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1.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455996

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies suggested plaque erosion with noncritical stenosis could be treated distinctly from that with critical stenosis, but their morphological features remained largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate morphological features of eroded plaques with different lumen stenosis using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: A total of 348 ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction patients with culprit OCT-defined plaque erosion (OCT-erosion) were analyzed. Based on the severity of lumen area stenosis, all patients with OCT-erosions were divided into the following three groups: Group A (area stenosis <50%, n=50); Group B (50% ≤area stenosis <75%, n=146); Group C (area stenosis ≥ 75%, n=152). RESULTS: Compared with patients in Groups A and B, patients in Group C were older (p=0.008) and had higher prevalence of hypertension (p=0.029). Angiographic analysis showed that 72.0% of the eroded plaques in Group A were located in the left anterior descending artery, followed by 67.8% in Group B, and 53.9% in Group C (p=0.039). OCT analysis showed that Group A had the highest prevalence of fibrous plaques (p<0.001) and nearby bifurcation (p=0.036), but the lowest prevalence of lipid-rich plaques (p<0.001), macrophage accumulation (p<0.001), microvessels (p=0.009), cholesterol crystals (p<0.001), and calcification (p=0.023). Multivariable regression analysis showed fibrous plaque (odds ratio [OR]: 3.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.932-4.702, p<0.001) and nearby bifurcation (OR: 1.750, 95% CI: 1.109-2.761, p=0.016) were independently associated with OCT-erosion with an area stenosis of <75%. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of OCT-erosions presented with <75% area stenosis, having distinct morphological features from those of OCT-erosions with critical stenosis. Fibrous plaque and nearby bifurcation were independently associated with noncritically stenotic OCT-erosion, suggesting that eroded plaques might need individualized treatment.

2.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For evaluating the severity of coronary heart disease (CHD), coronary arteriography may not be available everywhere due to technical limitations. MicroRNA-101a (miR-101a) associated with inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis. However, whether it related to presence and stratification of CHD is still unknown. AIM: We aim to evaluate the value of miR-101a in stratifying CHD patients. METHODS: We enrolled 200 CHD patients and 100 controls, and 200 CHD patients were divided into two groups of low and high SYNTAX score (SYNTAX score ≤ 22 versus SYNTAX score ≥ 33). Intergroup comparisons of miR-101a level were compared among the controls and two groups of low and high SYNTAX score. Correlation between miR-101a and blood lipid profiles was analyzed. The logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the risk factors of CHD. RESULTS: Relative level of miR-101a in the controls, SYNTAX score ≤ 22 and SYNTAX score ≥ 33 group were 4.61 (1.24-8.91), 3.28 (0.58-6.75) and 2.29 (1.04-3.62), respectively (p < 0.001). All lipid profiles significantly associated with miR-101a expression (all p < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of miR-101a in univariate analysis was 0.41 (95% CI, 0.33-0.52). After adjusting for the traditional risk factors, such as blood profiles and history of smoking, the odds ratio of miR-101a was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.47-0.43), which closely associated with CHD (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating miR-101a may be considered as a novel biomarker for evaluating the presence and severity of CHD.

3.
Circ J ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is an important risk factor of plaque erosion. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of plaque erosion in current and non-current smokers presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Methods and Results:A total of 1,320 STEMI patients with culprit plaque rupture or plaque erosion detected by pre-intervention optical coherence tomography were divided into a current smoking group (n=715) and non-current smoking group (n=605). Plaque erosion accounted for 30.8% (220/715) of culprit lesions in the current smokers and 21.2% (128/605) in the non-current smokers. Multivariable analysis showed age <50 years, single-vessel disease and the absence of dyslipidemia were independently associated with plaque erosion rather than plaque rupture, regardless of smoking status. In current smokers, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-0.83; P=0.021) was negatively associated with plaque erosion as compared with plaque rupture. In non-current smokers, minimal lumen area (MLA, OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.16-1.62; P<0.001) and nearby bifurcation (OR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.98-5.16; P<0.001) were positively related to plaque erosion, but not plaque rupture. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI, the presence of diabetes mellitus significantly increased the risk of rupture-based STEMI but may not have reduced the risk of plaque erosion-based STEMI in current smokers. Nearby bifurcation and larger MLA were associated with plaque erosion in non-current smokers.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate nonculprit plaque characteristics in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presenting with plaque erosion (PE) and plaque rupture (PR). Pancoronary vulnerability was considered at nonculprit sites: 1) the CLIMA study (NCT02883088) defined high-risk plaques with simultaneous presence of 4 optical coherence tomography (OCT) features (minimum lumen area <3.5 mm2; fibrous cap thickness [FCT] <75 µm; maximum lipid arc >180º; and macrophage accumulation); and 2) the presence of plaque ruptures or thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFA). BACKGROUND: PE is a unique clinical entity associated with better outcomes than PR. There is limited evidence regarding pancoronary plaque characteristics of patients with culprit PE versus culprit PR. METHODS: Between October 2016 and September 2018, 523 patients treated by 3-vessel OCT at the time of primary percutaneous intervention were included with 152 patients excluded from final analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 458 nonculprit plaques were identified in 202 STEMI patients with culprit PE; and 1,027 nonculprit plaques were identified in 321 STEMI patients with culprit PR. At least 1 CLIMA-defined OCT nonculprit high-risk plaque was seen in 11.4% of patients with culprit PE, but twice as many patients were seen with culprit PR (25.2%; p < 0.001). This proportion was also seen when individual high-risk features were analyzed separately. When patients with PE were divided by a heterogeneous substrate (fibrous or lipid-rich plaque) underlying the culprit site, the prevalence of nonculprits with FCT <75 µm, macrophages, and TCFA showed a significant gradient from PE(Fibrous) to PElipid-rich plaque (LRP) to PR. Interestingly, nonculprit rupture was rarely found in patients with culprit PE(Fibrous) (1.9%), although it was exhibited with comparable prevalence in patients with culprit PE(LRP) (16.3%) versus PR (17.8%). Culprit PE predicted decreased pancoronary vulnerability independent of conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: STEMI patients with culprit PE have a limited pancoronary vulnerability that may explain better outcomes in these patients than in STEMI patients with culprit PR.

