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1.
Harmful Algae ; 84: 56-63, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128813

RESUMO

The spectrum of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by the microalgae-water phase of Taihu Lake in China was examined, then release behaviors were studied using non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, including a few polar organics) to describe the total amount of the released VOCs. Coupled dynamic headspace sampling with on-line monitoring of methane and NMHC was used to reflect the quasi-realtime release behavior of methane and NMHC by the microalgae-water phase. Alkanes, alkenes, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and volatile sulfide chemicals (VOSCs) were detected. Their relative contents over time varied markedly from the stationary to the apoptosis phase, with their release rates as described by NMHC estimated from 0.02 to 0.59 µgC/(h g). Methane was investigated simultaneously, and its release rate was found to be 0.05-3.96 µgC/(h g). The release rates of both NMHC and methane were found to relate to the culture phase of the microalgae.

2.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 49(2): 160-163, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104808

RESUMO

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a global disease responsible for a large number of deaths, with significant economic impact. As diagnostic tools have increased in sensitivity, understanding of the etiology of CAP has begun to change. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP. Macrolides and related antibiotics are first-line treatments for M. pneumoniae. Macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years and now occurs in worldwide. We undertook the first study on macrolide resistance of M. pneumoniae in Yantai. This may be helpful to determine the appropriate therapy for CAP in this population. Objective: To investigate the rate and mechanism of macrolide resistance in Yantai. Methods: Pharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult CAP patients. Samples were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultivated to test for M. pneumoniae. Nested PCR was used to specifically amplify M. pneumoniae 23S rRNA gene fragments containing mutations, and amplicons were analyzed by CE-SSCP for macrolide resistance mutations. Results were confirmed by sequencing. Twenty-seven strains of M. pneumoniae were isolated and the activities of nine antibiotics against M. pneumoniae were tested in vitro. Results: Out of 128 samples tested, 27 were positive for M. pneumoniae. Mycoplasma 100% macrolides resistance to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The mechanism of macrolides resistance was A2063G point mutation in the sequence directly binding to macrolides in the 23S rRNA V domain in vitro. The mean pyretolytic time for the fluoroquinolone group was 4.7 ±2.9 d, which was significantly shorter than 8.2 ±4.1 d for the azithromycin group. Conclusions: Macrolides are not the first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in Yantai.

3.
Colomb. med ; 49(2): 160-163, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952909

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a global disease responsible for a large number of deaths, with significant economic impact. As diagnostic tools have increased in sensitivity, understanding of the etiology of CAP has begun to change. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the major pathogens causing CAP. Macrolides and related antibiotics are first-line treatments for M. pneumoniae. Macrolide resistance has been spreading for 15 years and now occurs in worldwide. We undertook the first study on macrolide resistance of M. pneumoniae in Yantai. This may be helpful to determine the appropriate therapy for CAP in this population. Objective: To investigate the rate and mechanism of macrolide resistance in Yantai. Methods: Pharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult CAP patients. Samples were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultivated to test for M. pneumoniae. Nested PCR was used to specifically amplify M. pneumoniae 23S rRNA gene fragments containing mutations, and amplicons were analyzed by CE-SSCP for macrolide resistance mutations. Results were confirmed by sequencing. Twenty-seven strains of M. pneumoniae were isolated and the activities of nine antibiotics against M. pneumoniae were tested in vitro. Results: Out of 128 samples tested, 27 were positive for M. pneumoniae. Mycoplasma 100% macrolides resistance to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The mechanism of macrolides resistance was A2063G point mutation in the sequence directly binding to macrolides in the 23S rRNA V domain in vitro. The mean pyretolytic time for the fluoroquinolone group was 4.7 ±2.9 d, which was significantly shorter than 8.2 ±4.1 d for the azithromycin group. Conclusions: Macrolides are not the first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in Yantai.


