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1.
J Affect Disord ; 261: 172-180, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) has been inversely associated with the risk of depression. However, there is a gap in evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and among adolescents. Further, little is known about FVI in relation to the risk of anxiety. Therefore, we examined these associations among adolescents in 25 LMICs. METHODS: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analyzed in 65267 adolescents aged 12-15 years (mostly nationally representative). Depressive and anxiety symptoms during the past 12 months were self-reported. Frequencies of FVI during the past 30 days were collected. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analyses of country-wise estimates were undertaken. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms were 30.3% and 9.8%, respectively. A meta-analysis indicated that FVI of <5 times/d (vs. higher) was associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.02-1.18). The pooled estimate for anxiety symptoms was insignificant. When examined separately, fruit intake was significantly associated with both lower risks of depressive and anxiety symptoms; vegetable intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms, but not with anxiety. LIMITATIONS: Only adolescents attending school were included; the cross-sectional design cannot reveal causality; outcomes were not measured against the gold-standard diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides multi-national evidence of the protective effect of FVI against depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescents in LMICs, enabling key stakeholders to address mental health issues among adolescents globally.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(4): 045401, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574496

RESUMO

Tuning the compositions and morphologies of catalysts is very important for the design of efficient formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) electrocatalysts. Herein, unique PtPdP dendritic nanoparticles (PtPdP DNs) with uniform size and open-pore structure are fabricated by a facile method, in which the Pd and P elements are simultaneously incorporated into Pt DNs. The prepared PtPdP DNs show enhanced catalytic activity and stability for FAOR. The improved electrocatalytic activity toward FAOR for the PtPdP DNs is mainly attributed to the synergic enhancement effect of the structural and compositional advantages, which jointly promote the electrocatalytic kinetics and thus enhance the electrocatalytic performance.

3.
Am J Prev Med ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735481

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence on the combined effect of fruit and vegetable intake and total fat intake on hypertension is scarce. This study aimed to explore the relationship among fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and hypertension risk among Chinese adults. METHODS: Individuals who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) and were free of hypertension at baseline (n=4,368) were categorized into quartiles (Q1, lowest; Q4, highest) according to their dietary fruit and vegetable intake and fat intake. Generalized estimation equation models, adjusted for confounders, were used to explore the relationship of fat intake with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood pressure among all adults and within quartiles of fruit and vegetable intake. Data analyses were performed in 2018. RESULTS: A total of 1,086 adults developed hypertension during follow-up. In the total population, the OR of the highest quartile of fat intake was 1.40 (95% CI=1.12, 1.75) compared with the lowest. Among individuals with low fruit and vegetable intake, the odds of hypertension for those in Q3 (OR=1.97, 95% CI=1.37, 2.83) and Q4 (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.14, 2.90) of fat intake, compared with individuals in Q1, were even higher than for the overall sample. For each 50-gram increase in FI per day, the ORs of hypertension increased from fat intake Q1 to Q4 among all respondents and those with low fruit and vegetable intake, but not among those with high fruit and vegetable intake. Systolic blood pressure increased by 1.08 mm Hg (95% CI=0.03, 2.13) per 50-gram fat intake per day increment in the fruit and vegetable intake Q1 group, whereas the association was not significant in the fruit and vegetable intake Q2-Q4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Fruit and vegetable intake modifies the relationship between fat intake and hypertension, whereby high fruit and vegetable intake may offset the detrimental effect of fat intake on hypertension. Increased fruit and vegetable intake and controlled fat intake are recommended to prevent hypertension in Chinese adults.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(98): 14745-14748, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754678

RESUMO

In this communication, we develop a simple one-step method to prepare boron doped silver nanosponges (B-Ag NSs) with a boron content of 15 at%. Benefiting from their interconnected porous structures and composition effect, the B-Ag NSs achieve excellent NRR performance and stability. The proposed synthetic strategy provides promising insight into the preparation of boron doped metallic nanomaterials for electrocatalytic fields.

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(12): 2215-2225, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742536

RESUMO

To determine the seroprevalence and seroconversion of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in poultry workers, we conducted a seroepidemiologic study in 7 areas of China during December 2014-April 2016. We used viral isolation and reverse transcription PCR to detect AIVs in specimens from live poultry markets. We analyzed 2,124 serum samples obtained from 1,407 poultry workers by using hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. We noted seroprevalence of AIV antibodies for subtypes H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H5N6, H5N1-SH199, and H6N6. In serum from participants with longitudinal samples, we noted seroconversion, with >4-fold rise in titers, for H9N2, H7N9, H6N1, H5N1-SC29, H6N6, H5N6, and H5N1-SH199 subtypes. We found no evidence of H10N8 subtype. The distribution of AIV antibodies provided evidence of asymptomatic infection. We found that AIV antibody prevalence in live poultry markets correlated with increased risk for H7N9 and H9N2 infection among poultry workers.

