Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 245
Filtrar
1.
Nano Lett ; 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926195

RESUMO

The combination of nontrivial topology, magnetism, and superconductivity could offer the potential to realize exotic excitations of quasiparticles. MnBi2Te4, as an intrinsic magnetic topological insulator, may be a good platform to create Majorana fermions if coupled to an s-wave superconductor. Here, we report the transport properties of a MnBi2Te4-NbN hybrid device. This device exhibits clear Coulomb blockade oscillations. We observe a large zero-bias conductance peak that exists over considerable changes in gate voltage, magnetic field, and temperature, which is interpreted as a not fully developed supercurrent. The zero-bias peak shows a nonmonotonic evolution with a magnetic field and an abrupt π phase shift with changing temperature. Zero-energy bound states and a topological phase transition may exist in this hybrid system. Our results provide the first experimental investigation into the properties of the intrinsic magnetic topological insulator/superconductor hybrid structures modulated by the Coulomb blockade effect.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(4): 040502, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938995

RESUMO

Unwanted ZZ interaction is a quantum-mechanical crosstalk phenomenon which correlates qubit dynamics and is ubiquitous in superconducting qubit systems. It adversely affects the quality of quantum operations and can be detrimental in scalable quantum information processing. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a practically extensible approach for complete cancellation of residual ZZ interaction between fixed-frequency transmon qubits, which are known for long coherence and simple control. We apply to the intermediate coupler that connects the qubits a weak microwave drive at a properly chosen frequency in order to noninvasively induce an ac Stark shift for ZZ cancellation. We verify the cancellation performance by measuring vanishing two-qubit entangling phases and ZZ correlations. In addition, we implement a randomized benchmarking experiment to extract the idling gate fidelity which shows good agreement with the coherence limit, demonstrating the effectiveness of ZZ cancellation. Our method allows independent addressability of each qubit-qubit connection and is applicable to both nontunable and tunable couplers, promising better compatibility with future large-scale quantum processors.

3.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 408, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840598

RESUMO

Endemic to Australia, jade perch (Scortum barcoo) is a highly profitable freshwater bass species. It has extraordinarily high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which detailed genes involved in are largely unclear. Meanwhile, there were four chromosome-level bass species have been previous sequenced, while the bass ancestor genome karyotypes have not been estimated. Therefore, we sequenced, assembled and annotated a genome of jade perch to characterize the detailed genes for biosynthesis of omega-3 PUFAs and to deduce the bass ancestor genome karyotypes. We constructed a chromosome-level genome assembly with 24 pairs of chromosomes, 657.7 Mb in total length, and the contig and the scaffold N50 of 4.8 Mb and 28.6 Mb respectively. We also identified repetitive elements (accounting for 19.7% of the genome assembly) and predicted 26,905 protein-coding genes. Meanwhile, we performed genome-wide localization and characterization of several important genes encoding some key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of PUFAs. These genes may contribute to the high concentration of omega-3 in jade perch. Moreover, we conducted a series of comparative genomic analyses among four representative bass species at a chromosome level, resulting in a series of sequences of a deductive bass ancestor genome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos , Genoma , Percas , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Percas/genética , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
4.
Nano Lett ; 22(13): 5114-5119, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699946

RESUMO

We explore spin dynamics in Cu(1,3-bdc), a quasi-2D topological magnon insulator. The results show that the thermal evolution of the Landé g factor (g) is anisotropic: gin-plane decreases while gout-of-plane increases with increasing temperature T. Moreover, the anisotropy of the g factor (Δg) and the anisotropy of saturation magnetization (ΔMs) are correlated below 4 K, but they diverge above 4 K. We show that the electronic orbital moment contributes to the g anisotropy at lower T, while the topological orbital moment induced by thermally excited spin chirality dictates the g anisotropy at higher T. Our work suggests an interplay among topology, spin chirality, and orbital magnetism in Cu(1,3-bdc).

