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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2380: 255-265, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802137

RESUMO

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of specialized CD4+ T cell residing in B cell follicles and confer essential support for germinal center responses, which lead to the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. A great deal of evidence from the past 15 years indicate that excessive differentiation and dysregulated function of Tfh cells often promote autoimmunity by inducing autoantibody production. Interleukin-2 was identified as a major suppressor to inhibit Tfh differentiation. Therefore, IL-2 treatment was applied in suppressing Tfh function in mouse models and more recently in a clinical trial of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we describe a protocol for low-dose IL-2 treatment in a murine immunization model and on the assessment of the suppression of Tfh response using flow cytometry.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 93: 153792, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kai Xin San (KXS) was widely applied for the treatment of depression for thousands of years. However, the underlying antidepressant mechanism of KXS remains not clear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagy are involved in inflammation-induced depression and antidepressant mechanism of KXS. METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 6 weeks, and KXS (3, 5, and 10 g/kg/d) was administrated during the last 2 weeks of CUMS procedure. The effects of KXS on depressive-like behaviors, neuroinflammation, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autophagy were investigated in CUMS rats. Rat astrocytes were employed to further explore the potential mechanism of KXS in regulating NLRP3 inflammasome and autophagy. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 5 mM) was used in vitro to elucidate the role of autophagy in the antidepressant mechanism of KXS. RESULTS: In vivo, KXS improved depressive-like behaviors of CUMS rats in sucrose preference test, open field test and forced swimming test. Moreover, KXS inhibited the neuroinflammation induced by CUMS and promoted autophagy in prefrontal cortex of rats. The results in vitro further validated the anti-inflammatory and proautohapgic effects of KXS. More importantly, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA diminished the inhibitory effect of KXS on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rat astrocytes. CONCLUSION: KXS ameliorated CUMS-induced depressive behaviors in rats and inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation in vivo and in vitro. These effects might be regulated by KXS-induced autophagy.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Autofagia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vascular rings are rare anomalies of congenital heart disease that cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. This study assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with vascular ring division. METHODS: A multi-institution retrospective review of 371 patients with vascular rings undergoing surgical division at 3 paediatric cardiac institutions between November 2007 and October 2019 was performed. RESULTS: The complete vascular rings consisted of a double aortic arch (24.5%), right aortic arch with left ligamentum arteriosum (36.7%) and left aortic arch, with right ligamentum arteriosum (0.5%). The incomplete vascular rings consisted of a pulmonary artery sling (22.9%), left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery (15.1%) and innominate artery compression syndrome (0.3%). Respiratory symptoms included stridor (71.4%), wheezing (49.1%), coughing (31.5%), gastrointestinal symptoms included choking (12.4%), dysphagia (3.2%) and emesis (1.9%). Only one patient died after discharge, yielding a late mortality rate of 0.3% (1/360). The 10-year overall survival rate was 96.8%. Postoperative complications were reported in 51 patients, 15 of whom required reoperation. The 10-year freedom from reoperation rate was 95.9%. Follow-up was completed in 95.4% (354/371) of patients, with a mean follow-up time of 4.3 ± 2.9 years (range from 1 to 13 years). Twenty patients (5.6%) experienced residual symptoms during long-term follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of vascular ring division are excellent. A Kommerell diverticulum >1.5 times the aberrant left subclavian artery origin is an operative indication for primary resection. Tracheomalacia is a risk factor for reoperation and residual symptoms, and preoperative fibrobronchoscopy is important for evaluation.

6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009858, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618873

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases are often treated by glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs that could increase the risk for infection, which in turn deteriorate disease and cause mortality. Low-dose IL-2 (Ld-IL2) therapy emerges as a new treatment for a wide range of autoimmune diseases. To examine its influence on infection, we retrospectively studied 665 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) including about one third receiving Ld-IL2 therapy, where Ld-IL2 therapy was found beneficial in reducing the incidence of infections. In line with this clinical observation, IL-2 treatment accelerated viral clearance in mice infected with influenza A virus or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Noticeably, despite enhancing anti-viral immunity in LCMV infection, IL-2 treatment exacerbated CD8+ T cell-mediated immunopathology. In summary, Ld-IL2 therapy reduced the risk of infections in SLE patients and enhanced the control of viral infection, but caution should be taken to avoid potential CD8+ T cell-mediated immunopathology.