Resumen Introducción: Neumonía adquirida por en la comunidad (NAC) es una enfermedad responsable por un gran número de muertes y un impacto económico importante. Debido a que el diagnostico incrementó la sensibilidad, se cambió la etiología de la NAC. Adicionalmente, Mycoplasma pneumoniae es uno de los patógenos que causan la NAC. Los macrólidos y antibióticos relacionados son la primera línea de tratamiento para M. pneumoniae. La resistencia a macrólidos se aumentó en los últimos 15 años y ahora se encuentra distribuido en todo el mundo. Nosotros realizamos el primer estudio de resitencia a M. pneumoniae a los macrólidos en Yantai. Esto podría ser útil para determinar una terapia apropiada para NAC en esta población. Objetivo: Investigar la tasa y el mecanismo para la resitencia a los macrólidos en Yantai. Métodos: Se colectaron muestras faringeas usando un hisopo. Las muestras se analizaron mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y por cultivo para M. pneumoniae. Se uso una PCR anidad para amplificar fragmentos del gen 23S rRNA especifico con las mutaciones para M. pneumoniae. Se analizaron amplicomes por CE-SSCP para determinar la resitencia a los macrólidos. Estos resultados se confirmaron por secuenciación. Se aislaron 27 cepas de M. pneumoniae y se probaron nueve antibióticos in vitro. Resultados: De 128 muestras, 27 fueron positivas para M. pneumoniae. Se determinó una resistencia a macrólidos por Mycoplasma del 100%. Los mecanismos de esta resitencia fue una mutacion punctual A2063G en la secuencia que se une directamente a los macrólidos en el dominio 23S rRNA V in vitro. El tiempo piotolítico medio para el grupo de fluoroquinolonas fue 4.7 ±2.9 d, que fue significativamente más corto que para el grupo de azitromicina: 8.2 ±4.1 d. Conclusiones: Los macrólidos no son la primera linea de tratamiento para las infecciones del tracto respiratorio contra M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections en Yantai.

4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 48(2): 366-371, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714454

RESUMO

Background/aim: Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that mostly affects hosts with immune deficiencies. Recently, the widespread use of immunosuppressive agents and antitumor drugs has led to an increasing number of Nocardia infections being reported. However, it is difficult to confirm this diagnosis owing to the slow growth of the bacterium and its complex resultant clinical manifestations, potentially delaying treatment and increasing mortality. Thus, further knowledge on the clinical characteristics of Nocardia infection is required. Hence, this study aimed to review the demographics, comorbidities, clinical presentation, microbiology, treatment, and outcomes of Nocardia infections in Yantai. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study including 32 patients identified to have Nocardia infection from the Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital. The relevant patient samples were collected by two researchers, while the other researchers analyzed the relevant data. Results: The male to female ratio among the 32 patients was 3:5, and 23 patients (71.9%) were immunocompromised. Pulmonary sites of infection were the most common (65.6% of patients). N. brasiliensis infections were present in 25.0% and N. asteroides infections were present in 21.9% of patients. Because of limited biotechnological resources, Nocardia spp. in 50.0% of cases were not classified. The TMP-SMX resistance rate among isolates was 9.4%. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem. Conclusion: In Yantai, immunocompromised patients predominate among cases of Nocardia infection. The rate of occurrence was higher in females than in males. Because of potential TMP-SMX resistance, treatment for Nocardia infection should be based on drug susceptibility or should include combination therapy.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(3): 438-448, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188798

RESUMO

Sorafenib, a small inhibitor of tyrosine protein kinases, is currently the standard chemotherapy drug for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although sorafenib improves the survival of HCC patients, its efficacy is not optimal and requires further improvement. Capsaicin, the major active component of chili peppers from the genus Capsicum, is not only the agonist of TRPV1 channel, but also displays antitumor activity and enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of combined sorafenib and capsaicin on HCC cells in vitro and xenograft tumors. Treatment with capsaicin alone dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of the HCC cell lines PLC/PRF/7, HuH7 and HepG2 with IC50 values of 137, 108 and 140.7 µmol/L, respectively. No obvious expression of TRPV1 channel was detected in the 3 HCC cell lines and TRPV1 channel blockers did not alleviate the cytotoxicity of capsaicin. By contrast, combining capsaicin and sorafenib significantly enhanced the suppression on cell proliferation, achieving a high-level synergistic effect (inhibition rates over 50%) and promoting HCC cell apoptosis. In nude mice with PLC/PRF/5 xenografts, combined administration of capsaicin and sorafenib significantly enhanced the suppression on tumor growth without apparent gross toxicity compared to either agent alone. Mechanistically, capsaicin (10-200 µmol/L) dose-dependently increased the levels of phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in PLC/PRF/5 cells, thus leading to enhanced sorafenib sensitivity and a synergistic suppression on the tumor cells. Taken together, our results suggest that capsaicin-increased phosphorylation of ERK contributes to the enhanced antitumor activity of sorafenib, and capsaicin may be useful in improving the efficacy of sorafenib for the treatment of HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Sorafenibe , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 36(8): 2775-83, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592003