5.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164894

RESUMO

AIMS: To test whether a non-stenting anti-thrombotic strategy was still effective at 4-year follow-up in patients enrolled in the EROSION study and to explore potential predictors of long-term prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Out of 55 patients who completed 1-month follow-up, 52 patients finished 4-year follow-up. The median duration was 4.8 years (4.2 - 5.8 years). The majority of patients remained free from events, and all patients were free from hard endpoints (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, bypass surgery, or heart failure). Only 1 patient had gastrointestinal bleeding, and 11 patients underwent elective target lesion revascularization (TLR). Patients in the non-TLR group had more optical coherence tomography (OCT) thrombus reduction from baseline to 1 month; 95% patients in the non-TLR group versus 45% in the TLR group (p=0.001) met the primary endpoint (thrombus volume reduction >50%). Consistent with the OCT findings, angiographic results showed that the TLR group had less improvement in diameter stenosis (p=0.014) at 1 month compared with non-TLR group. CONCLUSIONS: Four-year follow-up findings reconfirmed the safety of an anti-thrombotic therapy without stenting for erosion-caused acute coronary syndrome. Patients with better response to anti-thrombotic therapy in the first month were less likely to require stent implantation during the next four years.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989612

RESUMO

Local factors of plaque rupture (e.g. lipid burden) are related to preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the pathological mechanism differs between plaque erosion and rupture. We aimed to identify the factors associated with reduced TIMI flow in plaque erosion. A total of 329 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with optical coherence tomography (OCT) identified plaque erosion were divided into 2 groups by preprocedural TIMI flow grade [TIMI 0-1 group (n = 219) and TIMI 2-3 group (n = 110)]. Patients in TIMI 0-1 group were older (age > 50 years, 68.5% vs. 51.8%, P = 0.003), and had more diabetes mellitus (18.3% vs. 8.2%, P = 0.015). Plaque erosion with TIMI flow 0-1 was less frequently located in the left anterior descending artery (LAD, 58.4% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.011), but more frequently located in the right coronary artery (RCA, 34.2% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.001) than those with TIMI flow 2-3. TIMI 0-1 group had more lipid plaques (53.9% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.039), macrophage accumulation (59.8% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.002), and calcification (34.2% vs. 21.8%, P = 0.020). In the multivariable analysis, age > 50 years, diabetes mellitus, RCA location, and macrophage accumulation were the independent predictors of reduced TIMI flow grade in STEMI patients with plaque erosion. Systemic factors (older age and diabetes mellitus) and local factors (RCA location and macrophage accumulation) were independently associated with reduced coronary flow in STEMI patients with plaque erosion. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION : ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03084991 May 17, 2017 (retrospectively registered).

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(10): e009125, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical atherothrombosis and plaque healing may lead to rapid plaque progression. The histopathologic healed plaque has a layered appearance when imaged using optical coherence tomography. We assessed the frequency, predictors, distribution, and morphological characteristics of optical coherence tomography layered culprit and nonculprit plaques in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A prospective series of 325 patients with acute myocardial infarction underwent optical coherence tomography imaging of all 3 native coronary arteries. Layered plaque phenotype had heterogeneous signal-rich layered tissue located close to the luminal surface that was clearly demarcated from the underlying plaque. RESULTS: Layered plaques were detected in 74.5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients with layered culprit plaques had more layered nonculprit plaques; and they more often had preinfarction angina, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and absence of antiplatelet therapy. Layered plaques tended to cluster in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery but were more uniformly distributed in the right coronary artery. As compared with nonlayered plaques, layered plaques had greater optical coherence tomography lumen area stenosis at both culprit and nonculprit sites. The frequency of layered plaque phenotype (P=0.038) and maximum area of layered tissue (P<0.001) increased from nonculprit thin-cap fibroatheromas to nonculprit ruptures to culprit ruptures. CONCLUSIONS: Layered plaques were identified in 3-quarters of patients with acute myocardial infarction, especially in the culprit plaques of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Layered plaques had a limited, focal distribution in the left anterior descending artery, and left circumflex artery but were more evenly distributed in the right coronary artery and were characterized by greater lumen narrowing at both culprit and nonculprit sites. Graphic Abstract: A graphic abstract is available for this article.