5.
Nano Lett ; 22(12): 4661-4668, 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640103

RESUMO

Confined nanospaces provide a new platform to promote catalytic reactions. However, the mechanism of catalytic enhancement in the nanospace still requires insightful exploration due to the lack of direct visualization. Here, we report operando investigations on the etching and growth of graphene in a two-dimensional (2D) confined space between graphene and a Cu substrate. We observed that the graphene layer between the Cu and top graphene layer was surprisingly very active in etching (more than 10 times faster than the etching of the top graphene layer). More strikingly, at a relatively low temperature (∼530 °C), the etched carbon radicals dissociated from the bottom layer, in turn feeding the growth of the top graphene layer with a very high efficiency. Our findings reveal the in situ dynamics of the anomalous confined catalytic processes in 2D confined spaces and thus pave the way for the design of high-efficiency catalysts.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(15): 17987-17994, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380776

RESUMO

While using ferroelectric polarization to tune the functional properties of 2D materials has been extensively studied recently, the effects of 2D materials on the ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity of ferroelectrics are much less explored. In this work, we report markedly enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of graphene/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/SrRuO3 (GR/PZT/SRO) capacitors. Compared with conventional metal-electroded ferroelectric capacitors, the GR/PZT/SRO capacitors exhibit more abrupt polarization switching, larger switchable polarization, lower leakage current, and smaller coercive voltage. Moreover, with graphene electrodes, the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors are much more stable against aging. The enhanced ferroelectric behaviors in GR/PZT/SRO capacitors can be attributed to an improved interface with fewer defects and inhibited growth of defective interfacial layer resulting from the graphene protection. Because of the atomic thickness and extraordinary mechanical flexibility of graphene, the piezoelectric response in PZT with graphene electrode is about four times larger than the one with an Au electrode. Our findings on the enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of PZT with 2D electrodes advance the understanding of the 2D/PZT interface and provide solutions for developing high-performance ferroelectrics devices.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1007, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197463

RESUMO

The precise precursor supply is a precondition for controllable growth of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Although great efforts have been devoted to modulating the transition metal supply, few effective methods of chalcogen feeding control were developed. Here we report a strategy of using active chalcogen monomer supply to grow high-quality TMDs in a robust and controllable manner, e.g., MoS2 monolayers perform representative photoluminescent circular helicity of ~92% and electronic mobility of ~42 cm2V-1s-1. Meanwhile, a uniform quaternary TMD alloy with three different anions, i.e., MoS2(1-x-y)Se2xTe2y, was accomplished. Our mechanism study revealed that the active chalcogen monomers can bind and diffuse freely on a TMD surface, which enables the effective nucleation, reaction, vacancy healing and alloy formation during the growth. Our work offers a degree of freedom for the controllable synthesis of 2D compounds and their alloys, benefiting the development of high-end devices with desired 2D materials.

10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 122: 13-20, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051565

RESUMO

Mammals TRAF2 played a dual role in several immune signaling transduction processes. In this study, TRAF2 was cloned from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, which named OnTRAF2. The open reading frame was 1797 bp, encoding 598 amino acids. Amino acid alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that OnTRAF2 showed relatively low identify with other teleost TRAF2 proteins, with the exception of TRAF2s from Epinephelus coioides. In healthy tilapia, OnTRAF2 was expressed widely in all the examined tissues, which had highest expression level in the brain. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, the expression level of OnTRAF2 was increased significantly at different times in several organs, implying that OnTRAF2 may be involved in host defense against S. agalactiae infection. The result of subcellular localization showed that OnTRAF2 presented in cytoplasm and nucleus of HEK293T cells. Additionally, overexpression of OnTRAF2 significantly decreased the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB reporter in HEK293T cells, yeast two-hybrid results revealed that OnTRAF2 had no interaction with E3 ubiquitin ligase OnNEDD4. These results indicated that OnTRAF2 played important function during bacterial infection, and negatively mediated the immune signaling transduction in Nile tilapia, while the mechanism need further study.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mamíferos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Filogenia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
11.
Nano Lett ; 22(3): 888-895, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060726

RESUMO

Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, are critically important in regulating genetic expressions by adjusting the nucleosome stability. A fast and label-free technology inspecting dynamic nucleosome structures can facilitate the interrogation of PTMs effects. Here we leverage the advantages of mechanically stable solid-state nanopores and detect the effect of a ubiquitinated histone on mononucleosomes at the single-molecule level. By comparing the translocation dynamics of natural and cross-linked mononucleosomes, we verified that the nucleosomal DNA unravelled from histones in natural mononucleosomes. Furthermore, we found that a turning point of voltage corresponds to the onset of nucleosome rupture. More importantly, we reveal that ubH2A stabilizes the nucleosome by shifting the turning point to a larger value and investigated the effect of ubiquitination on different histones (ubH2A and ubH2B). These findings open promising possibilities for developing a miniaturized and portable device for the fast screening of PTMs on nucleosomes.