6.
Chemistry ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599996

RESUMO

The realization of water electrolysis on the basis of highly active, cost-effective electrocatalysts is significant yet challenging for achieving sustainable hydrogen production from water. Herein, N-doped Ni3 S2 /N-doped MoS2 1D hetero-nanowires supported by Ni foam (N-Ni3 S2 /N-MoS2 /NF) are readily synthesized through a chemical transformation strategy by using NiMoO4 nanowire array growth on Ni foam (NiMoO4 /NF) as the starting material. With the in situ generation of Ni3 S2 /MoS2 heterointerfaces within nanowires and the incorporation of N- anions, an extraordinary hydrophilic nature with abundant, well-exposed active sites and optimal reaction dynamics for both oxidation and reduction of water are obtained. Attributed to these properties, as-converted N-Ni3 S2 /N-MoS2 /NF exhibits highly efficient electrocatalytic activities for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions under alkaline conditions. The superior bifunctional properties of N-Ni3 S2 /N-MoS2 /NF enable it to effectively catalyze the overall water-splitting reaction.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15141, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641189

RESUMO

East Asia is as a principal hotspot for emerging zoonotic infections. Understanding the likely pathways for their emergence and spread requires knowledge on human-human and human-animal contacts, but such studies are rare. We used self-completed and interviewer-completed contact diaries to quantify patterns of these contacts for 965 individuals in 2017/2018 in a high-income densely-populated area of China, Shanghai City. Interviewer-completed diaries recorded more social contacts (19.3 vs. 18.0) and longer social contact duration (35.0 vs. 29.1 hours) than self-reporting. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups especially among young participants (aged 7-20) and middle aged participants (25-55 years). 17.7% of participants reported touching animals (15.3% (pets), 0.0% (poultry) and 0.1% (livestock)). Human-human contact was very frequent but contact with animals (especially poultry) was rare although associated with frequent human-human contact. Hence, this densely populated area is more likely to act as an accelerator for human-human spread but less likely to be at the source of a zoonosis outbreak. We also propose that telephone interview at the end of reporting day is a potential improvement of the design of future contact surveys.

8.
Prostate ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several polygenic risk score (PRS) methods are available for measuring the cumulative effect of multiple risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Their performance in predicting risk at the individual level has not been well studied. METHODS: We compared the performance of three PRS methods for prostate cancer risk assessment in a clinical trial cohort, including genetic risk score (GRS), pruning and thresholding (P + T), and linkage disequilibrium prediction (LDpred). Performance was evaluated for score deciles (broad-sense validity) and score values (narrow-sense validity). RESULTS: A training process was required to identify the best P + T model (397 SNPs) and LDpred model (3 011 362 SNPs). In contrast, GRS was directly calculated based on 110 established risk-associated SNPs. For broad-sense validity in the testing population, higher deciles were significantly associated with higher observed risk; Ptrend was 7.40 × 10-11 , 7.64 × 10-13 , and 7.51 × 10-10 for GRS, P + T, and LDpred, respectively. For narrow-sense validity, the calibration slope (1 is best) was 1.03, 0.77, and 0.87, and mean bias score (0 is best) was 0.09, 0.21, and 0.10 for GRS, P + T, and LDpred, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of GRS was better than P + T and LDpred. Fewer and well-established SNPs of GRS also make it more feasible and interpretable for genetic testing at the individual level.

