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1.
Water Res ; 194: 116927, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618107

RESUMO

Due to the fast reaction of superoxide radical (O2•-) with ozone (O3), it has been suggested that O2•- is present at very low concentrations during ozonation. Therefore, while O2•- has been considered a critical chain carrier for promoting O3 decomposition to hydroxyl radicals (•OH), the direct reactions of O2•- with micropollutants have been assumed to be insignificant during ozonation. In this study, we monitored the exposures of O3, •OH, and O2•- by following the depletion of O3, p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA, as •OH probe), and tetrachloromethane (CCl4, as O2•- probe) during ozonation of various water matrices (surface water, groundwater, and secondary wastewater effluent). For a given water matrix, the ratio between •OH and O3 exposures (Rct), O2•- and O3 exposures (RSO), as well as O2•- and •OH exposures (RSH) remained almost constant over the entire reaction time. This suggests that during ozonation, the ratios between the transient concentrations of •OH and O3, O2•- and O3, and O2•- and •OH were also constant and equaled to the Rct, RSO, and RSH, respectively. Based on the O3, •OH, and O2•- exposures observed during ozonation, a chemical kinetic model was proposed to simulate the abatement of ten ozone-resistant micropollutants in the three water matrices by ozonation. The results indicate that due to the higher concentrations of O2•- than •OH (RSH = ~5-8), the reactions with O2•- played a non-negligible or even dominant role in the abatement of some micropollutants that have similar or higher O2•- reactivity than •OH reactivity (e.g., tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, and PFOA). Compared with the previous model that neglected the contribution of O2•- to micropollutant abatement, the proposed model more accurately simulated the abatement efficiencies of the test micropollutants during ozonation. These results indicate that the proposed model can provide a useful tool for the generalized prediction of micropollutant abatement by ozonation.

2.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576466

RESUMO

Drug addiction is a chronic and recurrent disease associated with learning and memory. Shaped by drug use and cues from the environment, drug memory serves a key role in drug­seeking behaviour. Methamphetamine (MA), a globally abused drug, causes cognitive impairment, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the mechanisms via which this occurs. In the current study, it was hypothesized that ER stress may serve a role in the disturbance of drug memory. The present study demonstrated that 5 mg/kg MA inhibited conditioned place preference behaviour via ER stress, which caused a disruption in long­term potentiation in the hippocampus. When mice were pre­treated with the ER stress inhibitors 4­phenyl butyric acid or tauroursodeoxycholic acid, drug­evoked synaptic plasticity was induced. Western blotting results indicated that treatment with 5 mg/kg MA enhanced the expression of cyclin­dependent kinase­5 and decreased the expression of Ca2+/calmodulin­dependent protein kinase II α via ER stress. Collectively, the present results suggested that a large dose of MA inhibited drug­evoked synaptic plasticity and disrupted drug memory by inducing ER stress.

3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109093, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607540

RESUMO

Since Pseudomonas fluorescens is the main microorganism causing severe spoilage in refrigerated aquatic products, the searching for non-antibiotic antibacterial agents effective against it continues to receive increasing interest. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of alkyl gallic esters against P. fluorescens isolated from the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti), as well as the effectiveness in combination with chitosan films on the preservation of sturgeon meats at 4 °C. Our data shows that the alkyl chain length plays a significant role in eliciting their antibacterial activities and octyl gallate (GAC8) exhibited an outstanding inhibitory efficacy. GAC8 can rapidly enter into the membrane lipid bilayer portion to disorder the membrane, and further inhibit the growth of the P. fluorescens through interfering both tricarboxylic acid cycle related to energy supply and amino acid metabolism associated with cell membranes, suppressing oxygen consumption and disturbing the respiration chain. Moreover, the alteration in membrane fatty acids indicated that GAC8 could disrupt the composition of cell membrane fatty acids, rendering the bacteria more sensitive to the antibacterial. The SEM results also substantiate the damage of the structure of the bacterial membrane caused by GAC8. Additionally, the edible chitosan-based films incorporated with GAC8 showed the enhanced antibacterial efficacy to remarkably extend the shelf life of Russian sturgeon. Overall, our findings not only provide new insight into the mode of action of GAC8 against P. fluorescens but also demonstrate composite films containing GAC8, as a kind of safe and antibacterial material, have a great promise for application in food preservations.

