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1.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116211, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348139

RESUMO

Evidence concerning effects of ambient air pollution on homocysteine (HCY) metabolism is scarce. We aimed to explore the associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure and the HCY metabolism markers and to evaluate effect modifications by folate, vitamin B12, and methylenetetrahyfrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism. Between December 1, 2017 and January 5, 2018, we conducted a panel study in 88 young college students in Guangzhou, China, and received 5 rounds of health examinations. Real-time concentrations of PMs with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5), ≤1.0 (PM1.0), and ≤0.1 (PM0.1) were monitored, and the serum HCY metabolism markers (i.e., HCY, S-Adenosylhomocysteine [SAH], and S-Adenosylmethionine [SAM]) were repeatedly measured. We applied linear mixed effect models combined with a distributed lag model to evaluate the associations of PMs with the HCY metabolism markers. We also explored effect modifications of folate, vitamin B12, and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the associations. We observed that higher concentrations of PM2.5 and PM1.0 were associated with higher serum levels of HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio (e.g., a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during lag 0 day and lag 5 day was significantly associated with 1.3-19.4%, 1.3-28.2%, 6.2-64.4%, and 4.8-28.2% increase in HCY, SAH, SAM, and SAM/SAH ratio, respectively). In addition, we observed that the associations of PM2.5 with the HCY metabolism markers were stronger in participants with lower B vitamins levels. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM1.0 was deleteriously associated with the HCY metabolism markers, especially in people with lower B vitamins levels.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2017507, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955574

RESUMO

Importance: Living in areas with more vegetation (referred to as residential greenness) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little data are available from low- and middle-income countries. In addition, it remains unclear whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders modifies or mediates the association between residential greenness and CVD. Objective: To evaluate the associations between residential greenness, cardiometabolic disorders, and CVD prevalence among adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This analysis was performed as part of the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, a large population-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in 33 communities (ranging from 0.25-0.64 km2) in 3 cities within the Liaoning province of northeastern China between April 1 and December 31, 2009. Participants included adults aged 18 to 74 years who had resided in the study area for 5 years or more. Greenness levels surrounding each participant's residential community were assessed using the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index from 2010. Lifetime CVD status (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary heart disease, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral embolism, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) was defined as a self-report of a physician diagnosis of CVD at the time of the survey. Cardiometabolic disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and overweight or obese status, were measured and defined clinically. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the association between residential greenness levels and CVD prevalence. A 3-way decomposition method was used to explore whether the presence of cardiometabolic disorders mediated or modified the association between residential greenness and CVD. Data were analyzed from October 10 to May 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime CVD status, the presence of cardiometabolic disorders, and residential greenness level. Results: Among 24 845 participants, the mean (SD) age was 45.6 (13.3) years, and 12 661 participants (51.0%) were men. A total of 1006 participants (4.1%) reported having a diagnosis of CVD. An interquartile range (1-IQR) increase in the normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 27% lower likelihood (odds ratio [OR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65-0.83; P < .001) of CVD prevalence, and an IQR increase in the soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a community was associated with a 26% lower likelihood (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84; P < .001) of CVD prevalence. The presence of cardiometabolic disorders was found to mediate the association between residential greenness and CVD, with mediation effects of 4.5% for hypertension, 4.1% for type 2 diabetes, 3.1% for overweight or obese status, 12.7% for hypercholesterolemia, 8.7% for hypertriglyceridemia, and 11.1% for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, higher residential greenness levels were associated with lower CVD prevalence, and this association may be partially mediated by the presence of cardiometabolic disorders. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are warranted to confirm these findings.