7.
Anal Chem ; 93(41): 13765-13773, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606241

RESUMO

Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM) can provide metabolic conversion information of specific targets; it is a powerful tool for cell metabolism studies. The common analytical platform for SIRM is chromatography-mass spectrometry, which requires a large number of cells and is not suitable for precious rare cell analysis. To study a small number of cells, we established a novel SIRM method using chip-based nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry (MS). 13C-glutamine was taken as an example; the unlabeled and 13C-labeled cells were cultured and extracted in a 96-well plate and then directly injected into MS and analyzed in full scan mode and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode targeting 44 glutamine-derived metabolites and their isotopologues. To define focused metabolite-related MS2 fragments produced in the PRM, a new strategy was proposed including MS2 exact m/z matching, MS2 false positive filtering, and MS2 fragment grouping to remove the interfering MS2 ions. In total, 292 and 349 pairs of paired MS2 ions were obtained in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. By searching spectra databases, 31 targeted metabolites with their isotopologues were identified and their characteristic product ions were confirmed for MS2 quantification. The relative quantification was achieved by MS2 quantification, which showed better sensitivity and accuracy than common MS1-based quantification. Finally, this method was applied to isocitrate dehydrogenase I-mutated glioma cells for revealing the effects of triptolide on glioma cell metabolism using U-13C-glutamine as a labeling substrate.


Assuntos
Isótopos , Metabolômica , Glutamina , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas
8.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(9): e1338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584694

RESUMO

Objective: The benefit of Se supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been tested in clinical trials, but results remain inconclusive. The objective of this study was to specifically investigate the potential benefit of supranutritional Se by examining human samples from an area with supranutritional Se intake and testing a mouse model of RA. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from RA patients (N = 57) and healthy controls (HC, N = 71) from an area of supranutritional Se intake (Enshi, Hubei, China) were analysed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokine and Se levels were measured by cytometric beads array (CBA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. With sufficient or supranutritional selenium intake, mice were induced with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and examined for disease activity and immunopathology. The influence of Se supplementation in the generation of RANKL-expressing osteoclastogenic CD4+ T cells was investigated by in vitro assays. Results: In Enshi city, HC showed the above-normal concentrations of serum Se concentrations while RA patients were enriched in the normal range (70-150 ng mL-1) or below. RA patients with higher Se levels demonstrated milder disease and lower levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, RANKL and Th17 cells. In the mouse CIA model, supranutritional Se supplementation delayed disease onset, ameliorated joint pathology and reduced CD4+CD44+RANKL+ T cells. Se supplementation could suppress RANKL expression in cultured mouse Th17 cells. Conclusion: Supranutritional Se suppresses RANKL-expressing osteoclastogenic CD4+ T cells and could be beneficial to RA, which warrants formal testing in randomised clinical trials.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 726035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531749

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is one of the most common skin diseases and is characterized by allergic skin inflammation, redness, and itchiness and is associated with a hyperactivated type 2 immune response. The leading causes of AD include an imbalance in the immune system, genetic predisposition, or environmental factors, making the development of effective pharmacotherapies complex. Steroids are widely used to treat AD; however, they provide limited efficacy in the long term and can lead to adverse effects. Thus, novel treatments that offer durable efficacy and fewer side effects are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of Huangbai Liniment (HB), a traditional Chinese medicine, using an experimental AD mouse model, following our clinical observations of AD patients. In both AD patient and the mouse disease model, HB significantly improved the disease condition. Specifically, patients who received HB treatment on local skin lesions (3-4 times/day) showed improved resolution of inflammation. Using the 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD model in BALB/c mice, we observed that HB profoundly alleviated severe skin inflammation and relieved the itching. The dermatopathological results showed markedly reversed skin inflammation with decreased epidermal thickness and overall cellularity. Correspondingly, HB treatment largely decreased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, and IL-13, associated with declined gene expression of IL-33, ST2, and GATA3, which are connected to the type 2 immune response. In addition, HB restored immune tolerance by promoting regulatory T (TREG) cells and inhibiting the generation of TH1, TH2, and TH17 cells in vitro and in the DNCB-induced AD mouse model. For the first time, we demonstrate that HB markedly mitigates skin inflammation in AD patients and the DNCB-induced AD mouse model by reinvigorating the T cell immune balance, shedding light on the future development and application of novel HB-based therapeutics for AD.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14347-14359, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472328

