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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as an alternative treatment for recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) is still unclear. This study aimed to report the outcome of SBRT in VT patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). METHODS: The determination of the target substrate for radiation was based on the combination of CMR results and electroanatomical mapping merged with the real-time CT scan image. Radiation therapy was performed by Flattening-filter-free (Truebeam™) system, and afterward, patients were followed-up for 13.5±2.8 months. We analyzed the outcome of death, incidence of recurrent VT, ICD shocks, anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) sequences, and possible irradiation side-effects. RESULTS: A total of 3 cases of NICM patients with anteroseptal scar detected by CMR. SBRT was successfully performed in all patients. During the follow-up, we found that VT recurrences occurred in all patients. In one patient, it happened during a 6-week blanking period, while the others happened afterward. Re-hospitalization due to VT only appeared in one patient. Through ICD interrogation, we found that all patients have reduced VT burden and ATP therapies. All of the patients died during the follow-up period. Radiotherapy-related adverse events did not occur in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: SBRT therapy reduces the number of VT burden and ATP sequence therapy in NICM patients with VT, which had a failed previous catheter ablation. However, the efficacy and safety aspects, especially in NICM cases, remained unclear. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates that leads to the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been postulated to begin in the gastrointestinal tract. The normal human appendix contains pathogenic forms of α-Syn, and appendectomy has been reported to affect the incidence of PD. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated appendix abnormality in patients with PD. METHODS: We assessed appendix morphology in 100 patients with PD and 50 control subjects by multislice spiral computed tomography. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with PD with diseased appendices, which was confirmed in seven patients by histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Chronic appendicitis-like lesions were detected in 53% of patients with PD, but these were not associated with the duration of motor symptoms. Appendicitis-like lesions, impaired olfaction, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were risk factors for PD. The following clinical symptoms could be used to identify patients with PD with appendicitis-like lesions: first motor symptoms were bradykinesia/rigidity, onset of motor symptoms in the central axis or left limb, prodromal constipation, high ratio of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III score to symptom duration, low Montreal Cognitive Assessment score, and high Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. The seven patients with PD who were diagnosed with chronic appendicitis underwent appendectomy, and histopathological analysis revealed structural changes associated with chronic appendicitis and α-Syn aggregation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an association between chronic appendicitis-like lesions and PD, and suggest that α-Syn accumulation in the diseased appendix occurs in PD. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(33): 4051-4054, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885674

RESUMO

Exploiting suitable oxidation catalysts is of great importance in the development of sugar-based fuel cells (SFCs). Herein, a novel room-temperature glucose/O2 fuel cell (GFC), which employs 4-acetamido-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (ACT) as an anodic electrocatalyst and air-breathing Pt-C as a cathode, is demonstrated. Under room temperature operation, the as-assembled GFCs are capable of delivering a maximum power density of 100 µW cm-2 in the presence of 50 mM glucose. Bulk electrolysis products of glucose identified by mass spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy include gluconic acid and glucaric acid, suggesting that the aldehyde and primary hydroxy groups of glucose can be deeply oxidized into carboxyl groups through a 6e- pathway. The deep glucose oxidation capability makes ACT a promising anodic electrocatalyst for SFCs.

5.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 333-341, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886395

RESUMO

In higher education, it is a great challenge for instructors to teach international medical students (IMSs) efficiently. These students usually have different learning obstacles and learning style preferences from domestic students. Thus it is necessary to use teaching modalities targeting the specific characteristics of IMSs. Accordingly, we have developed a teaching modality composed of classical teacher-centered approach (TCA), enriched with components of student-centered approach (SCA) and online interactions targeting the learning characteristics of IMSs, which we defined as TESOT (an acronym made of the underlined words' initials). Aside from the online interactions that provide both answers to questions raised by students and guidance throughout a course, this modality contains additional in-classroom components (i.e., pre-lecture quiz, student-led summary, and post-lecture quiz). The effectiveness of this modality was tested in the nervous system module of the Physiology course for IMSs. The final exam scores in the nervous system module in the year taught with TESOT were higher than those earned by students taught with a classical TCA modality in preceding 2 yr. The improvement of teaching effectiveness is attributable to increasing communication, bridging course contexts, and meeting diverse learning style preferences. These results indicate that TESOT as an effective teaching modality is useful for enhancing efficiency of teaching IMSs.