3.
Environ Int ; 145: 106092, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916413

RESUMO

Experimental data suggests that PM1 is more toxic than PM2.5 although the epidemiologic evidence suggests that the health associations are similar. However, few objective exposure data are available to compare the associations of PM1 and PM2.5 with children lung function. Our objectives are a) to evaluate associations between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5 and children's lung function, and b) to compare the associations between PM1 and PM2.5. From 2012 to 2013, we enrolled 6,740 children (7-14 years), randomly recruited from primary and middle schools located in seven cities in northeast China. We measured lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) utilizing two portable electronic spirometers. We dichotomized continuous lung function measures according the expected values for gender and age. The spatial resolution at which PM1 and PM2.5 estimated were estimated using a machine learning method and the temporal average concentrations were averaged from 2009 to 2012. A multilevel regression model was used to estimate the associations of PM1, PM2.5 exposure and lung function measures, adjusted for confounding factors. Associations with lower lung function were consistently larger for PM1 than for PM2.5. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) per interquartile range greater PM1 ranged from 1.53 for MMEF (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.96) to 2.14 for FEV1 (95% CI: 1.66-2.76) and ORs for PM2.5 ranged from 1.36 for MMEF (95%CI: 1.12-1.66) to 1.82 for FEV1 (95%CI: 1.49-2.22), respectively. PM1 and PM2.5 had significant associations with FVC and FEV1 in primary school children, and on PEF and MMEF in middle school children. Long-term PM1 and PM2.5 exposure can lead to decreased lung function in children, and the associations of PM1 are stronger than PM2.5. Therefore, PM1 may be more hazardous to children's respiratory health than PM2.5 exposure.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115443, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892008

RESUMO

It is unknown whether giving birth via caesarean section (c-section) is a modifier for the association between air pollution and asthma. From 2012 to 2013, 59,754 children between the ages of 2 and 17 were randomly selected from 94 middle schools, elementary schools and kindergartens in seven Chinese cities for a cross-sectional study. The children's parents or guardians completed questionnaires, from which data on asthma as well as asthma-related symptoms were obtained. Participants' exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using random forest models. We used mixed effects logistic regression models and added an interaction term between mode of delivery and ambient air pollution into the model to estimate effect modification from c-sections after appropriate adjustments for potential confounding variables. Among children delivered by c-section, the adjusted ORs for asthma and its symptoms per interquartile range (IQR) increase of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 (1.20 95% CI: 1.07-1.34 to 2.04 95% CI: 1.87-2.24) were significantly higher than those of children delivered vaginally (1.05 95% CI: 0.92-1.19 to 1.33 95%CI: 1.21-1.47). The interactions between c-sections and ambient air pollution were statistically significant for all studied respiratory disorders, except current wheeze. Delivery via c-section may increase the risks of air pollution on asthma and its symptoms in Chinese children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
5.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127691, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717511

RESUMO

Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) alternatives, however, relevant epidemiological findings remain to be performed. In addition, the association between PFASs alternatives and blood pressure has not been explored. To address this gap, we quantified serum levels of alternatives and legacy PFAS in 1273 healthy Chinese, aged 34-94 years, from "isomers of C8 health project". Our results showed that an increase of serum PFASs levels was correlated with elevated blood pressure and higher prevalence of hypertension: per natural log unit (ng/mL) increase of 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA) elevated 1.31 (95%CI: 0.13, 2.50) mmHg of diastolic pressure (DBP). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for hypertension with per natural log increase of 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESA were 2.57 (95%CI: 1.86, 3.56) and 1.18 (95%CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. When stratified by sex, the effects of PFASs alternatives on increased blood pressure and hypertension were stronger in women. Meanwhile, the association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA (aOR = 6.81; 95%CI: 3.54, 13.09) and hypertension was stronger than perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (aOR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.38, 3.91) in women. In conclusion, our pilot study demonstrates that serum concentrations of PFASs alternatives are positively associated with blood pressure. Moreover, women seem to be more susceptible, and alternatives exhibited stronger effects than legacy PFASs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Caprilatos , China , Éter , Éteres , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Halogenação , Humanos , Hipertensão , Isomerismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos
6.
Environ Res ; 187: 109624, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure and influenza virus infection have been documented to be independently associated with reduced lung function previously. Influenza vaccination plays an important role in protecting against influenza-induced severe diseases. However, no study to date has focused on whether influenza vaccination may modify the associations between ambient air pollution exposure and lung function. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 6740 children aged 7-14 years into Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study in China during 2012-2013. We collected information from parents/guardians about sociodemographic factors and influenza vaccination status in the past three years. Lung function was measured using portable electronic spirometers. Machine learning methods were used to predict 4-year average ambient air pollutant exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1), <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10). Two-level linear and logistic regression models were used to assess interactions between influenza vaccination and long-term ambient air pollutants exposure on lung function reduction, controlling for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Ambient air pollution were observed significantly associated with reductions in lung function among children. We found significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on lung function, suggesting greater vulnerability to air pollution among unvaccinated children. For example, an interaction (pinteraction = 0.002) indicated a -283.44 mL (95% CI: -327.04, -239.83) reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 concentrations among unvaccinated children, compared with the -108.24 mL (95%CI: -174.88, -41.60) reduction in FVC observed among vaccinated children. Results from logistic regression models also showed stronger associations between per IQR increase in PM1 and lung function reduction measured by FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among unvaccinated children than the according ORs among vaccinated children [i.e., Odds Ratio (OR) for PM1 and impaired FVC: 2.33 (95%CI: 1.79, 3.03) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.20, 2.28); OR for PM2.5 and impaired PEF: 1.45 (95%CI: 1.12,1.87) vs 1.04 (95%CI: 0.76,1.43)]. The heterogeneity of the modification by influenza vaccination of the associations between air pollution exposure and lung function reduction appeared to be more substantial in girls than in boys. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that influenza vaccination may moderate the detrimental effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among children. This study provides new insights into the possible co-benefits of strengthening and promoting global influenza vaccination programs among children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Influenza Humana , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Vacinação
7.
Environ Res ; 183: 109197, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058142

