Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 219
Filtrar
1.
Cell Res ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112954

RESUMO

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Science ; 372(6547): 1160, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112684
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 14433-14455, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019487

RESUMO

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients usually have a high rate of relapse and metastasis. Alcohol, a risk factor for HCC, promotes the aggressiveness of HCC. However, the basic mechanism is still unclear. We used HCC cells and an orthotopic liver tumor model of HCC-LM3 cells for BALB/C nude mice to study the mechanism of alcohol-induced HCC progression. We showed that chronic alcohol exposure promoted HCC cells metastasis and pulmonary nodules formation. First, we identified miR-22-3p as an oncogene in HCC, which promoted HCC cells stemness, tumor growth, and metastasis. Further, we found that miR-22-3p directly targeted TET2 in HCC. TET2, a dioxygenase involved in cytosine demethylation, has pleiotropic roles in hematopoietic stem cells self-renewal. In clinic HCC specimen, TET2 expression was not only decreased by alcohol consumption, but also inversely correlated with miR-22-3p levels. Then, we demonstrated that TET2 depletion promoted HCC cells stemness, tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, we identified that ß-catenin was an upstream activator of miR-22-3p. In conclusion, this study suggests that chronic alcohol exposure promotes HCC progression and ß-catenin/miR-22-3p/TET2 regulatory axis plays an important role in alcohol-promoted HCC malignancy.

4.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211014361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970047

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most prevalent respiratory syndromes of excessive inflammatory reaction during lung infection. Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection is among the leading causes of ALI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of target mRNAs, including those involved in inflammatory processes, by binding to the 3'UTR. To date, the roles of miRNAs in C. albicans-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-384-5p in C. albicans-induced ALI and its underlying molecular mechanism. RT-PCR, Western blot, ELISA, Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, microRNA target analysis, transient transfection, and luciferase reporter assay were utilized. In vivo study was conducted on mouse model. The expression of miR-384-5p was upregulated and positively correlated with inflammatory cytokine production in lung tissues and RAW264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages infected with C. albicans. The miR-384-5p inhibitor alleviated the inflammatory reaction induced by C. albicans. Target prediction analysis revealed that PGC1ß was a target of miR-384-5p, which was further validated by the PGC1ß 3'-UTR luciferase assay and the inverse correlation between the expression of miR-384-5p and PGC1ß in C. albicans-infected ALI tissues and macrophages. Moreover, macrophages transfected with miR-384-5p mimic exhibited reduced levels of PGC1ß. The suppression of the expression of PGC1ß by C. albicans infection in the macrophages was abrogated by miR-384-5p inhibitor. Then, we demonstrated that PGC1ß played an inhibitory role in C. albicans-induced production of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, suppression of miR-384-5p in macrophages inhibited the activation of the NF-κB, MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways triggered by C. albicans, but not the STAT3 pathway. These results demonstrate that miR-384-5p contributes to C. albicans-induced ALI at least in part by targeting PGC1ß and enhancing the activation of the NF-κB, MAPK, and Akt inflammatory signaling pathways. Thus, targeting miR-384-5p might exert a protective effect on C. albicans-induced ALI.

5.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993646

RESUMO

Dysregulation of gut microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including metabolic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. To date, the link between gut microbiota and myeloid leukemia (ML) remains largely unelucidated. Herein, a total of 29 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 17 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and 33 healthy subjects were enrolled, and gut microbiota were profiled via Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA. We evaluated the correlation between ML and gut microbiota. The microbial α-diversity and ß-diversity exhibited significant differences between ML patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared to healthy subjects, we found that at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi were increased, while that of Tenericutes was decreased. Correspondingly, at the genus level in ML, Streptococcus were increased, especially in AML patients, while Megamonas (p=0.02), Lachnospiraceae NC2004 group, and Prevotella 9 (p=0.007) were decreased. Moreover, ML-enriched species, including Sphingomonas, Lysobacyer, Helicobacter, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, were identified. Our results indicate that the gut microbiota was altered in ML patients compared to that of healthy subjects, which could contribute to the elucidation of microbiota-related pathogenesis of ML, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of ML.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e219807, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042995