9.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(9): e473-e481, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimation of influenza-associated excess mortality in countries can help to improve estimates of the global mortality burden attributable to influenza virus infections. We did a study to estimate the influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality in mainland China for the 2010-11 through 2014-15 seasons. METHODS: We obtained provincial weekly influenza surveillance data and population mortality data for 161 disease surveillance points in 31 provinces in mainland China from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention for the years 2005-15. Disease surveillance points with an annual average mortality rate of less than 0·4% between 2005 and 2015 or an annual mortality rate of less than 0·3% in any given years were excluded. We extracted data for respiratory deaths based on codes J00-J99 under the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases. Data on respiratory mortality and population were stratified by age group (age <60 years and ≥60 years) and aggregated by province. The overall annual population data of each province and national annual respiratory mortality data were compiled from the China Statistical Yearbook. Influenza surveillance data on weekly proportion of samples testing positive for influenza virus by type or subtype for 31 provinces were extracted from the National Sentinel Hospital-based Influenza Surveillance Network. We estimated influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality rates between the 2010-11 and 2014-15 seasons for 22 provinces with valid data in the country using linear regression models. Extrapolation of excess respiratory mortality rates was done using random-effect meta-regression models for nine provinces without valid data for a direct estimation of the rates. FINDINGS: We fitted the linear regression model with the data from 22 of 31 provinces in mainland China, representing 83·0% of the total population. We estimated that an annual mean of 88 100 (95% CI 84 200-92 000) influenza-associated excess respiratory deaths occurred in China in the 5 years studied, corresponding to 8·2% (95% CI 7·9-8·6) of respiratory deaths. The mean excess respiratory mortality rates per 100 000 person-seasons for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and B viruses were 1·6 (95% CI 1·5-1·7), 2·6 (2·4-2·8), and 2·3 (2·1-2·5), respectively. Estimated excess respiratory mortality rates per 100 000 person-seasons were 1·5 (95% CI 1·1-1·9) for individuals younger than 60 years and 38·5 (36·8-40·2) for individuals aged 60 years or older. Approximately 71 000 (95% CI 67 800-74 100) influenza-associated excess respiratory deaths occurred in individuals aged 60 years or older, corresponding to 80% of such deaths. INTERPRETATION: Influenza was associated with substantial excess respiratory mortality in China between 2010-11 and 2014-15 seasons, especially in older adults aged at least 60 years. Continuous and high-quality surveillance data across China are needed to improve the estimation of the disease burden attributable to influenza and the best public health interventions are needed to curb this burden. FUNDING: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, National Science and Technology Major Project of China, National Institute of Health Research, the Harvard Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and the China-US Collaborative Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease.

10.
Chem Asian J ; 14(19): 3397-3403, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478342

RESUMO

Pt-based nanomaterials play important roles in the catalytic process toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Rationally regulating the composition and morphology of the catalysts could enhance the catalytic performance effectively. In this work, an effective method is presented to synthesize Pd@ mesoporous PtRu nanorattles (Pd@mPtRu NRs) containing a Pd core and a mesoporous PtRu shell. Owing to the unique structure and PtRu alloy composition, the prepared Pd@mPtRu NRs exhibit an enhanced catalytic performance and durability toward ORR relative to mesoporous PtRu hollow nanoparticles (mPtRu HNs) and commercial Pt/C. The proposed approach may provide a general way to synthesize Pt-based yolk-shell structures with different compositions.

11.
Chem Asian J ; 14(21): 3868-3874, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490629

RESUMO

Designing and constructing nano-architectures with abundant reactive atoms exposed on the surface and widely open pore interiors is an effective strategy for highly efficient utilization of Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report a facile method to synthesize tri-metallic PtPdIr mesoporous hollow nanospheres (PtPdIr MHNSs) by selective chemical removal of sacrificial metallic cores from pre-constructed Pd@PtIr mesoporous nanospheres (Pd@PtIr MNSs). The unique nano-architectures, with mesoporous shells interconnected into the interior hollow cavities and the synergistic electronic effect from tri-metallic PtPdIr composition, enable the as-synthesized PtPdIr MHNSs to be efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for catalyzing both methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