Assuntos
Histonas , Nanoporos , Nucleossomos , Histonas/química , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ubiquitinação
12.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(1): 33-38, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782776

RESUMO

The growth of wafer-scale single-crystal two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on insulating substrates is critically important for a variety of high-end applications1-4. Although the epitaxial growth of wafer-scale graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on metal surfaces has been reported5-8, these techniques are not applicable for growing TMDs on insulating substrates because of substantial differences in growth kinetics. Thus, despite great efforts9-20, the direct growth of wafer-scale single-crystal TMDs on insulating substrates is yet to be realized. Here we report the successful epitaxial growth of two-inch single-crystal WS2 monolayer films on vicinal a-plane sapphire surfaces. In-depth characterizations and theoretical calculations reveal that the epitaxy is driven by a dual-coupling-guided mechanism, where the sapphire plane-WS2 interaction leads to two preferred antiparallel orientations of the WS2 crystal, and sapphire step edge-WS2 interaction breaks the symmetry of the antiparallel orientations. These two interactions result in the unidirectional alignment of nearly all the WS2 islands. The unidirectional alignment and seamless stitching of WS2 islands are illustrated via multiscale characterization techniques; the high quality of WS2 monolayers is further evidenced by a photoluminescent circular helicity of ~55%, comparable to that of exfoliated WS2 flakes. Our findings offer the opportunity to boost the production of wafer-scale single crystals of a broad range of two-dimensional materials on insulators, paving the way to applications in integrated devices.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7258, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907202

RESUMO

Magnons can transfer information in metals and insulators without Joule heating, and therefore are promising for low-power computation. The on-chip magnonics however suffers from high losses due to limited magnon decay length. In metallic thin films, it is typically on the tens of micrometre length scale. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-long magnon decay length of up to one millimetre in multiferroic/ferromagnetic BiFeO3(BFO)/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3(LSMO) heterostructures at room temperature. This decay length is attributed to a magnon-phonon hybridization and is more than two orders of magnitude longer than that of bare metallic LSMO. The long-distance modes have high group velocities of 2.5 km s-1 as detected by time-resolved Brillouin light scattering. Numerical simulations suggest that magnetoelastic coupling via the BFO/LSMO interface hybridizes phonons in BFO with magnons in LSMO to form magnon-polarons. Our results provide a solution to the long-standing issue on magnon decay lengths in metallic magnets and advance the bourgeoning field of hybrid magnonics.

14.
Nature ; 599(7885): 399-403, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789901

RESUMO

The breakdown of translational symmetry at heterointerfaces leads to the emergence of new phonon modes localized at the interface1. These modes have an essential role in thermal and electrical transport properties in devices, especially in miniature ones wherein the interface may dominate the entire response of the device2. Although related theoretical work began decades ago1,3-5, experimental research is totally absent owing to challenges in achieving the combined spatial, momentum and spectral resolutions required to probe localized modes. Here, using the four-dimensional electron energy-loss spectroscopy technique, we directly measure both the local vibrational spectra and the interface phonon dispersion relation for an epitaxial cubic boron nitride/diamond heterointerface. In addition to bulk phonon modes, we observe modes localized at the interface and modes isolated from the interface. These features appear only within approximately one nanometre around the interface. The localized modes observed here are predicted to substantially affect the interface thermal conductance and electron mobility. Our findings provide insights into lattice dynamics at heterointerfaces, and the demonstrated experimental technique should be useful in thermal management, electrical engineering and topological phononics.

15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(6): 1751-1760, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thalamic pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome, frequently occurs after stroke. This research aimed to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on thalamic pain. METHODS: The cellular localization of the TLR4 protein was determined by immunostaining. The expression of Iba1, GFAP and protein associated with the TLR4/NF-κB/ERK1/2 pathway was measured by Western blotting. Continuous pain hypersensitivity was evaluated by behavioural tests. The results were analysed by one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that DEX obviously alleviated thalamic pain induced by haemorrhage on the ipsilateral side and delayed the development of pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, the expression levels of Iba1, GFAP and proteins associated with the TLR4/NF-κB/ERK1/2 signalling pathway were greatly increased in mice with thalamic pain, but these effects were reversed by DEX. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DEX alleviates the inflammatory response during thalamic pain through the TLR4/NF-κB/ERK1/2 signalling pathway and might be a potential therapeutic agent for thalamic pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemorragia/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuralgia/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(2): nwaa087, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691565