RESUMO

Importance: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an advisable option for refractory or relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma (R/R-PTCL), but whether allogeneic HSCT or autologous HSCT is more beneficial is unknown. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of allogeneic HSCT vs autologous HSCT in patients with R/R-PTCL. Data Sources: A systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases with the search items refractory or relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, ASCT/autologous stem-cell transplantation, allo-HSCT/allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, therapeutic effect, and treatment was conducted for articles published from January 12, 2001, to October 1, 2020. Study Selection: After duplicate and irrelevant publications were discarded, 329 were ineligible according to the inclusion (clinical trials or retrospective studies with >10 samples) and exclusion criteria (articles without overall survival [OS], progression-free survival [PFS], and transplantation-related mortality [TRM]). Thirty trials were included in the meta-analysis. The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data on study design, individual characteristics, and outcomes were extracted. All statistics were pooled by applying a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prespecified main outcomes were OS, PFS, and TRM. Results: Of 6548 articles, data extracted from the 30 studies (including 880 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT and 885 who underwent autologous HSCT) were included in this meta-analysis. In the allogeneic HSCT group, a 3-year OS of 50% (95% CI, 41%-60%) and PFS of 42% (95% CI, 35%-51%), a 5-year OS of 54% (95% CI, 47%-62%) and PFS of 48% (95% CI, 40%-56%), and a 3-year TRM of 32% (95% CI, 27%-37%) were observed. In the autologous HSCT group, a 3-year OS of 55% (95% CI, 48%-64%) and PFS of 41% (95% CI, 33%-51%), a 5-year OS of 53% (95% CI, 44%-64%) and PFS of 40% (95% CI, 24%-58%), and a 3-year TRM of 7% (95% CI, 2%-23%) were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, OS and PFS were similar in the allogeneic HSCT and autologous HSCT groups; however, allogeneic HSCT was associated with specific survival benefits among patients with R/R-PTCL.

7.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(6): 775-783, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891090

RESUMO

Resveratrol, a natural compound extracted from the skins of grapes, berries, or other fruits, has been shown to have anti-tumor effects against multiple myeloma (MM) via promoting apoptosis and inhibiting cell viability. In addition to apoptosis, autophagy also plays a significant role in anti-tumor effects. However, whether autophagy is involved in anti-MM activity of resveratrol remains unclear. In this study, human MM cell lines U266, RPMI-8226, and NCI-H929 were treated with resveratrol. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to measure cell viability. Western blot analysis was used to detect apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) was applied to inhibit autophagy. Results showed that resveratrol inhibited cell viability and colony formation via promoting apoptosis and autophagy in MM cell lines U266, RPMI-8226, and NCI-H929. Resveratrol promoted apoptosis-related proteins, Caspase-3 activating poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and Caspase-3 cleavage, and decreased the protein level of Survivin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, resveratrol upregulated the levels of LC3 and Beclin1 in a dose-dependent way, indicating that autophagy might be implicated in anti-MM effect of resveratrol. Furthermore, 3-MA relieved the cytotoxicity of resveratrol by blocking the autophagic flux. Resveratrol increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream substrates p70S6K and 4EBP1 in a dose-dependent manner, leading to autophagy. Therefore, our results suggest that resveratrol exerts anti-MM effects through apoptosis and autophagy, which can be used as a new therapeutic strategy for MM in clinic.