RESUMO

Emission inventory of air pollutants is the key to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric pollutants and to accurately simulate the ambient air quality. The currently established emission inventories are still limited on spatial and temporal resolution which greatly influences the numerical prediction accuracy of air quality. With coal-fired stationary sources considered, this study analyzed the total emissions and monthly variation of main pollutants from them in 2012 as the basic year, by collecting the on-line monitoring data for power plants and atmospheric verifiable accounting tables of Jiangsu Province. Emission factors in documents are summarized and adopted. Results indicated that the emission amounts of SO2, NOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, CO, EC, OC, NMVOC and NH3 were 106.0, 278.3, 40.9, 32.7, 21.7, 582.0, 3.6, 2.5, 17.3 and 2.2 kt, respectively. They presented monthly variation with high emission amounts in February, March, July, August and December and low emissions in September and October. The reason may be that more coal are consumed which leads to the increase of pollutants emitted, to satisfy the needs, of heat and electricity power supply in cold and hot periods. Local emission factors are needed for emission inventory studies and the monthly variation should be considered when emission inventories are used in air quality simulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Centrais Elétricas , China , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Chemosphere ; 120: 31-6, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24973617

RESUMO

OH-PBDEs have been reported to be more potent than the postulated precursor PBDEs or corresponding MeO-PBDEs. However, there are contradictory reports for transformation of these compounds in organisms, particularly, for biotransformation of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, only one study reported transformation of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in Japanese medaka. In present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 in the diet for 20 d. Concentrations of each exposed compound were measured in eggs collected on days 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20. After 20 d exposure, concentrations of precursor and biotransformation products in liver and liver-free residual carcass were measured by use of GC-MS/MS. Total mass of the five compounds in bodies of adults were: 2'-MeO-BDE-28 ∼ 6-MeO-BDE-47>BDE-47>2'-OH-BDE-28>6-OH-BDE-47. MeO-PBDEs were also accumulated more into parental fish body than in liver, while OH-PBDEs accumulated in liver more than in liver-free residual carcass. Concentrations in liver of males were greater than those of females. This result suggests sex-related differences in accumulation. Ratios between concentration in eggs and liver (E/L) were: 2.9, 1.7, 0.8, 0.4 and 0.1 for 6-MeO-BDE-47, BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 2'-MeO-BDE-28 and 2'-OH-BDE-28, respectively. This result suggests transfer from adult females to eggs. BDE-47 was not transformed into OH-PBDEs or MeO-PBDEs. Inter-conversions of 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 were observed, with metabolite/precursor concentration ratios for 6-OH-BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 2'-MeO-BDE-28 being 3.8%, 14.6%, 2.9% and 76.0%, respectively. Congener-specific differences were observed in distributions between liver and carcass, maternal transfer and transformation. The two MeO-PBDEs were accumulated into adults, transferred to eggs, and were transformed to the structural similar OH-PBDEs, which might be more toxic. BDE-47 was accumulated into adults and transferred from females to eggs, but not transformed to MeO-PBDEs and/or OH-PBDEs. Accumulation of OH-PBDEs into adults as well as rates of transformation of OH-PBDEs to MeO-PBDEs were all several orders of magnitude less. Thus, MeO-PBDEs are likely to present more of a risk in the environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Anisóis/análise , Anisóis/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidroxilação , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Óvulo/química , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Int J Clin Exp Med ; 8(10): 19051-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26770532