4.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542474

RESUMO

Fractal analysis provides a global assessment of vascular networks (e.g., geometric complexity). We examined the association of diastolic left ventricular (LV) function with the retinal microvascular fractal dimension. A lower fractal dimension signifies a sparser retinal microvascular network. In 628 randomly recruited Flemish individuals (51.3% women; mean age, 50.8 years), we measured diastolic LV function by echocardiography and the retinal microvascular fractal dimension by the box-counting method (Singapore I Vessel Assessment software, version 3.6). The left atrial volume index (LAVI), e', E/e' and retinal microvascular fractal dimension averaged (±SD) 24.3 ± 6.2 mL/m2, 10.9 ± 3.6 cm/s, 6.96 ± 2.2, and 1.39 ± 0.05, respectively. The LAVI, E, e' and E/e' were associated (P < 0.001) with the retinal microvascular fractal dimension with association sizes (per 1 SD), amounting to -1.49 mL/m2 (95% confidence interval, -1.98 to -1.01), 2.57 cm/s (1.31-3.84), 1.34 cm/s (1.07-1.60), and -0.74 (-0.91 to -0.57), respectively. With adjustments applied for potential covariables, the associations of E peak and E/e' with the retinal microvascular fractal dimension remained significant (P ≤ 0.020). Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 18 deaths occurred. The crude and adjusted hazard ratios expressing the risk of all-cause mortality associated with a 1-SD increment in the retinal microvascular fractal dimension were 0.36 (0.23-0.57; P < 0.001) and 0.57 (0.34-0.96; P = 0.035), respectively. In the general population, a lower retinal microvascular fractal dimension was associated with greater E/e', a measure of LV filling pressure. These observations can potentially be translated into new strategies for the prevention of diastolic LV dysfunction.

5.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565310

RESUMO

In the continuous transistor feature size scaling down, the scaling of the supply voltage is stagnant because of the subthreshold swing (SS) limit. A transistor with a new mechanism is needed to break through the thermionic limit of SS and hold the large drive current at the same time. Here, by adopting the recently proposed Dirac-source field-effect transistor (DSFET) technology, we experimentally demonstrate a MoS2/graphene (1.8 nm/0.3 nm) DSFET for the first time, and a steep SS of 37.9 mV/dec at room temperature with nearly free hysteresis is observed. Besides, by bringing in the structure of gate-all-around (GAA), the MoS2/graphene DSFET exhibits a steeper SS of 33.5 mV/dec and a 40% increased normalized drive current up to 52.7 µA·µm/µm (VDS = 1 V) with a current on/off ratio of 108, which shows potential for low-power and high-performance electronics applications.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 590: 495-505, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567374

RESUMO

The adsorptive removal of tetracycline (TC) was studied with three types of zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (Zr-MOFs), UiO-66, NU-1000 and MOF-525. The adsorption kinetics best fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium was rapidly reached within 40 min on UiO-66 and NU-1000, and 120 min on MOF-525. The adsorption isotherms best fitted with Sips model, and the maximum Sips adsorption capacities of TC on UiO-66, NU-1000 and MOF-525 were 145 mg·g-1, 356 mg·g-1 and 807 mg·g-1 respectively, which were much higher than common adsorbents. The X-ray photoelectron spectra measurements and the influence of pH suggested that the π-π interaction played a crucial role during the adsorption. Pore characteristics and topology of MOFs showed great effect on adsorption performance. The cages whose size match well with TC helped MOF-525 to get highest adsorption amount per surface area among MOFs we studied. The proper topology of NU-1000 contributed to its high adsorption rate. River water was also used to confirm the excellent adsorptive performance of these three Zr-MOFs in practical application. These results might aid us to comprehend the adsorption of TC on Zr-MOFs and expand the application of Zr-MOFs in water treatment for removal of emerging contaminants.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4115-4137, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494069