6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890531

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation on the 90% EtOH extract of the seeds of Cipadessa cinerascensa led to the isolation of three new limonoids, cinerascenoids A-C (1-3). Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1 D and 2 D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. All the limonoids were in vitro evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against six pathogenic microorganisms. Limonoids 1 and 2 exhibited some activities against three Gram negative bacteria with MIC values less than 60 µg/ml.

7.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 236-249, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877540

RESUMO

Ovary plays an important role in the female reproductive system. The maintenance and regulation of ovarian function are affected by various physical and chemical factors. With the development of industrialization, environmental pollutants have caused great harm to public health. Phthalates, as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are synthesized and used in large quantities as plasticizers due to their chemical properties. They are easily released into environment because of their noncovalent interactions with substances, causing human exposure and possibly impairing ovary. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the role of epigenetics in the occurrence and development of diseases. And it is urgent to study the role of methylation, gene imprinting, miRNA, and other epigenetic mechanisms in reproductive toxicology.

8.
Gene ; 788: 145666, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies in cancer biology suggest that metabolic glucose reprogramming is a potential target for cancer treatment. However, little is known about drug intervention in the glucose metabolism of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and its related underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The crude realgar powder was Nano-grinded to meets the requirements of Nano-pharmaceutical preparations, and Nano-realgar solution (NRS) was prepared for subsequent experiments. Isolation and characterization of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) was performed by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Cell viability and intracellular glucose concentration were detected by MTT assay and glucose oxidase (GOD) kit. Protein expressions related to metabolic reprogramming was detected by ELISA assay. Determination of the expression of HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways was carried out by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. A subcutaneous tumor model in BALB/c-nu mice was successfully established to evaluate the effects of Nano-realgar on tumor growth and histological structure, and the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues was measured by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Nano-realgar inhibits cell viability and induces glucose metabolism in LCSCs, and inhibits protein expression related to metabolic reprogramming in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Nano-realgar downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in vitro and in vivo. Nano-realgar inhibits tumor growth and changes the histological structure of tumors through in vivo experiments and consequently inhibits the constitutive activation of HIF-1α signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that Nano-realgar inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by repressing metabolic reprogramming. This inhibitory effect potentially related to the downregulation HIF-1α expression via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

9.
Br J Radiol ; : 20201400, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine fat/water signal ratios using the mDIXON Quant sequence, quantitatively assess fat infiltration in the penis, and explore its possible relationship with penile hardness and erectile dysfunction. METHODS: Routine pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with the mDIXON Quant sequence was performed in 62 subjects, including 22 people in the normal group, 20 people in the normal erectile hardness group, and 20 people in the ED group. The fat/water signal ratio in the penis was measured using the mDIXON Quant sequence. Shear wave elastography was used to evaluate the hardness of the corpus cavernosa of the penis. RESULTS: The fat/water signal ratio of the corpus spongiosum was significantly lower than that of the corpus cavernosa in the normal group (p = 0.03) and ED group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the fat/water signal ratios between the normal group and the normal erectile hardness group. Fat infiltration was significantly lower, and erectile hardness was significantly higher in the normal erectile hardness group than in the erectile dysfunction group, and the fat infiltration in the left and right corpus cavernosa was inversely proportional to the erectile hardness of the penis. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mDIXON Quant can be used as a noninvasive, quantitative, and objective method for evaluating penile fat infiltration. This method could help diagnose penile fat infiltration in patients with erectile dysfunction and varying BMIs. Our results could also allow for a more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of erectile hardness function by quantitatively measuring penile fat infiltration. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: (1) The proton density fat fraction (PDFF) technology is a new tool for the objective, quantitative and noninvasive evaluation of penile fat infiltration. (2) The quantitative measurement of fat infiltration in the corpora cavernosa might help diagnose and monitor penile erection hardness and its function more accurately.