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and imaging changes of community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A retrospective study was performed on 19 adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia cases in Yantai, whereby the clinical data were collected and analyzed. Of 19 cases, 14 (73.68%) had fever and 17 (89.47%) had cough symptoms. Moreover, 14 cases (73.68%) had normal white blood cell counts, while 11 cases (57.89%) exhibited a reduction in lymphocyte proportion. Among the 19 cases, 17 cases exhibited lesions in a single lung, while 2 cases involved bilateral lungs. The lesions predominantly exhibited ground glass-like changes. The clinical manifestations of adult community-acquired adenovirus pneumonia patients with normal immune functions were mild, with such presenting symptoms as fever, cough, and sputum; most patients did not exhibit high levels of white blood cells or low lymphocyte counts, and the imaging features (ground glass-like effusion) were indicative of single-lung involvement.

9.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 35(1): 271-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24720215

RESUMO

Nemerow index method and benthic index of biological integrity method have been used to evaluate the water quality and the health status of aquatic organisms in Taihu Lake during 2008-2012, respectively. The results showed that the water in the whole Taihu Lake was polluted, and the aquatic organisms were basically kept in sub-health state. The results of the water quality and aquatic biological assessment exhibited generally the same trend at a large scale. In the view of the whole lake, the water quality and aquatic health status in East Taihu Lake were better than those of the other parts. In the view of time, the water quality and aquatic health status during 2008-2010 were worse than those of the lake in the 1960s. The results observed from the two assessment methods were not the same during short periods of time and in some special sample points, which were attributed to the following reasons: (1) the two assessment methods focused on different time scales and (2) the aquatic biological health status was related to the water quality as well as the environmental habitat. Since organic pollutants and excessive nutrients were the main factors influencing the water quality and aquatic health status, reducing the concentrations of the organic pollutants and inorganic nutrients should be a feasible method to improve the water quality and the ecological function of Taihu Lake.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Lagos , Qualidade da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental
10.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e73883, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24204563

RESUMO

Some synthetic chemicals, which have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone (TH) function, have been detected in surface waters and people have the potential to be exposed through water-drinking. Here, the presence of thyroid-active chemicals and their toxic potential in drinking water sources in Yangtze River Delta were investigated by use of instrumental analysis combined with cell-based reporter gene assay. A novel approach was developed to use Monte Carlo simulation, for evaluation of the potential risks of measured concentrations of TH agonists and antagonists and to determine the major contributors to observed thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist potency. None of the extracts exhibited TR agonist potency, while 12 of 14 water samples exhibited TR antagonistic potency. The most probable observed antagonist equivalents ranged from 1.4 to 5.6 µg di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP)/L, which posed potential risk in water sources. Based on Monte Carlo simulation related mass balance analysis, DNBP accounted for 64.4% for the entire observed antagonist toxic unit in water sources, while diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) also contributed. The most probable observed equivalent and most probable relative potency (REP) derived from Monte Carlo simulation is useful for potency comparison and responsible chemicals screening.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Água Doce/química , Método de Monte Carlo , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/agonistas , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/antagonistas & inibidores , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Água Doce/análise , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Geografia , Humanos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 65(3): 357-67, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23712771

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have attracted great concern. As major metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) may disrupt estrogen hormone status because of their structural similarity to estrogen endogenous compounds. However, interactions between HO-PCBs and estrogen receptors (ERs) are not fully understood. In the present work, a molecular modeling study combining molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations was performed to characterize the interactions of three HO-PCBs (4'-HO-PCB50, 2'-HO-PCB65, and 4'-HO-PCB69) having much different estrogenic activities with ERß. Docking results showed that binding between ligands and ERß was stabilized by hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. The binding free energies of three ligands with ERß were calculated, and further binding free energy decomposition analysis indicated that the dominating driving force of the binding between the ligands and ERß was the van der Waals interaction. Some key residues, such as Leu298, Phe356, Gly472, His475, and Leu476, played important roles in ligand-receptor interactions by forming hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with ligands. The results may be beneficial to increase understanding of the interactions between HO-PCBs and ERß.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hidroxilação , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/farmacologia
12.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2013: 606480, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24459438