8.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 53(5): 575-583, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821934

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, characterized by high heterogeneity. The poor outcome of a portion of patients who suffer relapsing or resistant to conventional treatment impels the development of novel agents for DLBCL. DCZ0825 is a novel compound derived from pterostilbene and osalmide, whose antitumor activities have drawn our attention. In this study, we found that DCZ0825 exhibited high cytotoxicity toward DLBCL cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as revealed by cell counting kit-8 assay. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis results showed that DCZ0825 also promoted cell apoptosis via both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways mediated by caspase. In addition, DCZ0825 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase by downregulating Cdc25C, CDK1, and Cyclin B1, thus interfering with cell proliferation. Further investigation showed the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)‒AKT‒mTOR/JNK pathway in the efficacy of DCZ0825 against DLBCL. Remarkably, DCZ0825 also exerted notable cytotoxic effects in vivo as well, with low toxicity to important internal organs such as the liver and kidney. Our results suggest that DCZ0825 may have the potential to become a novel anti-DLBCL agent or to replenish the conventional therapeutic scheme of DLBCL.

9.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 161-169, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554485

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to impact countries worldwide. At present, inadequate diagnosis and unreliable evaluation systems hinder the implementation and development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Here, we conducted a horizontal and longitudinal study comparing the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in different types of samples collected from COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys. We also detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the above clinical and animal model samples to identify a reliable approach for the accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results showed that, regardless of clinical symptoms, the highest detection levels of viral nucleic acid were found in sputum and tracheal brush samples, resulting in a high and stable diagnosis rate. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies were not detected in 6.90% of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, integration of nucleic acid detection results from the various sample types did not improve the diagnosis rate. Moreover, dynamic changes in SARS-CoV-2 viral load were more obvious in sputum and tracheal brushes than in nasal and throat swabs. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection in sputum and tracheal brushes was the least affected by infection route, disease progression, and individual differences. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection using lower respiratory tract samples alone is reliable for COVID-19 diagnosis and study.


Assuntos
/veterinária , /genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Faringe/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Manejo de Espécimes , Escarro/virologia
10.
Autophagy ; : 1-15, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629929

RESUMO

Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor with poor survival and limited therapeutic options. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to be effective against glioma; however, the molecular target and mechanism of action of CBD in glioma are poorly understood. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of CBD in preclinical models of human glioma. Our results showed that CBD induced autophagic rather than apoptotic cell death in glioma cells. We also showed that CBD induced mitochondrial dysfunction and lethal mitophagy arrest, leading to autophagic cell death. Mechanistically, calcium flux induced by CBD through TRPV4 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) activation played a key role in mitophagy initiation. We further confirmed TRPV4 levels correlated with both tumor grade and poor survival in glioma patients. Transcriptome analysis and other results demonstrated that ER stress and the ATF4-DDIT3-TRIB3-AKT-MTOR axis downstream of TRPV4 were involved in CBD-induced mitophagy in glioma cells. Lastly, CBD and temozolomide combination therapy in patient-derived neurosphere cultures and mouse orthotopic models showed significant synergistic effect in both controlling tumor size and improving survival. Altogether, these findings showed for the first time that the antitumor effect of CBD in glioma is caused by lethal mitophagy and identified TRPV4 as a molecular target and potential biomarker of CBD in glioma. Given the low toxicity and high tolerability of CBD, we therefore propose CBD should be tested clinically for glioma, both alone and in combination with temozolomide.Abbreviations: 4-PBA: 4-phenylbutyrate; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; ATF4: activating transcription factor 4; Baf-A1: bafilomycin A1; CANX: calnexin; CASP3: caspase 3; CAT: catalase; CBD: cannabidiol; CQ: chloroquine; DDIT3: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; GBM: glioblastoma multiforme; GFP: green fluorescent protein; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; SLC8A1: solute carrier family 8 member A1; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TCGA: The cancer genome atlas; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TMZ: temozolomide; TRIB3: tribbles pseudokinase 3; TRPC: transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C; TRPV4: transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111854, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prospective correlation between serum metals before 24 weeks' gestation and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or glucose in the late second trimester among southern Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 8169 pregnant women were included in our retrospective cohort study. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationships between metals (Manganese [Mn], copper [Cu], lead [Pb], calcium [Ca], zinc [Zn], magnesium [Mg]) and GDM. Quantile regression was performed to detect the shifts and associations with metals and three time-points glucose distribution of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) focused on the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression was used to explore the relationship of metal mixtures and GDM as well as glucose. RESULTS: Maternal serum concentrations of metals were assessed at mean 16.55 ± 2.92 weeks' gestation. Women with under weight might have 25% decreased risk of GDM for every 50% increase in Cu concentration within the safe limits. A 50% increase in Mn and Zn levels was related to a 0.051 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.033-0.070) and 0.059 µmol/L (95% CI: 0.040-0.079) increase in mean fasting plasma glucose of OGTT (OGTT0), respectively. The magnitude of association with Mn was smaller at the upper tail of OGTT0 distribution, while the magnitude of correlation with Zn was greater at the upper tail. However, there was a 0.012 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.017 to -0.008), 0.028 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.049 to -0.007), and 0.036 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.057 to -0.016) decrease in mean OGTT0 levels for every 50% increase in Pb, Ca, and Mg, respectively. The negative association of Pb, Ca, and Mg was greater at the lower tail of OGTT0 distribution. No significant relationship was observed in Cu and mean OGTT0 level (-0.010 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.021 to 0.001), however, it showed a protective effect at the upper tail (-0.034 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.049 to -0.017). No obvious correlation was found between metals and postprandial glucose levels (OGTT1 and OGTT2 from OGTT). The WQS index was significantly related to OGTT0 (P < 0.001). The contribution of Mn (80.19%) to metal mixture index was the highest related to OGTT0, followed by Cu (19.81%). CONCLUSIONS: Higher Mn and Zn but lower Pb, Ca, and Mg concentrations within a certain range before 24 weeks' gestation might prospectively impair fasting plasma glucose during pregnancy; a greater focus is required on Mn. It could provide early markers of metal for predicting later glucose and suggest implement intervention for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Metais/sangue , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
13.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(4): 411-418, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495589