RESUMO

Contact interface properties are important in determining the performances of devices that are based on atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially for those with short channels. Understanding the contact interface is therefore important to design better devices. Herein, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations to reveal the electronic structures within the metallic (1T')-semiconducting (2H) MoTe2 coplanar phase boundary across a wide spectral range and correlate its properties to atomic structures. We find that the 2H-MoTe2 excitonic peaks cross the phase boundary into the 1T' phase within a range of approximately 150 nm. The 1T'-MoTe2 crystal field can penetrate the boundary and extend into the 2H phase by approximately two unit-cells. The plasmonic oscillations exhibit strong angle dependence, that is a red-shift of π+σ (approximately 0.3-1.2 eV) occurs within 4 nm at 1T'/2H-MoTe2 boundaries with large tilt angles, but there is no shift at zero-tilted boundaries. These atomic-scale measurements reveal the structure-property relationships of the 1T'/2H-MoTe2 boundary, providing useful information for phase boundary engineering and device development based on 2D materials.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5516, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535678

RESUMO

Understanding the atomic structure and structural instability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites is the key to appreciate their remarkable photoelectric properties and understand failure mechanism. Here, using low-dose imaging technique by direct-detection electron-counting camera in a transmission electron microscope, we investigate the atomic structure and decomposition pathway of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) at the atomic scale. We successfully image the atomic structure of perovskite in real space under ultra-low electron dose condition, and observe a two-step decomposition process, i.e., initial loss of MA+ followed by the collapse of perovskite structure into 6H-PbI2 with their critical threshold doses also determined. Interestingly, an intermediate phase (MA0.5PbI3) with locally ordered vacancies can robustly exist before perovskite collapses, enlightening strategies for prevention and recovery of perovskite structure during the degradation. Associated with the structure evolution, the bandgap gradually increases from ~1.6 eV to ~2.1 eV. In addition, it is found that C-N bonds can be readily destroyed under irradiation, releasing NH3 and HI and leaving hydrocarbons. These findings enhance our understanding of the photoelectric properties and failure mechanism of MAPbI3, providing potential strategies into material optimization.

18.
Nano Lett ; 21(14): 6237-6244, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270271

RESUMO

Spin waves can transfer information free of electron transport and are promising for wave-based computing technologies with low-power consumption as a solution to severe energy losses in modern electronics. Logic circuits based on the spin-wave interference have been proposed for more than a decade, while it has yet been realized at the nanoscale. Here, we demonstrate the interference of spin waves with wavelengths down to 50 nm in a low-damping magnetic insulator. The constructive and destructive interference of spin waves is detected in the frequency domain using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy, which is further confirmed by the Brillouin light scattering. The interference pattern is found to be highly sensitive to the distance between two magnetic nanowires acting as spin-wave emitters. By controlling the magnetic configurations, one can switch the spin-wave interferometer on and off. Our demonstrations are thus key to the realization of spin-wave computing system based on nonvolatile nanomagnets.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4620, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330915

RESUMO

Topologically nontrivial polar structures are not only attractive for high-density data storage, but also for ultralow power microelectronics thanks to their exotic negative capacitance. The vast majority of polar structures emerging naturally in ferroelectrics, however, are topologically trivial, and there are enormous interests in artificially engineered polar structures possessing nontrivial topology. Here we demonstrate reconstruction of topologically trivial strip-like domain architecture into arrays of polar vortex in (PbTiO3)10/(SrTiO3)10 superlattice, accomplished by fabricating a cross-sectional lamella from the superlattice film. Using a combination of techniques for polarization mapping, atomic imaging, and three-dimensional structure visualization supported by phase field simulations, we reveal that the reconstruction relieves biaxial epitaxial strain in thin film into a uniaxial one in lamella, changing the subtle electrostatic and elastostatic energetics and providing the driving force for the polar vortex formation. The work establishes a realistic strategy for engineering polar topologies in otherwise ordinary ferroelectric superlattices.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(23): 236601, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170154

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals host a variety of exotic effects that have no counterpart in conventional materials, such as the chiral anomaly and magnetic monopole in momentum space. These effects give rise to unusual transport properties, including a negative magnetoresistance and a planar Hall effect, etc. Here, we report a new type of Hall and magnetoresistance effect in a magnetic Weyl semimetal. Unlike antisymmetric (with respect to either magnetic field or magnetization) Hall and symmetric magnetoresistance in conventional materials, the discovered magnetoresistance and Hall effect are antisymmetric in both magnetic field and magnetization. We show that the Berry curvature, the tilt of the Weyl node, and the chiral anomaly synergically produce these phenomena. Our results reveal a unique property of Weyl semimetals with broken time reversal symmetry.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...