RESUMO

Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) is widely planted for restoration in destroyed ecosystems of the Loess Plateau in China. Although soil microbial communities are important subsurface components of the terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about fungal and bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of planted and natural P. tabulaeformis forests in the region. In this study, fungal and bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of P. tabulaeformis were analyzed by nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis). Diversity analysis revealed that the values of the Shannon-Wiener index (H) and the Simpson index (D) of fungal communities were higher in natural secondary forests than in plantations except for the 3-year-old site. Moreover, the values of species richness, H, and D of the bacterial communities were also higher in the former. Totally, 18 fungal and 19 bacterial DGGE band types were successfully retrieved and sequenced. The dominant fungi in the rhizosphere of P. tabulaeformis belonged to the phylum of Basidiomycota, while the dominant bacteria belonged to the phylum of Proteobacteria. Principal component analysis indicated that fungal and bacterial species were more unitary in plantations than in natural secondary forests, and the majority of them were more likely to appear in the latter. Correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between the fungal and bacterial community diversities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Consórcios Microbianos , Pinus/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , China , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante , Ecossistema , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores/microbiologia
13.
Environ Int ; 42: 117-23, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21683443

RESUMO

Thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources is a concern. Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources from the Yangtze River, Huaihe River, Taihu Lake and ground water in the Yangtze River Delta region were evaluated by use of a TH reporter gene assay based on the green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1). While weak TH receptor (TR) agonist potency was observed in only one of 15 water sources, antagonist potency was present in most of the water sources. TR antagonist equivalents could be explained by the presence of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), with concentrations ranging from 2.8×10(1) to 1.6×10(3) µg DBP /L (ATR-EQ(50)s). None of the ground waters exhibited TH agonist potencies while all of the samples from Taihu Lake displayed notable TR antagonist potencies. To identify the responsible thyroid active compounds, instrumental analysis was conducted to measure a list of potential thyroid-disrupting chemicals, including organochlorine (OC) pesticides and phthalate esters. Combining the results of the instrumental analysis with those of the bioassay, DBP was determined to account for 17% to 144% of ATR-EQ(50)s in water sources. Furthermore, ATR-EQ(20-80) ranges for TR antagonist activities indicated that samples from locations WX-1 and WX-2 posed the greatest health concern and the associated uncertainty may warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Lagos/química , Praguicidas , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/antagonistas & inibidores , Medição de Risco , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 91(18): 1254-8, 2011 May 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21756797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in the diagnosis of chronic cough. METHODS: A total of 106 subjects with chronic cough and normal chest radiographs were recruited from October 2009 to September 2010. Based on the management guidelines of the Chinese Respiratory Society for cough, the golden standard methods were used to make the definite diagnosis of chronic cough, including sputum cell counts, pulmonary function tests, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring, skin pricking test and serum immunoglobulin E. All subjects received a FeNO test by a NIOXMINO analyzer. The values of FeNO to diagnose cough variant asthma (CVA) from