12.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(10): 697-704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactivated monovalent enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) vaccines are now available in China to reduce the substantial public health burden of hand, foot, and mouth disease. However, post-licensure monitoring of vaccine effectiveness is important. We did an observational test-negative study of EV-A71 vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: Children with hand, foot, and mouth disease who were admitted to Henan Children's Hospital (Zhengzhou, China) within 7 days of illness onset were invited to participate in this test-negative case-control study. Participant vaccination history with EV-A71, including the number of doses received and the date of each dose of vaccination, was elicited from parents or legal guardians of participants with a standardised questionnaire. Children must have received two doses before hospitalisation to be counted as fully vaccinated. Patients who had received a single dose before hospitalisation were classified as partly vaccinated. Children who had received no EV-A71 vaccine before hospitalisation were classified as unvaccinated. Throat swabs and stool samples collected from patients were tested by RT-PCR to identify EV-A71 and other enteroviruses. The primary outcome of the study was paediatric hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with EV-A71 requiring hospitalisation. We estimated vaccine effectiveness with conditional logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Feb 15, 2017, and Feb 15, 2018, we enrolled 1803 children aged 6-71 months with hand, foot, and mouth disease. 234 (13%) children tested positive for EV-A71, 1529 (85%) tested positive for other enteroviruses-528 (29%) were positive for Coxsackievirus (CV)-A6 and 342 (19%) were positive for CV-A16-and 29 (2%) tested negative for all enteroviruses. 11 (1%) children with neither throat swab nor stool testing results were excluded from further analyses. Overall vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 85·4% (95% CI 53·2 to 95·4) for fully vaccinated children and 63·1% (13·1 to 84·3) for partly vaccinated children. The vaccine effectiveness for full vaccination was estimated to be 91·1% (35·1 to 98·8) among non-severe cases compared with 73·3% (-32·6 to 94·6) in severe cases. The vaccine effectiveness for partial vaccination was 77·9% (4·3 to 94·9) in children aged 24-71 months and 40·8% (-71·1 to 79·5) in children aged 6-23 months. We found no significant association between full or partial vaccination and CV-A6 or CV-A16-related hand, foot, and mouth disease. INTERPRETATION: EV-A71 vaccination was effective in preventing non-severe hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with EV-A71 virus infection in children aged 6-71 months, and we found evidence that one dose of vaccination provided partial protection for children aged 24-71 months. Introduction of multivalent vaccines could further reduce the burden of hand, foot, and mouth disease. FUNDING: The National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 30(48): 485403, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434060

RESUMO

Engineering of multicomponent heterostructures can yield exceptional functionalities and enhance electrocatalytic activities by a synergistic effect. Herein, Ni5P2 nanoparticle-decorated mesoporous PtRu film on Ni foam (Ni5P2-mPtRu/NF) has been synthesized via a facile two-step strategy. Ni5P2-mPtRu/NF possesses a well-developed continuous mesoporous structure and strong electronic interaction between Ni5P2 and PtRu, exhibiting an enhanced electrocatalytic performance towards an alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Ni5P2-mPtRu/NF achieves a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 28.8 mV and a low Tafel slope of 56.5 mV dec-1, and has excellent durability. This work provides a promising pathway for developing self-supported mesoporous multicomponent heterostructures as efficient electrocatalysts for an alkaline HER.

14.
Chem Asian J ; 14(17): 3019-3024, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355542

RESUMO

Tailoring the morphology and composition of platinum-based electrocatalysts is of significant importance for the development of highly efficient direct methanol fuel cells. Herein, we report a dual-templating method for the design of hollow PtPd nanorods with mesoporous shells (mPtPd HNRs). We found that F127 micelles favored the formation of mesoporous structures and that SiO2 nanorods served as a hard template for the creation of cavities. The well-developed mesopores, hollow structures, and bimetallic composition of the mPtPd HNRs afforded a sufficient number of active sites to facilitate the electrochemical oxidation of methanol, thereby leading to enhanced activity and stability. This strategy allowed for the reliable preparation of mesoporous hollow platinum-based electrocatalysts with desired compositions and morphologies for catalytic applications.

15.
Brain ; 142(8): 2238-2252, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203368

RESUMO

Hereditary spastic paraplegias refer to a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Clinical characterization of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegias represents progressive spasticity, exaggerated reflexes and muscular weakness. Here, to expand on the increasingly broad pools of previously unknown hereditary spastic paraplegia causative genes and subtypes, we performed whole exome sequencing for six affected and two unaffected individuals from two unrelated Chinese families with an autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia and lacking mutations in known hereditary spastic paraplegia implicated genes. The exome sequencing revealed two stop-gain mutations, c.247_248insGTGAATTC (p.I83Sfs*11) and c.526G>T (p.E176*), in the ubiquitin-associated protein 1 (UBAP1) gene, which co-segregated with the spastic paraplegia. We also identified two UBAP1 frameshift mutations, c.324_325delCA (p.H108Qfs*10) and c.425_426delAG (p.K143Sfs*15), in two unrelated families from an additional 38 Chinese pedigrees with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegias and lacking mutations in known causative genes. The primary disease presentation was a pure lower limb predominant spastic paraplegia. In vivo downregulation of Ubap1 in zebrafish causes abnormal organismal morphology, inhibited motor neuron outgrowth, decreased mobility, and shorter lifespan. UBAP1 is incorporated into endosomal sorting complexes required for transport complex I and binds ubiquitin to function in endosome sorting. Patient-derived truncated form(s) of UBAP1 cause aberrant endosome clustering, pronounced endosome enlargement, and cytoplasmic accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in HeLa cells and wild-type mouse cortical neuron cultures. Biochemical and immunocytochemical experiments in cultured cortical neurons derived from transgenic Ubap1flox mice confirmed that disruption of UBAP1 leads to dysregulation of both early endosome processing and ubiquitinated protein sorting. Strikingly, deletion of Ubap1 promotes neurodegeneration, potentially mediated by apoptosis. Our study provides genetic and biochemical evidence that mutations in UBAP1 can cause pure autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237919

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205500.].