RESUMO

The successful control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not only relying on the development of vaccines, but also depending on the storage, transportation, and administration of vaccines. Ideally, nucleic acid vaccine should be directly delivered to proper immune cells or tissue (such as lymph nodes). However, current developed vaccines are normally treated through intramuscular injection, where immune cells do not normally reside. Meanwhile, current nucleic acid vaccines must be stored in a frozen state that may hinder their application in developing countries. Here, we report a separable microneedle (SMN) patch to deliver polymer encapsulated spike (or nucleocapsid) protein encoding DNA vaccines and immune adjuvant for efficient immunization. Compared with intramuscular injection, SMN patch can deliver nanovaccines into intradermal for inducing potent and durable adaptive immunity. IFN-γ+CD4/8+ and IL-2+CD4/8+ T cells or virus specific IgG are significantly increased after vaccination. Moreover, in vivo results show the SMN patches can be stored at room temperature for at least 30 days without decreases in immune responses. These features of nanovaccines-laden SMN patch are important for developing advanced COVID-19 vaccines with global accessibility.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , DNA , Humanos , Agulhas , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 7377685, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485537

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between intraoperative hyperalgesia of the second eye and the dynamic changes of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß levels in aqueous humor (AH) of the second eye and whole blood after the first eye cataract surgery. A rabbit model of monocular phacoemulsification was established by administration of 0.3% levofloxacin. Whole blood and AH samples from non-surgical eyes in the experimental group (n =25) and second eye in the blank control group (n =15) were obtained and corneal sensitivity was examined after surgery (1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postoperatively). TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in AH and TNF-α mRNA and IL-1ß mRNA levels in whole blood were measured. In a clinical study, 30 patients who underwent bilateral phacoemulsification within 1 month were divided into six groups in accordance with the operation intervals (1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21days). TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in AH were measured at the beginning of surgery and intraoperative pain was assessed immediately after surgery. Corneal sensitivity (F =244.910, P <0.05), TNF-α and IL-1ß levels in AH (F =184.200, 82.900, P <0.05) of non-surgical eyes and in whole blood (F =272.800, 193.530, P <0.05) in the experimental group were significantly higher than the baseline levels after phacoemulsification. In the clinical study, NRS scores of second eye surgery were higher than those of the first eye(P =0.0025) and 19 (63.3%) patients reported more pain during the second eye surgery. TNF-α and IL-1ß concentrations in AH of the second eye were significantly higher than those of the first eye (F =123.60, P <0.05; F =59.60, P <0.05). In conclusion, within 1 month after the first eye phacoemulsification, higher pain sensitivity (hyperalgesia) exists in the second eye, which may be related to dynamic changes in TNF-α, IL-1ß levels in AH or whole blood.

12.
Glycoconj J ; 38(5): 585-597, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586534

RESUMO

We fabricated an amphiphilic folate-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharide (FA-BSP-SA) copolymer that exhibited good biocompatibility and superior antitumor effects. This study investigated the affinity between FA-BSP-SA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) via multispetroscopic approaches. Changes in the morphology and particle size showed that FA-BSP-SA formed a blurry "protein corona". Stern-Volmer equation demonstrated that FA-BSP-SA micelles decreased the fluorescence of BSA via static quenching. The measurement results of thermodynamic parameters (entropy change, enthalpy change, and Gibbs free energy) suggested that the binding between FA-BSP-SA and BSA was spontaneous in which Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding played major roles. The results from synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism, and UV spectra also revealed that BSA conformation was slightly altered by decreasing α-helical contents. In addition, the antitumor effects in vitro of Dox@FA-BSP-SA micelles and the cellular uptake behavior of micelles in 4T1 cells were decreased after incubating with BSA.