10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923928

RESUMO

Cardiechema is a way to reflect cardiovascular disease where the doctor uses a stethoscope to help determine the heart condition with a sound map. In this paper, phonocardiogram (PCG) is used as a diagnostic signal, and a deep learning diagnostic framework is proposed. By improving the architecture and modules, a new transfer learning and boosting architecture is mainly employed. In addition, a segmentation method is designed to improve on the existing signal segmentation methods, such as R wave to R wave interval segmentation and fixed segmentation. For the evaluation, the final diagnostic architecture achieved a sustainable performance with a public PCG database.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117208, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930779

RESUMO

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment, whereas their atmospheric processes and fate are poorly understood. The present study revealed the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal variations of traditional and novel OPEs in PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameters < 2.5 µm) across a megacity (including residential areas and potential source sites) in South China. Potential influencing factors on the contamination levels of OPEs were addressed. The total concentrations of 11 traditional OPEs ranging from 262 to 42,194 pg/m3 (median = 1872 pg/m3) were substantially higher than those of 10 novel OPEs (33.5-3835 pg/m3, median = 318 pg/m3). Significant spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of most OPEs were observed. The overall district-specific contamination levels in this city showed dependence on the secondary industry sector for non-predominant OPEs and on the tertiary industry for predominant OPEs. The seasonal variations of the OPE concentrations suggest difference in their sources or influence of meteorological conditions. The correlations between the individual OPEs in PM2.5 are determined largely by either their applications or physicochemical properties (in particular vapor pressure). The correlations between OPE concentrations and each meteorological factor (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and surface solar radiation) were inconsistent (positive and negative). Wind speed had the greatest effect on the OPE levels; While most OPEs bound to PM2.5 were not efficiently scavenged by below-cloud rainfall. The results suggest that atmospheric half-life and Henry's Law Constant of OPEs are also determining factors for the wind speed and rainfall influence, respectively. However, mechanisms underlying the influence of meteorological conditions on atmospheric OPEs still need further research.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 409, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866326

RESUMO

The levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) rapidly increases after acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the role of FGF23 in AKI is still unclear. Here, we observe that pretreatment with FGF23 protein into ischemia-reperfusion induced AKI mice ameliorates kidney injury by promoting renal tubular regeneration, proliferation, vascular repair, and attenuating tubular damage. In vitro assays demonstrate that SDF-1 induces upregulation of its receptor CXCR4 in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) via a non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. FGF23 crosstalks with the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and abrogates SDF-1-induced EPC senescence and migration, but not angiogenesis, in a Klotho-independent manner. The downregulated pro-angiogenic IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF-A expressions after SDF-1 infusion are rescued after adding FGF23. Diminished therapeutic ability of SDF-1-treated EPCs is counteracted by FGF23 in a SCID mouse in vivo AKI model. Together, these data highlight a revolutionary and important role that FGF23 plays in the nephroprotection of IR-AKI.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the comparative efficacy of 4 ablation strategies on the incidence rates of freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial tachycardia (AT) through a 3-year follow-up in patients with persistent AF. BACKGROUND: The optimal substrate modification strategies using catheter ablation for patients with persistent AF remain unclear. METHODS: Patients with persistent AF were enrolled consecutively to undergo each of 4 ablation strategies: (a) Group 1 (Gp 1, n=69), pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) plus rotor ablation assisted by similarity index and phase mapping; (b) Gp 2 (n=75), PVI plus linear ablations at the left atrium; (c) Gp 3 (n=42), PVI plus elimination of complex fractionated atrial electrograms; (d) Gp 4 (n=67), PVI only. Potential confounders were adjusted via a multivariate survival parametric model. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar across the 4 groups. At a follow-up period of 34.9±38.6 months, patients in Gp 1 showed the highest rate of freedom from AF compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.002), while patients in Gp 3 and 4 showed lower rates of freedom from AT than those of the other two groups (p=0.006). Independent predictors of recurrence of AF were the ablation strategy (p=0.002) and left atrial diameter (LAD) (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: In patients with persistent AF, a substrate modification strategy using rotor ablation assisted by similarity index and phase mapping provided a benefit for maintaining sinus rhythm compared to the other strategies. Both ablation strategy and baseline LAD predicted the 3-year outcomes of freedom from AT/AF This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare tooth movement rate and histological responses with three different force magnitude designs under osteoperforation in rabbit models. METHODOLOGY: 48 rabbits were divided into three groups: Group A, Group B, and Group C, with traction force of 50 g, 100 g, 150 g, respectively. Osteoperforation was performed at the mesial of the right mandibular first premolar, the left side was not affected. One mini-screw was inserted into bones between two central incisors. Coil springs were fixed to the first premolars and the mini-screw. Tooth movement distance was calculated, and immunohistochemical staining of PCNA, OCN, VEGF, and TGF-ß1 was analyzed. RESULTS: The tooth movement distance on the surgical side was larger than the control side in all groups (P<0.01). No significant intergroup difference was observed for the surgical side in tooth movement distance among the three groups (P>0.05). For the control side, tooth movement distance in Group A was significantly smaller than Groups B and C (P<0.001); no significant difference in tooth movement distance between Group B and Group C was observed (P>0.05). On the tension area of the moving premolar, labeling of PCNA, OCN, VEGF and TGF-ß1 were confirmed in alveolar bone and periodontal ligament in all groups. PCNA, OCN, VEGF and TGF-ß1 on the surgical side was larger than the control side in all groups (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Osteoperforation could accelerate orthodontic tooth movement rate in rabbits. Fast osteoperforation-assisted tooth movement in rabbits was achieve with light 50 g traction.


