closer monitoring of patients, and possibly result in surgical intervention rather than repeat PTA. The purpose of this study was to identify predictive factors of primary patency after PTA in B-C AVFs. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with B-C AVF primary stenosis and treated by PTA between November 2013 and March 2018 were included in the study. Patient and stenotic lesion characteristics and PTA procedure factors were included in the analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the primary patency rate. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors predictive of decreased primary patency. RESULTS: 74 patients (35 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 61.68 ± 11.44 years (range, 36-84 years) were included in the study. The mean B-C AVF age was 16.34 ± 12.93 months (range, 2-84 months), and the median primary patency time was 7.79 ± 0.48 months. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed stenosis location at the inflow artery [hazard ratio (HR)=3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.46-10.09] or anastomosis (HR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.09-3.32), dilation >2 times during PTA (HR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.22-4.34), and residual stenosis >30% (HR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.26-4.63) were significantly associated with decreased patency. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the primary patency rate of PTA for B-C AVF dysfunction is reduced by dilation >2 times, residual stenosis >30%, and stenosis located at the inflow artery or anastomosis. These results may help in tailoring surveillance programs, multiple PTA, or a proximal re-anastomosis surgery in patients with AVF dysfunction. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A number of studies have been conducted to examine the predictors of primary patency after PTA, however, no definitive conclusions have been reached. Our study revealed that stenosis location at the inflow artery or anastomosis, dilation >2 times during PTA, and residual stenosis >30% were the predictors of primary patency after PTA, which may help in tailoring surveillance programs, multiple PTA, or a proximal re-anastomosis surgery in patients with arteriovenous fistulas dysfunction.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Constrição Patológica/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/fisiologia
14.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(8): 2451-2469, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736010

RESUMO

To fully understand the environmental quality of sediments in the Yarlung Tsangpo River Basin, surface sediments of the main stream of the Yarlung Tsangpo River and its five major tributaries were studied. In 2016, a total of 201 water samples from the Yarlung Tsangpo River and its tributaries were collected during three water seasons. Fifteen trace elements (including Cd and heavy metals such as Cr, Cu, Pb, and As), which have great environmental effects, were analyzed. The results showed that Ti, Mn, and Cr were the main heavy metals in Yarlung Tsangpo River sediments, accounting for 51%, 10%, and 7% of the total heavy metals, respectively. There were no significant differences among the heavy metal contents in the sediments of Yarlung Tsangpo River among three water seasons, but there were significant spatial variations. During the same period, the concentration of each element in the tributary sediments was generally higher than that in the main stream. According to three different ecological risk assessment models, it is calculated that the heavy metal elements in the surface sediments of the river basin are at low or no pollution risk.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco , Rios , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tibet , Oligoelementos/análise
15.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 6): 2075-2080, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721753

RESUMO

The upgrade of the laser pump time-resolved X-ray probes, namely time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) and X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD), implemented at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, is described. The improvements include a superbunch fill, a high-efficiency fluorescence collection, an efficient spatial overlap protocol and a new data-acquisition scheme. After upgrade, the adequate TR-XAS signal is now obtained in a 0.3 mM solution, compared with a 6 mM solution in our previous report. Furthermore, to extend application in photophysics, the TR-XAS probe is applied on SrCoO2.5 thin film. And for the first time, TR-XAS is combined with TR-XRD to simultaneously detect the kinetic trace of structural changes in thin film.

16.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 596, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156668

RESUMO

Stripe rust (also known as yellow rust), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To identify effective stripe rust resistance loci, a genome-wide association study was performed using 152 wheat landraces from the Yellow and Huai River Valleys in China based on Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic evaluation of the degree of resistance to stripe rust at the adult-plant stage under field conditions was carried out in five environments. In total, 19 accessions displayed stable, high degrees of resistance to stripe rust development when exposed to mixed races of Pst at the adult-plant stage in multi-environment field assessments. A marker-trait association analysis indicated that 51 loci were significantly associated with adult-plant resistance to stripe rust. These loci included 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for adult-plant resistance. Twenty identified resistance QTL were linked closely to previously reported yellow rust resistance genes or QTL regions, which were distributed across chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B, and 7D. Six multi-trait QTL were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2B, 3A, 3B, and 7D. Twenty QTL were mapped to chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 4B, 5B, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B, and 7D, distant from previously identified yellow rust resistance genes. Consequently, these QTL are potentially novel loci for stripe rust resistance. Among the 20 potentially novel QTL, five (QDS.sicau-2A, QIT.sicau-4B, QDS.sicau-4B.2, QDS.sicau-6A.3, and QYr.sicau-7D) were associated with field responses at the adult-plant stage in at least two environments, and may have large effects on stripe rust resistance. The novel effective QTL for adult-plant resistance to stripe rust will improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms that control the spread of stripe rust, and will aid in the molecular marker-assisted selection-based breeding of wheat for stripe rust resistance.