chronic cough and EB from non-asthma cough were respectively assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Among them, the definite diagnoses were cough variant asthma (CVA, n = 39), eosinophilic bronchitis (EB, n = 30) and other causes (n = 37). The FeNO levels in CVA [(54 ± 21) ppb)] (1 ppb = 1 × 10(9) mol/L) were significantly higher than those in EB [(34 ± 17) ppb, P < 0.01] and other causes [(21 ± 10) ppb, P < 0.01]. And the FeNO levels in EB were higher than those in other causes (P < 0.01). To diagnose CVA from chronic cough, the optimal FeNO cutoff value was 40 ppb with a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 86%, a positive predictive value of 77%, a negative predictive value of 86% and an accuracy of 81%. To diagnose EB from non-asthma chronic cough, the optimal FeNO cutoff value was 31 ppb with a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 88%, a negative predictive value of 92% and an accuracy of 72% respectively. CONCLUSION: There are significant differences between the FeNO levels of different causes of chronic cough. A marked elevation of FeNO level helps to make a final diagnosis of CVA or EB. FeNO test is useful for making the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic cough in clinic practices.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Tosse/diagnóstico , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Expiração , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 45(1): 57-63, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21418821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the natural occurrence of masked deoxynivalenol (DON-3-G) and other multi-mycotoxins in cereals from parts of China. METHODS: A total of 446 corn and wheat samples harvested in 2007 and 2008 collected from Henan, Hebei, Guangxi, Anhui, Sichuan, Chongqing and Jiangsu provinces were analyzed for DON-3-G and other multi-mycotoxins (including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), nivalenol (NIV), et al) by UPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Corn and wheat samples were mainly contaminated by DON and its derivatives as well as ZEN.88% (169/192) of wheat samples were positive for DON (range: 1.5 - 590.7 µg/kg; median: 30.8 µg/kg); 22.9% (44/192) of wheat samples were contaminated with ZEN (range: 1.7 - 3425.0 µg/kg; median: 8.0 µg/kg) and six samples contained ZEN concentration higher than the ZEN tolerance limit of 60 µg/kg. DON was detected in 50.5% (103/204) corn samples (range: 1.6 - 4374.4 µg/kg; median: 94.9 µg/kg); Seven samples contained DON exceeding the tolerance limit of 1000 µg/kg for DON. Additionally, ZEN was found in 41.7% (85/204) corn samples with the concentration between 1.6 µg/kg and 4808.7 µg/kg (median: 48.5 µg/kg) and there were 37 corn samples with ZEN level in the excess of tolerance limit for ZEN (60 µg/kg). DON-3-G was detected in corn and wheat samples for the first time in China with the median level of 21.4 µg/kg and 34.6 µg/kg for wheat and corn, respectively. Wheat was more heavily contaminated with DON-3-G than both 3-acetyl-DON (3-A-DON, median: 4.1 µg/kg) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-A-DON, median: 3.1 µg/kg) (t values were 5.111 and 5.966, respectively, both P values < 0.01). While, the level of 15-A-DON (median: 48.6 µg/kg) in corn was higher than 3-A-DON (median: 6.8 µg/kg) (t = -3.579, P < 0.01). The concentration of DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN in corn were higher than that in wheat (Z values were -3.492, -1.960, -2.467, -8.711 and -6.272, respectively, all P values < 0.05). Wheat (median: 29.0 µg/kg) contained higher NIV in comparison with corn (median: 18.2 µg/kg, Z = -2.086, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Wheat and corn samples from parts of China were contaminated with multi-mycotoxins and DON was the predominant;in comparison of wheat, corn was more heavily contaminated with DON, DON-3-G, 3-A-DON, 15-A-DON and ZEN.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , China , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Tricotecenos/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
16.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 27(1): 64-7, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21208567