RESUMO

In vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease were established to investigate the effects of the lncRNA XIST/miR-199a-3p/Sp1/LRRK2 axis. The binding between XIST and miR-199a-3p as well as miR-199a-3p and Sp1 were examined by luciferase reporter assay and confirmed by RNA immunoprecipitation analysis. Following the Parkinson's disease animal behavioural assessment by suspension and swim tests, the brain tissue injuries were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling, and tyrosine hydroxylase stainings. The results indicated that miR-199a-3p expression was downregulated, whereas that of XIST, Sp1 and LRRK2 were upregulated in Parkinson's disease. Moreover, miR-199a-3p overexpression or XIST knockdown inhibited the cell apoptosis induced by MPP+ treatment and promoted cell proliferation. The neurodegenerative defects were significantly recovered by treating the cells with shXIST or shSp1, whereas miR-199a-3p inhibition or Sp1 and LRRK2 overexpression abrogated these beneficial effects. Furthermore, the results of our in vivo experiments confirmed the neuroprotective effects of shXIST and miR-199a-3p against MPTP-induced brain injuries, and the Parkinson's disease behavioural symptoms were effectively alleviated upon shXIST or miR-199a-3p treatment. In summary, the results of the present study showed that lncRNA XIST sponges miR-199a-3p to modulate Sp1 expression and further accelerates Parkinson's disease progression by targeting LRRK2.

8.
Food Chem ; 346: 128949, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418419

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and potential mechanism of alkyl gallates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results show that the length of the alkyl chain plays a pivotal role in eliciting the activity and octyl gallate (OG) exerted excellent bactericidal activity through a multiple bactericidal mechanism. OG functions against both bacteria through damaging bacterial cell wall integrity, permeating into cells and then interacting with DNA, as well as disturbing the activity of the respiratory electron transport chain to induce a high-level toxic ROS (hydroxyl radicals) generation and up-regulation of the ROS genes. Also, electrospun nanofibers with OG have unique superiorities for maintaining the freshness of the icefish (4 °C). This research not only provides a more in-depth understanding of the interaction between OG and microorganisms but also highlights the great promise of using OG as a safe multi-functionalized food additive for food preservations.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Nanofibras/química , Perciformes/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Cell ; 184(2): 296-298, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482095

RESUMO

γ-secretase is a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease, but all inhibitors and modulators have failed due to toxicity or low efficacy. In this issue of Cell, Yang et al. provide cryo-EM structures of γ-secretase bound to three inhibitors and a modulator, giving new promise to targeting γ-secretase therapeutically.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 94, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462208

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) is one type of important non-coding RNAs that participate in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. In our previous study, we performed a microarray analysis of circRNAs between the tumor tissues and the adjacent normal tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and found that the circRNA hsa_circ_0007456 is significantly downregulated in the tumor tissues and correlated with the prognosis of HCC. We further investigated the relationship between the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC and the susceptibility of NK cells, and found that the expression levels of hsa_circ_0007456 in HCC cell lines significantly influenced their susceptibility to NK cells. Through a series of screening and validation, we found that hsa_circ_0007456 mainly functioned through sponging miR-6852-3p and regulating the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HCC. The miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 axis is essential for the NK cytotoxicity toward HCC mediated by hsa_circ_0007456. In conclusion, we identify here hsa_circ_0007456 as a promising biomarker of HCC, and highlight hsa_circ_0007456/miR-6852-3p/ICAM-1 axis as an important signaling pathway in the process of tumor immune evasion and the tumorigenesis of HCC.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144272, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465629

RESUMO

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been widely reported in most megacities in China but seldom in small and median-sized cities. The aim of this study is to investigate occurrence and distribution characteristics of PhACs in a typical small and medium-sized city in China and analyze their sources. 33 PhACs and 4 chiral drugs were selected for a four-season monitoring campaign in Wujin District, Jiangsu Province, a typical small and median-sized city, in 2018. PhACs concentration level in surface water, ranging from ng L-1 to µg L-1, was lower than in large-sized cities and areas in China. Impact from agricultural sources should be concerned in the study area: (1) Significant correlation between concentrations of antibiotics and NH4-N in surface water indicated the potential impact from agricultural sources (fishponds and livestock farms); (2) Government regulating measures on livestock and poultry farms since January 2018 have effectively decreased macrolides and lincosamides emissions into surface water. As for source analysis, CF/CBZ (Caffeine/Carbamazepine) was a feasible indicator to trace untreated wastewater and enantiomeric fraction values of metoprolol (MTP) were also suggested to be helpful for identifying untreated wastewater. The results of both two indicators indicated more input of untreated wastewater to surface water in the northeast area and upstream of Wuyi Canal. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to systematically analyze PhACs in aquatic environment for a small and medium-sized city in China.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144556, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485210