RESUMO

Biodiversity underpins the fundamental elements for human well-being including food security, human health and access to clean water. In 2010, the Aichi Targets were adopted by world leaders to address the crisis of biodiversity loss. Despite conservation efforts, none of the Aichi Targets have been fully met. However, comprehensive analysis of the reasons for failure in terms of implementation mechanisms is, to date, rare and limited in scope. Here, we demonstrate that most parties did not set effective national targets in accordance with the Aichi Targets, and investments, knowledge and accountability for biodiversity conservation have been inadequate to enable effective implementation. We recommend that the new global targets under the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework should be adopted by parties as the minimum national targets to achieve the 2050 Vision. We propose that financial resources for biodiversity conservation are substantially increased through a variety of sources, including the deployment of new economic instruments such as payments for ecosystem services. In addition, science-policy interfaces at all levels need to be strengthened to integrate scientific, Indigenous and local knowledge to support decision-making. We suggest that a compliance and accountability mechanism, based on monitoring systems, is created to provide transparent and credible review of parties' implementation of the new global targets.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Humanos
14.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(6): 1955-1970, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500560

RESUMO

Poorly differentiated tumors usually exhibit phenotypes similar to that of their developmental precursor cells. Tumor cells that acquire the lineage progenitor cells feature usually exploit developmental signaling to potentiate cancer progression. However, the underlying molecular events remain elusive. In this study, based on analysis of an in vitro hepatocyte differentiation model, the maternal factor PGC7 (also known as DPPA3, STELLA) was found closely associated with liver development and tumor differentiation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Expression of PGC7 decreased during hepatocyte maturation and increased progressively from well-differentiated HCCs to poorly differentiated HCCs. Whole-genome methylation sequencing found that PGC7 could induce promoter demethylation of genes related to development. Pathway-based network analysis indicated that downstream targets of PGC7 might form networks associated with developmental transcription factor activation. Overexpression of PGC7 conferred progenitor-like features of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies revealed that PGC7 could impede nuclear translocation of UHRF1, and thus facilitate promoter demethylation of GLI1 and MYCN, both of which are important regulators of HCC self-renewal and differentiation. Depletion or inhibition of GLI1 effectively downregulated MYCN, abolished the effect of PGC7, and sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib treatment. In addition, we found a significant correlation of PGC7 with GLI1/MYCN and lineage differentiation markers in clinical HCC patients. PGC7 expression might drive HCC toward a "dedifferentiated" progenitor lineage through facilitating promoter demethylation of key developmental transcription factors; further inhibition of PGC7/GLI1/MYCN might reverse poorly differentiated HCCs and provide novel therapeutic strategies.