RESUMO

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (pinteraction = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (pinteraction = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Pulmão , Animais de Estimação , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Propriedade , Gravidez
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Criança , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação
9.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113857, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918137

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that legacy perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are immunotoxic. However, whether the immunosuppressive effects in PFAA alternatives which recently have been widely detected in the environment are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the relationship of serum legacy PFAAs and PFAA alternatives with the antibody of hepatitis B virus in adults. We recruited 605 participants from a cross-sectional study, the Isomer of C8 Health Project in China. We measured two representative legacy PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA), and three PFAA alternatives (two chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids, Cl-PFESAs and perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) in serum using ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). We applied linear and logistic regression models to analyze associations between serum PFAAs and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) with multivariable adjustments. We found negative associations between serum PFAAs concentrations and HBsAb. Lower serum HBsAb levels (log mIU/mL) were observed for each log-unit increase in linear PFOS (ß = -0.31, 95% confidential interval: 0.84, -0.18), 6:2 PFESA (ß = -0.81, 95% CI: 1.20, -0.42), 8:2 PFESA (ß = -0.29, 95% CI: 0.43, -0.14) and PFBA (ß = -0.18, 95% CI: 0.28, -0.08). The association between PFAAs and HBsAb seronegative seemed to be higher for 6:2 PFESA (odds ratio = 3.32, 95% CI: 2.16, 5.10) than its predecessors, linear PFOS (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.81) and branched PFOS isomers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.56). We report new evidence that exposure to PFAA alternatives are associated with lower HBsAb in adults. This association seems to be stronger in 6:2 PFESA than PFOS. Our results suggest that more studies are needed to clarify the potential toxicity of PFAA alternatives in human which will facilitate better chemical regulations for PFAAs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Environ Int ; 135: 105365, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies show that chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESA 6:2 and 8:2), one of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) used as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, are reproductive toxicants in vivo and in vitro. However, the associations between gestational exposure to Cl-PFESAs and birth outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA in maternal serum and birth outcomes. METHODS: We measured four PFAS, including 6:2 Cl-PFESA, 8:2 Cl-PFESA, PFOS, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in third-trimester maternal serum collected from 372 mother-child dyads participating in the Guangzhou Birth Cohort Study. Characteristics of mothers and infants were gathered from medical records and by interviewer-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: PFOS was the most abundant PFAS in maternal serum (median: 7.15 ng/mL), followed by 6:2 Cl-PFESA (median: 2.41 ng/mL). Greater maternal serum levels of all PFAS alternatives were significantly associated with lower birth weight, adjusted for confounding variables. For example, each ln-ng/mL greater concentration of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA was associated with a 54.44 g [95% confidence interval (CI): -95.66, -13.22] and 21.15 g (95% CI: -41.44, -0.86) lower birth weight, respectively. Greater continuous maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.73, 4.15) and PFOS (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.32) were also associated with higher risks for preterm birth, adjusted for confounders, with a possible threshold effect at the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report associations between maternal serum 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Our findings suggest that PFOS alternatives may be reproductive toxicants in human populations and should be considered with caution before widespread use. Given the preliminary nature of our results, additional epidemiological and toxicological investigations are needed to more definitively assess the risks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Caprilatos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos Sulfônicos
11.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Int ; 135: 105388, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener areas has several health benefits, but no study to date has examined the effects of greenness on metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to assess associations between residential greenness and MetS prevalence in China, and to explore whether air pollution and physical activity mediated any observed associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study during 2009. We defined MetS according to standard guidelines for Chinese populations. Residential greenness was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the associations between greenness and MetS, and mediation analyses to explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations. RESULTS: Higher greenness levels were associated with lower odds of MetS [e.g., for every interquartile range increase of NDVI500-m, SAVI500-m, and VCF500-m, the adjusted odds ratio of MetS was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.93), 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.93), and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00), respectively]. The direction and the magnitude of the associations persisted in several sensitivity analyses. Stratified analyses showed that age and household income modified the associations, with greater effect estimates observed in participants younger than 65 years old or those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone mediated 2.1-20.3% of the associations between greenness and MetS; no evidence of mediation was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a beneficial association for residential greenness and MetS in Chinese urban dwellers, especially for participants younger than 65 years old and those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but not physical activity, may only partially mediate the association.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Idoso , China , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado
13.
Mutagenesis ; 35(3): 207-219, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424514