RESUMO

Due to the potential ecological and human health risks, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are considered as contaminants of emerging concern. PPCPs can be discharged to the aquatic environment from various sources, including municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), animal feeding operations, hospitals, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. A major challenge to regional characterization of ecological and human health risks is identification of the environmental emissions of PPCPs. This study established a facile approach for calculation of PPCP emission factors from raw wastewater and wastewater effluent. Using reported concentrations from WWTPs, nine PPCPs, namely carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, ofloxacin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim, were identified as priority contaminants based on environmental significance (i.e., high detection frequency and potential ecological risk) and data availability. Emission factors were calculated for the nine PPCPs in raw wastewater, secondary effluent, and tertiary effluent for low, medium and high emission scenarios according to the concentration distributions of these nine PPCPs. The emission factors were used to estimate the mass of the PPCPs discharged from the nine provinces and two municipalities of the Yangtze River valley. The total mass of the nine PPCPs emitted into the watershed was estimated as 3867 kg, 8808 kg and 21,464 kg for low, medium and high emission scenarios respectively in 2018. Although uncertainty is inevitable in the emission factors, the reported approach provides a viable alternative to top-down and multimedia fugacity estimation strategies that require an abundance of sewershed-, WWTP-, and compound-specific information that is difficult to collect in developing countries.

13.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) procedure on the postoperative bowel evacuation function of patients with low rectal cancer. METHODS: Bowel evacuation function was investigated in 316 patients with rectal cancer after taTME in 18 hospitals in China. Low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score, Wexner score, and EORTC QLQ-C30 were used for functional evaluation. The association between perioperative risk factors and LARS score was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of no LARS, minor LARS, and major LARS in patients after taTME was 39.9%, 28.2%, and 31.9%, respectively. The two most frequently reported symptoms of LARS after taTME were bowel clustering (72.8%) and fecal urgency (63.3%). Patients with major LARS had significantly higher Wexner score and worse global health status and financial difficulties according to the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire than those without major LARS. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy was an independent risk factor of major LARS occurrence after taTME (OR: 3.503, P = 0.044); existing preoperative constipation (OR: 0.082, P = 0.040) and manual anastomosis (OR: 4.536, P = 0.021) were favorable factors affecting bowel evacuatory function within 12 months after taTME, but for patients whose follow-up time was longer than 12 months, postoperative chemoradiotherapy (OR: 8.790, P = 0.001) and defunctioning stoma (OR: 3.962, P = 0.010) were independent risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The bowel evacuation function after taTME is acceptable. Perioperative chemoradiotherapy, anastomotic method, and preoperative constipation are factors associated with bowel dysfunction after taTME.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124875, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360569

RESUMO

6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS) is used as alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for different purposes such as chrome mist suppressant (CMS) and active ingredient in fire-fighting foams. In this study, degradability of 6:2 FTS under ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) and ultraviolet/sulfite (UV/SF), which are typical technologies for advanced oxidation and reduction, were investigated respectively. Due to the hydrogenated moiety, 6:2 FTS was decomposed completely by UV/PS within 10 min, forming a mixture of short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with variable chain length (2-7 carbon atoms). Such oxidation products account for > 50% organofluorine of 6:2 FTS unmineralized portion. 6:2 FTS degradability under reductive UV/SF system was dramatically slowed down by the hydrogenated moiety, which lowered electron affinity and, consequently, reactivity with aqueous electron (eaq‾) produced by UV/SF. Fluorine mass balance showed that degradation intermediates were almost negligible: most of decomposed 6:2 FTS fluorine was converted to fluoride. A real 6:2 FTS-based CMS solution prepared from a commercial product was also tested. Both types of treatment were effective and in good agreement with the trends observed for tests with sole 6:2 FTS. Moreover, experimental results highlighted a remarkable amount of identifiable (like 4:2 FTS, 8:2 FTS and other per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances) and unidentifiable components in the CMS mixture. Indeed, fluoride concentration under UV/SF (73.8 mg/L) and UV/PS (44.9 mg/L) treatment were both higher than the estimated total concentration (<23 mg/L, according to 6:2 FTS concentration). Results strongly suggest that an oxidation pretreatment followed by reduction might be a better way to degrade and defluorinate 6:2 FTS and other precursors with non-fluorinated moieties, rather than employing single reduction or oxidation technology.