17.
Prostate ; 79(10): 1099-1105, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While higher genetic risk score (GRS) has been statistically associated with increased disease risk (broad-sense validity), the concept and tools for assessing the validity of reported GRS values from tests (narrow-sense validity) are underdeveloped. METHODS: We propose two benchmarks for assessing the narrow-sense validity of GRS. The baseline benchmark requires that the mean GRS value in a general population approximates 1.0. The calibration benchmark assesses the agreement between observed risks and estimated risks (GRS values). We assessed benchmark performance for three prostate cancer (PCa) GRS tests, derived from three SNP panels with increasing stringency of selection criteria, in a PCa chemoprevention trial where 714 of 3225 men were diagnosed with PCa during the 4-year follow-up. RESULTS: GRS from Panels 1, 2, and 3 were all statistically associated with PCa risk; P = 5.58 × 10-3 , P = 1 × 10-3 , and P = 1.5 × 10-13 , respectively (broad-sense validity). For narrow-sense validity, the mean GRS value among men without PCa was 1.33, 1.09, and 0.98 for Panels 1, 2, and 3, respectively (baseline benchmark). For assessing the calibration benchmark, observed risks were calculated for seven groups of men with GRS values <0.3, 0.3-0.79, 0.8-1.19, 1.2-1.49, 1.5-1.99, 2-2.99, and ≥3. The calibration slope (higher is better) was 0.15, 0.12, and 0.60, and the bias score (lower is better) between the observed risks and GRS values was 0.08, 0.08, and 0.02 for Panels 1, 2, and 3, respectively. CONCLUSION: Performance differed considerably among GRS tests. We recommend that all GRS tests be evaluated using the two benchmarks before clinical implementation for individual risk assessment.

18.
Cancer Med ; 8(6): 3196-3205, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk score (GRS) is an odds ratio (OR)-weighted and population-standardized method for measuring cumulative effect of multiple risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We hypothesize that GRS is a valid tool for risk assessment of most common cancers. METHODS: Utilizing genotype and phenotype data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE), we tested 11 cancer-specific GRSs (bladder, breast, colorectal, glioma, lung, melanoma, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal, and thyroid cancer) for association with the respective cancer type. Cancer-specific GRSs were calculated, for the first time in these cohorts, based on previously published risk-associated SNPs using the Caucasian subjects in these two cohorts. RESULTS: Mean cancer-specific GRS in the population controls of eMERGE approximated the expected value of 1.00 (between 0.98 and 1.02) for all 11 types of cancer. Mean cancer-specific GRS was consistently higher in respective cancer patients than controls for all 11 types of cancer (P < 0.05). When subjects were categorized into low-, average-, and high-risk groups based on cancer-specific GRS (<0.5, 0.5-1.5, and >1.5, respectively), significant dose-response associations of higher cancer-specific GRS with higher OR of respective type of cancer were found for nine types of cancer (P-trend  < 0.05). More than 64% subjects in the population controls of eMERGE can be classified as high risk for at least one type of these cancers. CONCLUSION: Validity of GRS for predicting cancer risk is demonstrated for most types of cancer. If confirmed in larger studies, cancer-specific GRS may have the potential for developing personalized cancer screening strategy.

20.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(6): 1128-1136, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980700

RESUMO

Metastasis is the primary contributor to colorectal cancer mortality. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging technology for tumor therapy that exerts its effects through tumor ablation, mechanical disruption, and enhancement of immune responses. However, it remains unclear whether HIFU can influence tumor metastasis. Here, we examined the effect of HIFU on tumor metastasis of colorectal cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. HIFU was observed to inhibit migration of HCT-116 cells in vitro and suppress lung metastasis in a mouse model of colon cancer. In addition, HIFU up-regulated microRNA (miR) -124 expression, which inhibited the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and inhibited migration of HCT-116 cells. Treatment with an inhibitor of miR-124 reversed the effect of HIFU on cell migration. In conclusion, our results suggest that HIFU exerts anti-metastatic effects in colon cancer, and this effect is possibly mediated via up-regulation of miR-124 and subsequent miR-124-mediated STAT3 suppression.

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