RESUMO

We review here data on familial risk in colorectal cancer (CRC) generated from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, the largest resource of its kind in the world. Although the concordant familial risk for CRC (i.e. CRC risk in families of CRC patients) has been reasonably well established, the studies on discordant familial risks (i.e. CRC risk in families with any other cancers) are rare. Because different cancers could be caused by shared genetic susceptibility or shared environment, data of associations of discordant cancers may provide useful information for identifying common risk factors. In analyses between any of 33 discordant cancers relative risks (RRs) for discordant cancers were estimated in families with increasing numbers of probands with CRC; in the reverse analyses, RRs for CRC were estimated in families with increasing numbers of probands with discordant cancers. In separate analyses, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families were excluded from the study, based on HNPCC related double primary cancers, to assess the residual familial RRs. We further reviewed familial risks of colon and rectal cancers separately in search for distinct discordant associations. The reviewed data suggested that colon cancer was associated with a higher familial risk for CRC compared to rectal cancer. The previous data had reported associations of CRC with melanoma, thyroid and eye cancers. Nervous system cancer was only associated with colon cancer, and lung cancer only associated with rectal cancer. The reviewed data on discordant association may provide guidance to gene identification and may help genetic counseling.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135040, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726339

RESUMO

Living in greener places may protect against obesity, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and mainly comes from developed nations. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and obesity in Chinese adults and to assess air pollution and physical activity as mediators of the association. We recruited 24,845 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study in 2009. Central and peripheral obesity were defined by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), respectively, based on international obesity standards. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify community greenness. Two-level logistic and generalized linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate the association between NDVI and obesity, and a conditional mediation analysis was used also performed. In the adjusted models, an interquartile range increase in NDVI500-m was significantly associated with lower odds of peripheral 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.87) and central obesity 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93). Higher NDVI values were also significantly associated with lower BMI. Age, gender, and household income significantly modified associations between greenness and obesity, with stronger associations among women, older participants, and participants with lower household incomes. Air pollution mediated 2.1-20.8% of the greenness-obesity associations, but no mediating effects were observed for physical activity. In summary, higher community greenness level was associated with lower odds of central and peripheral obesity, especially among women, older participants, and those with lower household incomes. These associations were partially mediated by air pollutants. Future well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/tendências
15.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Obesidade , Material Particulado/análise , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
17.
J Biol Chem ; 294(25): 9959-9972, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092598

RESUMO

Mesoderm development is a finely tuned process initiated by the differentiation of pluripotent epiblast cells. Serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40) controls the development of several mesoderm-derived cell types, its overexpression induces differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) toward the extraembryonic endoderm, and Stk40 knockout (KO) results in multiple organ failure and is lethal at the perinatal stage in mice. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological functions of STK40 in mesoderm differentiation remain elusive. Here, we report that Stk40 ablation impairs mesoderm differentiation both in vitro and in vivo Mechanistically, STK40 interacts with both the E3 ubiquitin ligase mammalian constitutive photomorphogenesis protein 1 (COP1) and the transcriptional regulator proto-oncogene c-Jun (c-JUN), promoting c-JUN protein degradation. Consequently, Stk40 knockout leads to c-JUN protein accumulation, which, in turn, apparently suppresses WNT signaling activity and impairs the mesoderm differentiation process. Overall, this study reveals that STK40, together with COP1, represents a previously unknown regulatory axis that modulates the c-JUN protein level within an appropriate range during mesoderm differentiation from mESCs. Our findings provide critical insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating the c-JUN protein level and may have potential implications for managing cellular disorders arising from c-JUN dysfunction.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Mesoderma/citologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt1/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteína Wnt1/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214410, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921367