15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 893: 173828, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347824

RESUMO

This study was to determine how endothelium-dependent contractions (EDCs) change in iliac arteries of Wistar-Kyoto (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) during the transition from adolescence to adulthood and the underlying mechanism(s). We also aimed to elucidate effects of L-798106, an EP3 receptor antagonist, on EDCs and the blood pressure increase in adolescent SHRs. Blood vessels were isolated for functional and biochemical analyses. EDCs were comparable in adolescent iliac arteries of both strains, and contractions to ACh, prostacyclin (PGI2), the EP3 receptor agonist sulprostone and the TP receptor agonist U46619 in adult vessels were less prominent compared with those in the adolescents, while the attenuation of vasoconstrictions to ACh, PGI2 or U46619 with age was to a lesser extent in SHRs. PGI2 production was decreased to a similar level in adult arteries. TP and EP3 expressions were downregulated in adult vessels, whereas the extent of TP downregulation was less in SHRs. L-798106 partially suppressed the vasoconstrictions to U46619 and attenuated EDCs to a greater extent than SQ29548, and administration of L-798106 blunted the blood pressure increase with age in prehypertensive SHRs. These results demonstrate the comparable EDCs in iliac arteries of the adolescents are decreased in the adults, but relatively larger EDCs in adult SHRs can be a reflection of differential downregulation of TP and EP3 receptors during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Also, our data suggest that blockade of both TP and EP3 receptors starting from the prehypertensive stage suppresses EDCs and the development of hypertension in SHRs.

16.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129230, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316471

RESUMO

The electro-peroxone (EP) process has been considered an attractive alternative to conventional ozonation for micropollutant abatement in water treatment. However, how to integrate the EP process into the water treatment trains in water utilities has yet to be investigated. This study compared micropollutant abatement during the EP treatment of potable source water with and without pretreatment of biological oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. Results show that this pretreatment train removed 39% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 28% of the UV254 absorbance of the raw water, leading to higher ozone (O3) stability in the treated water. By electrochemically generating hydrogen peroxide to accelerate O3 decomposition to hydroxyl radicals (•OH), the EP process considerably shortened the time required for ozone depletion and micropollutant abatement during the treatment of both the raw and pretreated water to ∼1 min, compared to ∼3 and 7.5 min during conventional ozonation of the raw and treated water, respectively. For the same specific ozone dose of 1 mg O3 mg-1 DOC (corresponding to 4.3 and 2.8 mg O3 L-1 for the raw and treated water, respectively), the abatement efficiencies of micropollutants with moderate and low ozone reactivity were increased by ∼10-15%, while the energy consumption for micropollutant abatement was decreased by ∼24-56% during the EP treatment of the treated water than the raw water. These results indicate that partial removal of DOC and ammonia from the raw water by the pretreatment train has a beneficial effect on enhancing micropollutant abatement and reducing energy consumption of the EP process. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to integrate the EP process after the pretreatment train in water utilities for micropollutant abatement.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123582, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781276