15.
Oncogene ; 40(6): 1147-1161, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323975

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is strongly associated with the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the genetic alterations and pathogenesis mechanisms remain significantly unexplored, especially for HBV-induced metabolic reprogramming. Analysis of integration breakpoints in HBV-positive HCC samples revealed the preferential clustering pattern within the 3'-end of X gene in the HBV genome, leading to the production of C-terminal truncated X protein (Ct-HBx). In this study, we not only characterized the oncogenic role of two Ct-HBx (HBx-120 and HBx-134) via in vitro and in vivo functional assays but also deciphered their underlying molecular mechanisms. Gene expression profiling by transcriptome sequencing identified potential targets of Ct-HBx and novel malignant hallmarks such as glycolysis, cell cycle, and m-TORC1 signaling in Ct-HBx-expressing cells. TXNIP, a well-established regulator of glucose metabolism, was shown to be downregulated by Ct-HBx and play a pivotal role in Ct-HBx-mediated HCC progression. Suppression of TXNIP is frequently observed in HCC patients with Ct-HBx expression and significantly (P = 0.015) correlated to a poorer prognosis. Re-introduction of TXNIP attenuated the metabolic reprogramming induced by the Ct-HBx and inhibited the tumor growth in the mice model. Further study suggested that Ct-HBx could downregulate TXNIP via a transcriptional repressor nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFACT2). Collectively, our findings indicate that TXNIP plays a critical role in Ct-HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, serving as a novel therapeutic strategy in HCC treatment.

16.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 93-103, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038490

RESUMO

Oesophageal cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates because it is highly invasive and prone to recurrence and metastasis, with a five-year survival rate of <20%. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new methods aimed at improving therapeutic intervention. Several studies have shown that targeted therapy may be effective for the treatment of oesophageal cancer. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase with kinase activity and scaffolding function, could be overexpressed in a variety of solid tumours, including oesophageal cancer. FAK participates in survival, proliferation, progression, adhesion, invasion, migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, DNA damage repair, and other biological processes through multiple signalling pathways in cancer cells. It plays an important role in the occurrence and development of tumours and has been linked to the prognosis of oesophageal cancer. FAK has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target in oesophageal cancer; thus, the combination of FAK inhibitors with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy is expected to prolong the survival of patients. This paper presents a brief overview of the structure of FAK and its potential role in oesophageal cancer, providing a rationale for the future application of FAK inhibitors in the treatment of the disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Humanos
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22927-22948, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289707

RESUMO

CRC (Colorectal cancer) is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and in the US (United States). In this study, we aim to perform a population-based analysis on the cause of death among patients with CRC in the US. A total of 834,510 CRC patients diagnosed between 1975 and 2016 in the US were selected from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) program. Causes of death among CRC patients were characterized and SMRs (standardized mortality ratios) of death from non-cancer causes were calculated. Among all CRC patients included in this study, a total of 531,507 deaths were recorded, of which 51.3% were due to CRC, 10.3% were due to other cancers, and 38.4% were due to non-cancer causes. Recently, there has been a relative decrease in index-cancer deaths and an increase in non-cancer causes among CRC patients. The mortality risk from non-cancer rises with accumulating age and longer follow-up time. Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent non-cancer causes, accounting for 20.3% of all deaths among CRC patients. Compared with the general population, the mortality rate of non-cancer deaths among CRC patients is doubled (SMR, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-2.03).