RESUMO

While treatment for testicular cancer (TC) has become standardized after the 1980s with an associated significant improvement in patient survival, this has been accompanied by an increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs). Patients were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry spanning the years from 1980 to 2015, including 8788 individuals with primary TC and their SPCs. Relative risks (RRs) for SPC were calculated using the generalized Poisson regression model. SPCs were diagnosed in 9.4% of patients with TC and half of them were late onset cancers not common in the population in their 40s. Overall RR of SPCs (excluding second TC) was 1.30 (95%CI: 1.20-1.40), including high risks for seven solid cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia. Second TC was the most common SPC and the RR of 17.19 (95%CI: 14.89-19.85) was the highest recorded. Cancers known to be fatal as first primary cancers were also fatal as SPC in TC patients. Survival at 30 years of follow-up was approximately 80% for TC patients without SPC but it decreased to 40% for patients with SPC. The unexpected finding that half of the identified SPCs were typical late onset cancers in the middle-aged population raises concerns that therapy may facilitate premature aging. The risks of SPC are clinically important for the long-term management of TC patients and the high-mortality calls for a future management strategy.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Seminoma/mortalidade , Seminoma/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/mortalidade
19.
Science ; 364(6436): 184-188, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846611

RESUMO

Tissue regenerative potential displays striking divergence across phylogeny and ontogeny, but the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Loss of mammalian cardiac regenerative potential correlates with cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest and polyploidization as well as the development of postnatal endothermy. We reveal that diploid cardiomyocyte abundance across 41 species conforms to Kleiber's law-the ¾-power law scaling of metabolism with bodyweight-and inversely correlates with standard metabolic rate, body temperature, and serum thyroxine level. Inactivation of thyroid hormone signaling reduces mouse cardiomyocyte polyploidization, delays cell-cycle exit, and retains cardiac regenerative potential in adults. Conversely, exogenous thyroid hormones inhibit zebrafish heart regeneration. Thus, our findings suggest that loss of heart regenerative capacity in adult mammals is triggered by increasing thyroid hormones and may be a trade-off for the acquisition of endothermy.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Poliploidia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Diploide , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/classificação , Filogenia , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/fisiologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Hormônios Tireóideos/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(2): 189-195, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that colon and rectal cancers differ in etiology and histology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the associations of colon and rectal cancers with any other (discordant) cancer were site specific. DESIGN: A novel approach was implemented in which cancer risks were analyzed in families with increasing numbers of family members diagnosed with defined cancers. The novel assumption was that, for a true familial association, the risk should increase by the number of affected family members. In separate analyses, familial risks were calculated after the exclusion of putative families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. SETTINGS: The study was conducted using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was relative risk. RESULTS: Relative risks of colorectal cancer and colon cancer were higher when family members were diagnosed with colon cancer than when family members were diagnosed with rectal cancer (incidence rate ratio for colorectal: 1.82 (95% CI, 1.74-1.90) vs 1.61 (95% CI, 1.51-1.71); incidence rate ratio for colon: 1.92 (95% CI, 1.83-2.02) vs 1.56 (95% CI, 1.45-1.69)). Relative risks for 10 discordant cancers were increased in colon or rectal cancer families, whereas none of the relative risks differed significantly between colon and rectal cancers. After deleting hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families, the relative risks of endometrial and ovarian cancers were no longer significant. LIMITATIONS: Genetic data are unavailable in the database. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that familial risks for colon cancer were higher than risks for rectal cancer in families of patients with colorectal cancer and colon cancer. The relationships of lung cancer and nervous system cancer with colorectal cancer were site specific. The associations of colon and rectal cancers with lung cancer, myeloma, and cancer of unknown primary appeared not to point out known syndromes and may suggest involvement of a novel predisposition. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A791.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Família , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Risco , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia
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