Assuntos
Ligamento Periodontal , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Dente Pré-Molar , Coelhos
15.
Environ Pollut ; 281: 116994, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819668

RESUMO

The Fuyang River system (FRS) in north China, for a long time, is seriously polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals due to industrialization. However, the information on heavy metal pollution in this area is still limited, and health risks raised by trace elements are neglected up to now. To characterize the heavy metal pollutants and assess their potential ecological risks scientifically in FRS, surface sediments were collected from 66 sampling sites selected according to the hydrological and anthropogenic conditions along the river. A total of twelve metal pollutants (e.g., Cr, As, and Hg) in the sediments were detected among the distributaries. A combining application of geoaccumulation index (Igeo), ratio of secondary phase and primary phase (RSP), and the ecological risk factor (Eri) in this study gave systematic assessment results of single or combined pollution status raised by heavy metals in this area. The results show that Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Co, and Sn are mainly dispersed in the river reaches of Xingtai City and pose potential health risks in midstream, as per the geoaccumulation index and Pearson's correlation analyses. In particular, Cd accumulates strongly in sediments of Ming River and Aixinzhuang dam from Xingtai City. In upstream and downstream of FRS, the potential ecological risk is low, except in Yongnian County where high ecological risk was caused by Cd and Hg. These findings provide new insights into the pollution characteristics and assessment of the potential ecological risks induced by heavy metals along FRS, which suggest new directions should strategically tend to typical pollutants control by policy formulation and taking effective measures to prevent and manage heavy metal pollution in North China.

16.
Life Sci ; 277: 119452, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831430

RESUMO

AIMS: The prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1) is differentially expressed in pan-cancer. However, PMEPA1 specific role in cancers has not been fully clarified. This study aims to explore the potential role of Pmepa1 in pan-cancer and specific cancer, with a view to deepening the research on the pathological mechanism of cancer. MAIN METHODS: The Perl language and R language were used to identify the correlation between PMEPA1 expression level and clinical indicators, prognosis values, tumor microenvironment, immune cells' infiltration, immune checkpoint genes, TMB and MSI. The Therapeutic Target Database was used for identifying potential therapeutic drugs that target the pathways that are significantly affected by PMEPA1 expression. KEY FINDINGS: PMEPA1 differential expression significantly correlated with patients' age, race, tumors' stage and status. PMEPA1 high expression was closely correlated with poor prognosis in many cancer types, excluding prostate adenocarcinoma. PMEPA1 expression was closely related to tumor cells and the immune microenvironment in stromal and immune cells' level, immune cells' infiltration, immune checkpoint genes, tumor mutational burden and microsatellite instability. We also found that the activity of the olfactory transduction pathway was closely related to PMEPA1 expression. In pan-cancer, Trifluoperazine and Halofantrine have the potential to reduce PMEPA1 expression. SIGNIFICANCE: This study integrated existing data to explore PMEPA1 potential function in cancers, provided insights for the future cancer-related studies.