RESUMO

AIM: To prepare specific antibodies against ciprofloxacin (CIP) and characterize the antibodies properities with ELISA, then lay the foundation for development of CIP rapid detection kit. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits and BALB/c mice were immunized with CIP-cBSA conjugate, CIP-nOVA and CIP-cOVA serving as coating antigen were used to screen antisera, indirect (competitive) ELISA was developed to determine the titer and specificity of the antisera. RESULTS: Seven antisera against CIP were obtained, two of them were high specific to CIP with IC(50); 1 µg/L, the titer of which was 4 000 and 2 000, respectively.The antisera had some degree cross-reactivity with ENR, NOR and OFL, but had hardly cross-reactivity with PEN, KAN and QEN. CONCLUSION: The antibodies with high specificity developed in this study can be used to develop CIP detecting kit.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Ciprofloxacino/imunologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos/química , Antígenos/imunologia , Ciprofloxacino/química , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 45(12): 1086-9, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22336342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method for molecular typing of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) and to apply it in identification and characterization of both bacteria isolated from yoghurt collected from Beijing supermarket. METHODS: The five most useful restriction enzymes including Apa I, Not I, Sfi I, Xba I and Sma I were chosen to cut DNA of 52 strains of Lactobacillus, S. thermophilus as well as associated standard bacteria strains. The endonucleases and electrophoresis conditions for PFGE analysis were optimized and applied in molecular typing of Lactobacillus and S.thermophilus isolates. Cluster analysis based on the PFGE data was conducted. The identification results of PFGE were compared with those obtained in biochemical and 16s ribosomal RNA PCR identification tests. RESULTS: Not I was suitable for L. bulgaricus, L. fermentum and L. delbrueckii digestion. While Apa I was an appropriate endonuclease for S. thermophilus, L. acidophilus and L. casei digestion. The results of molecular typing indicated that 24 strains of L.bulgaricus and 15 strains of S. thermophilus were grouped into 8 types by PFGE method, respectively. While 7 strains of L.acidophilus were grouped into 3 types and 2 strains of L. delbrueckii were grouped into 2 different PFGE types. CONCLUSION: The results of PFGE analysis are in compliance with those of 16s rRNA PCR and biochemical identification. The PFGE method developed in this study is suitable for molecular characterization of both Lactobacillus and S. thermophilus.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus thermophilus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/classificação , Streptococcus thermophilus/classificação
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 19(7): 2498-505, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828880

RESUMO

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial and consumer products and frequently detected in many environmental media. Potential reproductive effects of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) have been reported in mice, rats and water birds. PFOS and PFOA were also confirmed developing toxicants towards zebrafish embryos; however, the reported effect concentrations were contradictory. Polyfluorinated alkylated phosphate ester surfactants (including FC807) are precursor of PFOS and PFOA; however, there is no published information about the effects of FC807 and PFNA on zebrafish embryos. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of these four PFCs on zebrafish embryos. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos were selected to be exposed to several concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFOS or FC807 in 24-well cell culture plates. A digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope. Embryos were observed through matching up to 96-h post-fertilization (hpf) and rates of survival and abnormalities recorded. PFCs caused lethality in a concentration-dependent manner with potential toxicity in the order of PFOS > FC807 > PFNA > PFOA based on 72-h LC(50). Forty-eight-hour post-fertilization pericardial edema and 72- or 96-hpf spine crooked malformation were all observed. PFOA, PFNA, PFOS and FC807 all caused structural abnormalities using early stages of development of zebrafish. The PFCs all retarded the development of zebrafish embryos. The toxicity of the PFCs was related to the length of the PFC chain and functional groups.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluorcarbonetos/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem
19.
Dongwuxue Yanjiu ; 31(6): 651-6, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21174356

RESUMO

Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value.


Assuntos
Carpas/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Chemosphere ; 80(9): 965-71, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20591469

RESUMO

Chemical analyses and biological methods were combined to investigate oxidative stress, hormesis effect and concerned mechanism in roots of Viciafaba seedlings grown in 0-2000 mg kg(-1) of Pb-treated soils after germination of 20d. The results showed that U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in superoxide radical (O2-) radicals, guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups as well as activities of endoproteinase (EP) isoenzymes in the roots at low doses of extraneous Pb, indicating reduced oxidative stress and toxic effect. The inverted U-shaped curves were also exhibited in growth height, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and EP activities as well as inducible heat shock protein70 (HSP70) with the increasing extraneous Pb, indicative of enhanced oxidative stress. The enhancement in HSP70, carbonyl groups and EP activities confirmed intracellular proteotoxicity and proteolytic activity in the roots at higher doses of soil Pb. More interestingly, levels of inducible HSP70 were well correlated with those of growth heights (r=0.809, p<0.05), implying that HSP70 induction may be one of the mechanisms underlying the U-shaped growth curve of V. faba seedlings in the experiment. The results suggest that traditional threshold models ought to be combined with hormesis effect in assessment of Pb-polluted soils and the threshold dose range of Pb-treated soils is proposed rudimentally as 25-125 mg kg(-1).


Assuntos
Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vicia faba/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Chumbo/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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