17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 147, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stripe rust (also called yellow rust) is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. The narrow genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars and rapid evolution of the rust pathogen have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of wheat rust diseases. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study with 44,059 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to identify loci associated with resistance to stripe rust in 244 Sichuan wheat accessions, including 79 landraces and 165 cultivars, in six environments. RESULTS: In all the field assessments, 24 accessions displayed stable high resistance to stripe rust. Significant correlations among environments were observed for both infection (IT) and disease severity (DS), and high heritability levels were found for both IT and DS. Using mixed linear models, 12 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly associated with IT and/or DS were identified. Two QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 5AS and 5AL and were distant from previously identified stripe rust resistance genes or QTL regions, indicating that they may be novel resistance loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that resistance alleles to stripe rust were accumulated in Sichuan wheat germplasm, implying direct or indirect selection for improved stripe rust resistance in elite wheat breeding programs. The identified stable QTLs or favorable alleles could be important chromosome regions in Sichuan wheat that controlled the resistance to stripe rust. These markers can be used molecular marker-assisted breeding of Sichuan wheat cultivars, and will be useful in the ongoing effort to develop new wheat cultivars with strong resistance to stripe rust.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Alelos , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ecótipo , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Virulência/genética
18.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(13-14): 2599-2612, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830708

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to measure nurses' empathy motivation in China (See Supporting Information Appendix S1). BACKGROUND: Nurses are increasingly expected to empathise with patients in clinical settings. However, research investigating nurses' empathy motivation in China is lacking, and no specific instrument exists worldwide. DESIGN: Two-stage cross-sectional study, which follows the STROBE guidelines. Instrument development and psychometric evaluation were used (See Supporting Information Appendix S1). METHODS: A literature review and qualitative interviews with nurses were conducted to generate the initial items. Convenience samples of 340 (for item analysis) and 640 (for psychometric evaluation) clinical nurses working at four tertiary hospitals in Anhui Province were recruited. The scale was validated by content validity, surface validity and item analysis. A total of 640 participants were randomly divided into two equal groups. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used with varimax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal consistency reliability to analyse the psychometric properties of the scale (See Supporting Information Appendix S1). RESULTS: From the initial 90-item pool, 27 items were retained by the item analysis. The EFA (N = 290) showed the following six factors on the scale explained 71.266% of the overall variance: amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrative regulation and intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, when limited to three factors, that is autonomy motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation, 56.578% of the variance was explained. The findings showed high internal consistency. The six-factor solution and three-factor solution of the scale, including 27 items, were both confirmed by the CFA, for example χ2 /df = 1.744, 2.261; RMSEA = 0.051, 0.066; GFI = 0.882, 0.847; TLI = 0.942, 0.902; and RMR = 0.039, 0.049, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The nurses' empathy motivation scale presents good psychometric properties and can be used to explore nurses' empathy motivation in China (See Supporting Information Appendix S1). RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study offers insight into nurses' complicated reasons for exhibiting empathy.


Assuntos
Empatia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 38, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stripe rust is a serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), which results in yield reduction and decreased grain quality. Breeding for genetic resistance to stripe rust is the most cost-effective method to control the disease. In the present study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to identify markers linked to stripe rust resistance genes (or loci) in 93 Northern Chinese wheat landraces, using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular marker technology based on phenotypic data from two field locations over two growing seasons in China. RESULTS: Seventeen accessions were verified to display stable and high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust via multi-environment field assessments. Significant correlations among environments and high heritability were observed for stripe rust infection type (IT) and disease severity (DS). Using mixed linear models (MLM) for the GWAS, a total of 32 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) were detected. In combination with the linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distance (6.4 cM), 25 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. Based on the integrated map of previously reported genes and QTL, six QTL located on chromosomes 4A, 6A and 7D were mapped far from resistance regions identified previously, and represent potentially novel stripe rust resistance loci at the adult plant stage. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that identification of genes or loci linked to significant markers in wheat by GWAS is feasible. Seventeen elite accessions conferred with stable and high resistance to stripe rust, and six putative newly detected APR loci were identified among the 93 Northern Chinese wheat landraces. The results illustrate the potential for acceleration of molecular breeding of wheat, and also provide novel sources of stripe rust resistance with potential utility in the breeding of improved wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(1): 430-436, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628302

RESUMO

In the natural environment, arsenic (As) is mainly adsorbed on iron oxide minerals. The release of adsorbed arsenic from iron oxide minerals to the water is the main source of arsenic pollution. Microbes play a crucial role for this process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris DP4 on the transformation and mobilization of As. The experimental results show that the released As concentration of the two systems is 0 µmol·L-1 at 0 h. Compared with the control, DP4 promotes the desorption of As(Ⅴ) before the 84 h incubation process. The released As concentration reaches the maximum value of 12.6 µmol·L-1 at 13 h, accounting for~79% of the initial total adsorbed As (16 µmol·L-1). The maximum released As concentration is~8.4 times higher than that of the control (1.5 µmol·L-1). After 84 hours, the concentration of the released As in the DP4 system is lower than the abiotic control, which suggests that the released As is readsorbed on the solid surface. During the incubation process, the As mobility is significantly correlated with Eh. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the solid samples in the DP4 system decreases by~50%. In general, a lower crystallinity of the adsorbent indicates a higher adsorption capacity. This may be one important reason for the As readsorption after 84 h. In addition, the SEM shows that goethite is agglomerated by DP4 and the EDS results indicate that goethite is partially transformed to an Fe-S mineral. Based on XANES, arsenic-sulfur minerals were not detected in the solid phase, which further confirms the SEM-EDS results, that is, that Fe-S minerals formed in the solid phase, rather than As2S3 (AsS). The released As was readsorbed on the secondary iron mineral, resulting in a lower dissolved As concentration in the DP4 system than in the abiotic control. Furthermore, 19% As(Ⅲ) was detected in the solid phase while dissolved As(Ⅲ) was not determined during the incubation process. The results suggest that sulfate-reducing bacteria may directly reduce adsorbed As(Ⅴ) to As(Ⅲ).


Assuntos
Arsênio/metabolismo , Desulfovibrio/metabolismo , Bactérias Redutoras de Enxofre/metabolismo , Ferro , Oxirredução , Sulfatos
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