13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1127-1139, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413521

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that essentially support germinal center responses where high-affinity and long-lived humoral immunity is generated. The regulation of TFH cell survival remains unclear. Here we report that TFH cells show intensified lipid peroxidation and altered mitochondrial morphology, resembling the features of ferroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is driven by iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is the major lipid peroxidation scavenger and is necessary for TFH cell survival. The deletion of GPX4 in T cells selectively abrogated TFH cells and germinal center responses in immunized mice. Selenium supplementation enhanced GPX4 expression in T cells, increased TFH cell numbers and promoted antibody responses in immunized mice and young adults after influenza vaccination. Our findings reveal the central role of the selenium-GPX4-ferroptosis axis in regulating TFH homeostasis, which can be targeted to enhance TFH cell function in infection and following vaccination.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Ovalbumina , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326833

RESUMO

Crosstalk between T and B cells is crucial for generating high-affinity, class-switched antibody responses. The roles of CD4+ T cells in this process have been well-characterised. In contrast, regulation of antibody responses by CD8+ T cells is significantly less defined. CD8+ T cells are principally recognised for eliciting cytotoxic responses in peripheral tissues and forming protective memory. However, recent findings have identified a novel population of effector CD8+ T cells that co-opt a differentiation program characteristic of CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, upregulate the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and localise to B cell follicles. While it has been shown that CXCR5+CD8+ T cells mediate the removal of viral reservoirs in the context of follicular-trophic viral infections and maintain the response to chronic insults by virtue of progenitor/stem-like properties, it is not known if CXCR5+CD8+ T cells arise during acute peripheral challenges in the absence of follicular infection and whether they influence B cell responses in vivo in these settings. Using the ovalbumin-specific T cell receptor transgenic (OT-I) system in an adoptive transfer-immunisation/infection model, this study demonstrates that CXCR5+CD8+ T cells arise in response to protein immunisation and peripheral viral infection, displaying a follicular-homing phenotype, expression of cell surface molecules associated with Tfh cells and limited cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, studies assessing the B cell response in the presence of OT-I or Cxcr5-/- OT-I cells revealed that CXCR5+CD8+ T cells shape the antibody response to protein immunisation and peripheral viral infection, promoting class switching to IgG2c in responding B cells. Overall, the results highlight a novel contribution of CD8+ T cells to antibody responses, expanding the functionality of the adaptive immune system.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Humanos , Imunização , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Receptores CXCR5/genética
16.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(10): 1173-1181, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291554

RESUMO

AIMS: Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is characterized by complex manifestations of seizures. Here, we report a new seizure semiology, attempt to classify the disease by semiology type, and explore the metabolic pattern of each group. METHODS: Anti-LGI1 AE patients were retrospectively screened between May 2014 and September 2019 in our tertiary epilepsy center. All enrolled patients had seizures during long-range video electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and all patients (except one) underwent [18 F] fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Voxel-based metabolic analysis and z-distribution analysis were carried out to determine the metabolic pattern. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. According to the patients' seizure semiology, we divided the patients into four groups: focal impaired awareness seizures (FIAS, n = 17), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS)-only (n = 6), FBDS-plus (n = 8), and focal aware motor seizures (FAMS) (n = 2). No significant differences were found in the clinical manifestations or accessory tests except for the onset age (FIAS < FBDS-plus) and seizure semiology. This was the first study to extensively describe the clinical manifestations and EEG of FAMS in anti-LGI1 AE patients. In addition, we found that the patients with different semiologies all showed a wide range of abnormal metabolism, which is not limited to the temporal regions and basal ganglia, and extends far beyond our previous interpretation of FDG-PET data. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that FAMS can serve as a rare indicative seizure semiology of anti-LGI1 AE and that individuals with this disease exhibited widespread functional network alterations.

17.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109442, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320340

RESUMO

Transcriptomic analysis plays a key role in biomedical research. Linear dimensionality reduction methods, especially principal-component analysis (PCA), are widely used in detecting sample-to-sample heterogeneity, while recently developed non-linear methods, such as t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) and uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP), can efficiently cluster heterogeneous samples in single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. Yet, the application of t-SNE and UMAP in bulk transcriptomic analysis and comparison with conventional methods have not been achieved. We compare four major dimensionality reduction methods (PCA, multidimensional scaling [MDS], t-SNE, and UMAP) in analyzing 71 large bulk transcriptomic datasets. UMAP is superior to PCA and MDS but shows some advantages over t-SNE in differentiating batch effects, identifying pre-defined biological groups, and revealing in-depth clusters in two-dimensional space. Importantly, UMAP generates sample clusters uncovering biological features and clinical meaning. We recommend deploying UMAP in visualizing and analyzing sizable bulk transcriptomic datasets to reinforce sample heterogeneity analysis.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321612