18.
J Integr Med ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet is one of the main risk factors that disrupt the balance of gut microbiota, which eventually will induce colorectal cancer (CRC). Evodiamine (EVO) is a wildly used multifunctional traditional Chinese medicine extract. In this study, we investigated the role of gut microbiota in high-fat diet-propelled CRC and the potential of EVO for CRC chemoprevention. METHODS: Gut microbiota, serum d-lactic acid and endotoxin from 38 patients with colon cancer and 18 healthy subjects were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, body mass index, phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) expression in cancer tissues and paracancerous tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. A mouse intestinal inflammatory tumor model was established by azomethane/sodium dextran sulfate, followed by treatment with EVO and 5-aminosalicylic acid (ASA). Gut microbiota and inflammatory factors were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while serum d-lactic acid and endotoxin were detected by ELISA. Furthermore, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and interleukin (IL)-6/STAT3/P65 pathway were evaluated by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling, and Western blot assays. RESULTS: In patients with colon cancer, the numbers of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli were increased, while those of Bifidobacterium, Campylobacter and Lactobacillus were decreased. Serum endotoxin and d-lactic acid levels and p-STAT3 levels were significantly increased. In the mouse model, both EVO and ASA inhibited tumor formation, decreased the proliferation of tumor cells, and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Compared with the control group, the numbers of E. faecalis and E. coli were decreased, while Bifidobacterium, Campylobacter and Lactobacillus numbers were increased. In the EVO group, serum endotoxin and d-lactic acid levels and inflammatory factors were significantly decreased. Further, the IL6/STAT3/P65 signaling pathway was inhibited in the EVO group. CONCLUSION: EVO may inhibit the occurrence of colon cancer by regulating gut microbiota and inhibiting intestinal inflammation. The potential mechanism involves inhibition of the IL6/STAT3/P65 signaling pathway, revealing its potential therapeutic significance in clinical applications.

19.
Cytokine ; 138: 155388, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271385

RESUMO

Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are increasingly used as an alternative experimental animal to non-human primates in studying viral infections. Guanylate-binding proteins (GBP) belong to interferon (IFN)-inducible GTPases and defend the mammalian cell interior against diverse invasive pathogens. Previously, we identified five tree shrew GBP genes (tGBP1, tGBP2, tGBP4, tGBP5, and tGBP7) and found that tGBP1 showed antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infections. Here, we showed that the anti-VSV activity of tGBP1 was independent of its GTPase activity and isoprenylation. In response to VSV infection, instead of regulating IFN expression and autophagy, tGBP1 competed with the VSV nucleocapsid (N) protein in binding to the VSV phosphoprotein (VSV-P), leading to the repression of the primary transcription of the VSV genome. These observations constitute the first report of the potential mechanism underlying the inhibition of VSV by GBP1.

20.
J Immunol ; 205(12): 3419-3428, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188074

RESUMO

Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a key cytoplasmic dsRNA sensor. Upon binding to invading viral RNA, activated MDA5 is recruited to mitochondria and interacts with mitochondrial antiviral signaling gene (MAVS) to initiate innate antiviral immune responses. The elegant regulation of this process remains elusive. In this study, using the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which is genetically close to primates, we identified the Tupaia oligoadenylate synthetases-like 1 (tOASL1) as a positive regulator of the Tupaia MDA5 (tMDA5) and Tupaia MAVS (tMAVS)-mediated IFN signaling. Overexpression of tOASL1 significantly potentiated the RNA virus-triggered induction of the type I IFNs and downstream antiviral genes. Conversely, knockdown of tOASL1 had an impaired antiviral immune response. Mechanistically, tOASL1 was associated with mitochondria and directly interacted with tMDA5 and tMAVS. Upon RNA virus infection, tOASL1 enhanced the interaction between tMDA5 and tMAVS via its OAS and UBL domains. Our results revealed a novel mechanism by which tOASL1 contributes to host antiviral responses via enhancing tMDA5 and tMAVS interaction.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...