17.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the presented scientific results are highly debatable. This study examined the longitudinal association between GERD and CRC in an Asian population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 45,828 individuals with newly diagnosed GERD (the GERD cohort) and 229,140 age, sex, and date of enrollment-matched patients without GERD (the comparison cohort) from 2000 to 2006. The primary outcome was the incidence of CRC. To estimate the effect of GERD on the risk of CRC, the Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: There were 785 newly diagnosed CRC patients in the 45,828 patients with GERD. Relatively, there were 2375 incident CRC cases in 229,140 patients without GERD. The incidence rate of CRC for the GERD cohort (17.60 per 10,000 person-years) was significantly higher than the corresponding incidence rate for the comparison cohort (10.22 per 10,000 person-years). After adjustment for confounders, GERD was associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC (adjusted HR,1.76; 95% CI, 1.62-2.90). Of note, a significant association between GERD and CRC risk was evident in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this nationwide population-based cohort study supports the hypothesis that GERD was associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC. Our findings warrant still further investigation of the underlying mechanisms related to carcinogenic effect of GERD on colorectal carcinoma.

18.
Vet Sci ; 8(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800678

RESUMO

A 5-year-old Mongolian mare (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) was observed to have corneal opacity and excessive ocular discharge. An ophthalmic examination revealed a moving thread-like cylindrical worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. The parasite was successfully removed surgically. The worm was observed under light microscopy and confirmed as Setaria digitata by 12S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated similarity with Setaria digitata in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank database isolated from other Asian countries. This report is the first confirmed case of equine ocular setariasis by molecular diagnosis in China, which may indicate its presence in livestock and promote research on its epidemiology.

19.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811744

RESUMO

In plants, clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs) have emerged as major players in abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated stress responses by inhibiting protein kinase activity. However, how different internal and external environmental signals modulate the activity of PP2CAs are not well known. The Transmembrane Kinase (TMK) protein 4 (TMK4), one member of a previously identified receptor kinase subfamily on the plasma membrane that play vital roles in plant cell growth, directly interacts with PP2CAs member (ABA-Insensitive 2, ABI2). tmk4 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA in both ABA-inhibited seed germination and primary root growth, indicating that TMK4 is a negative regulator in ABA signaling pathway. Further analyses indicate that TMK4 phosphorylates ABI2 at three conserved Ser residues, thus enhancing the activity of ABI2. The phosphorylation-mimic ABI2S139DS140DS266D can complement but non-phosphorylated form ABI2S139AS140AS266A cannot complement ABA hypersensitive phenotype of the loss-of- function mutant abi1-2abi2-2. This study provides a previously unidentified mechanism for positively regulating ABI2 by a plasma membrane protein kinase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8637, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883588

RESUMO

Eradicating influenza A virus (IAV) is difficult, due to its genetic drift and reassortment ability. As the infectious cycle is initiated by the influenza glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), which mediates the binding of virions to terminal sialic acids moieties, HA is a tempting target of anti-influenza inhibitors. However, the complexity of the HA structure has prevented delineation of the structural characterization of the HA protein-ligand complex. Our computational strategy efficiently analyzed > 200,000 records of compounds held in the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) database and identified potential HA inhibitors, by modeling the sialic acid (SA) receptor binding site (RBS) for the HA structure. Our modeling revealed that compound NSC85561 showed significant antiviral activity against the IAV H1N1 strain with EC50 values ranging from 2.31 to 2.53 µM and negligible cytotoxicity (CC50 > 700 µM). Using the NSC85561 compound as the template to generate 12 derivatives, robust bioassay results revealed the strongest antiviral efficacies with NSC47715 and NSC7223. Virtual screening clearly identified three SA receptor binding site inhibitors that were successfully validated in experimental data. Thus, our computational strategy has identified SA receptor binding site inhibitors against HA that show IAV-associated antiviral activity.

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