RESUMO

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogens of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). EV71 efficiently escapes innate immunity responses of the host to cause infection. At present, no effective antiviral drugs for EV71 are available. Anemoside B4 (B4) is a natural saponin isolated from the roots of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel. P. chinensis extracts that shows a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of B4 against EV71 both in cell culture and in suckling mice. We showed that B4 (12.5-200 µM) dose dependently increased the viability of EV71-infected RD cells with an IC50 value of 24.95 ± 0.05 µM against EV71. The antiviral activity of B4 was associated with enhanced interferon (IFN)-ß response, since knockdown of IFN-ß abolished its antiviral activity. We also confirmed that the enhanced IFN response was mediated via activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLRs) pathway, and it was executed by upregulation of 14-3-3 protein, which disrupted the interaction between yes-associated protein (YAP) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). By using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics profiling, we identified the Hippo pathway as the top-ranking functional cluster in B4-treated EV71-infected cells. In vivo experiments were conducted in suckling mice (2-day-old) infected with EV71 and subsequently B4 (200 mg · kg-1 · d-1, i.p.) was administered for 16 days. We showed that B4 administration effectively suppressed EV71 replication and improved muscle inflammation and limb activity. Meanwhile, B4 administration regulated the expressions of HFMD biomarkers IL-10 and IFN-γ, attenuating complications of EV71 infection. Collectively, our results suggest that B4 could enhance the antiviral effect of IFN-ß by orchestrating Hippo and RLRs pathway, and B4 would be a potential lead compound for developing an anti-EV71 drug.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local immunoglobulin hyperproduction is observed in nasal polyps (NPs) with and without ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify the T-cell subsets involved in local immunoglobulin production independent of eLTs in NPs. METHODS: The localization, abundance, and phenotype of CD4+ T-cell subsets were studied by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and single-cell RNA sequencing. Purified nasal T-cell subsets were cultured with autologous peripheral naive B cells to explore their function. Programmed death ligand 1 and programmed death ligand 2 expression in NPs was investigated by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry. RESULTS: Accumulation of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells outside lymphoid aggregates was found in NPs. Nasal PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells were characterized by a unique phenotype that was related to B-cell help and tissue residency and distinct from PD-1-/intCXCR5- and CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells in NPs as well as PD-1highCXCR5highCD4+ follicular helper T cells in tonsils. Compared with the frequencies of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells and their IFN-γ+, IL-17A+, and IL-21+ subsets in the control inferior turbinate tissues, the frequencies of these cells and their subsets were increased in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic NPs, whereas the frequencies of the IL-4+ and IL-4+IL-21+ subsets were increased only in eosinophilic NPs. Nasal PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells induced immunoglobulin production from B cells in a potency comparable to that induced by tonsillar follicular helper T cells. PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T-cell frequencies were correlated with IgE levels in eosinophilic NPs. PD-L1 and PD-L2 suppressed the function of PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells, and their levels were reduced in NPs. PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T-cell abundance was associated with the postsurgical relapse of NPs. CONCLUSION: PD-1highCXCR5-CD4+ T cells participate in local immunoglobulin production independent of eLTs in NPs.

20.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(9): 968-982, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312509

RESUMO

Choroidal neovascularization induced by age-related macular degeneration and retinal neovascularization induced by diabetic retinopathy-two leading causes of blindness-are often treated using antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here we report a strong association between inflammation and high VEGF expression in aqueous humour samples from patients with choroidal or retinal neovascularization, and show that intravitreally injected exosomes derived from regulatory T cells and conjugated with an anti-VEGF antibody via a peptide linker that is cleavable by matrix metalloproteinases markedly suppressed ocular neovascularization in mouse and non-human primate models of choroidal neovascularization. The engineered exosomes, which selectively accumulate in the neovascularization lesions, could be adapted for other combination therapies of therapeutic antibodies and anti-inflammatory cargo.

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