RESUMO

Photocatalytic degradation of typical pharmaceuticals in natural sunlight and in actual water is of great significance. In this study, the oxygen or nitrogen linked heptazine-base polymer (ONLH) was successfully incorporated with TiO2 nanoparticles and formed a TiO2/ONLH nanocomposite which was responded to the natural sunlight. Under natural sunlight, the TiO2/ONLH can effectively degrade ten types of pharmaceuticals. In particular, fluoroquinolone containing N-piperazinyl, and cardiovascular drugs containing long aromatic side chains were easily degraded. The half-life of the best degradation performance of propranolol was less than 5 min. The rate constants of propranolol using the TiO2/ONLH were approximately six- and eight-fold higher than those of pristine TiO2 and ONLH, respectively. Two reactive species (OH and O2-) facilitated the rapid degradation of propranolol, which occurred primarily through the hydroxyl radical addition, ring-opening, and ipso substitution reactions. An acute toxicity test using luminescent bacteria indicated that the toxicity of the propranolol reaction solution gradually decreased with lower total organic carbon (TOC). According to the toxicity evaluation of monomer products, the TiO2/ONLH also reduced the generation of toxic transformation products. The effects of actual water/wastewater have further shown the TiO2/ONLH might be applied for the removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater.

18.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297167

RESUMO

The low concentration of nickel in electroplating wastewater is difficult to treat to meet the discharge standard. In this study, a commercial cation exchange membrane was used to combine the electrodialysis on a titanium plate anode sintered ruthenium-iridium and the electrodeposition on a stainless steel cathode to reduce the nickel concentration to less 0.1 mg L-1. The electrolytic properties of the electrodialysis combined with the electrodeposition were investigated at different cell voltages, electrolysis time, initial electrolyte pH, electrolyte flow rates and initial Ni2+ concentrations. The results indicated that the Ni2+ concentration in the anolyte and the catholyte could be reduced to 0.015 and 0.085 mg L-1, respectively, with the initial Ni2+ concentration of 1.0 mg L-1, which could meet the most strict Ni2+ discharge standard of 0.1 mg L-1. The electrodeposition of Ni2+ on the cathode enhanced the migration of the Ni2+ in the electrolytes, which was beneficial to decrease the energy consumption. Therefore, the combination of electrodialysis and electrodeposition was promising to reduce the low concentration of Ni2+ in the electroplating wastewater.


Assuntos
Galvanoplastia , Águas Residuárias , Eletrólise , Íons , Níquel/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
19.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 1514-1526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360994

RESUMO

Food recognition has captured numerous research attention for its importance for health-related applications. The existing approaches mostly focus on the categorization of food according to dish names, while ignoring the underlying ingredient composition. In reality, two dishes with the same name do not necessarily share the exact list of ingredients. Therefore, the dishes under the same food category are not mandatorily equal in nutrition content. Nevertheless, due to limited datasets available with ingredient labels, the problem of ingredient recognition is often overlooked. Furthermore, as the number of ingredients is expected to be much less than the number of food categories, ingredient recognition is more tractable in the real-world scenario. This paper provides an insightful analysis of three compelling issues in ingredient recognition. These issues involve recognition in either image-level or region level, pooling in either single or multiple image scales, learning in either single or multi-task manner. The analysis is conducted on a large food dataset, Vireo Food-251, contributed by this paper. The dataset is composed of 169,673 images with 251 popular Chinese food and 406 ingredients. The dataset includes adequate challenges in scale and complexity to reveal the limit of the current approaches in ingredient recognition.

20.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 144-155, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039559

RESUMO

CDC20 regulates cell cycle progression by targeting key substrates for destruction, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis remains to be explored. Here, by using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified CDC20 as a hub gene in HCC. We demonstrated that CDC20 expression is correlated with HIF-1 activity and overall survival (OS) of clinic HCC patients. The activity of HIF-1 is regulated by the stability of HIF-1a subunit, which is hydroxylated by oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylase enzymes, the PHDs. In addition, we show that genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of CDC20 can accelerate the degradation of HIF-1a and impair VEGF secretion in HCC cells. Mechanistically, we found that CDC20 binds to the destruction-box (D-box) motif present in the PHD3 protein to promote its polyubiquitination and degradation. The depletion of endogenous PHD3 in CDC20 knockdown HCC cells greatly attenuated the decline of HIF-1a protein and restored the secretion of VEGF. In contrast, overexpression of a non-degradable PHD3 mutant significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that CDC20 plays a crucial role in the development of HCC by governing PHD3 protein.

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