8.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 872-878, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921669

RESUMO

In-stent restenosis (ISR) still exists after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, even up to one year. The incidence and risk factors for neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISR have not yet been elucidated. Here, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the incidence and predictors of neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISRs.OCT was performed on ISR lesions in 185 patients in order to detect neoatherosclerosis. The median follow-up was 180 days, and neoatherosclerosis was detected in 37% of early ISR lesions. According to the presence of neoatherosclerosis, patients with ISR were divided into two groups: neoatherosclerosis (group A, n = 69) and non-neoatherosclerosis (group B, n = 116) groups.The risk factors were similar, except for hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the tissue characteristics were not significantly different between patients with and without neoatherosclerosis. Follow-up low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were divided into three grades (LDL < 70 mg/dL, 70 mg/dL≤ LDL < 100 mg/dL, and LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL). The incidence of neoatherosclerosis was significantly lower (23% versus 57%, P < 0.0001) in the LDL < 70 mg/dL group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neoatherosclerosis in patients with lipid levels between 70 and 100 mg/dL (P = 0.53). However, neoatherosclerosis was significantly more common in patients with a follow-up LDL-C level > 100 mg/dL (45% versus 15%, P < 0.0001).In patients with early ISR lesions, the LDL-C levels may be related to the formation and progression of early neoatherosclerosis, and poor LDL-C control may be a risk factor for the occurrence of early-stage neoatherosclerosis following DES implantation.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Neointima/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neointima/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a common acute gastroenteritis (AGE) pathogen across all age groups worldwide, which is difficult to differentiate from other pathogens. This study aimed to understand the clinical characteristics and risk factors of norovirus gastroenteritis among children in Taiwan. METHODS: A prospective AGE surveillance study was conducted in children aged ≤5 years who were hospitalized in 10 major hospitals in Taiwan between 2014 and 2017. The non-AGE control group included healthy children who were matched based on age, gender, season, and geographic area. RESULTS: Overall, 674 norovirus gastroenteritis patients were enrolled. Fever (p < 0.001), mucoid stool (p < 0.001), and bloody stool (p < 0.001) occurred less frequently among norovirus gastroenteritis patients. Norovirus gastroenteritis patients yielded lower CRP values on admission (21.78 ± 36.81 vs. 46.26 ± 58.12 mg/L, p < 0.001) than non-norovirus controls. Norovirus gastroenteritis patients were associated with higher direct contact rates with AGE patients within 1 week (30.5% vs. 0.97%, p < 0.001), lower hand wash rates before meals (21.6% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.001), lower human milk (15.8% vs. 19.8%, p = 0.045) and guava consumption rates (17.8% vs. 24.3%, p = 0.002) than non-AGE participants. CONCLUSIONS: Body temperature, stool characteristics, and CRP value can help distinguish the norovirus from other pathogens. The major risk factor of norovirus AGE is contact with AGE patient. Higher frequency of hand wash, human milk, and guava intake may be protective against norovirus gastroenteritis.

10.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 88, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) reduces both invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and other pneumococcal infections worldwide. We investigated the impact of stepwise implementation of childhood PCV programs on the prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia, severity of acute inflammation, and associations between breakthrough pneumonia and pneumococcal serotypes in Taiwan. METHODS: In total, 983 children diagnosed with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia were enrolled between January 2010 and December 2015. RESULTS: Proportions of pneumococcal vaccinations increased each year in age-stratified groups with PCV7 (32.2%) as the majority, followed by PCV13 (12.2%). The proportion of pneumococcal pneumonia decreased each year in age-stratified groups, especially in 2-5 year group. Serotype 19A is the leading serotype either in vaccinated (6.4%) or unvaccinated patients (5.2%). In particular, vaccinated patients had significantly higher lowest WBC, lower neutrophils, lower lymphocytes and lower CRP values than non-vaccinated patients (p < 0.05). After stratifying patients by breakthrough infection, those with breakthrough pneumococcal infection with vaccine coverage serotypes had more severe pneumonia disease (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Systematic childhood pneumococcal vaccination reduced the prevalence of community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia, especially in 2-5 year group. Serotype 19A was the major serotype for all vaccine types in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia and severity of acute inflammatory response was reduced in vaccinated patients.

11.
Vaccine ; 38(41): 6435-6441, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two rotavirus vaccines (RV1 and RV5) are available on the private market in Taiwan, not included in national immunization program. Scanty reports evaluated the rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Asian countries. METHODS: From February 2014-July 2017, we conducted a prospective case-control study in ten hospitals in Taiwan. Case-patients included children aged 8-59 months, and hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE). For each case patient, up to four controls, rotavirus-negative AGE or non-AGE illnesses, respectively, were matched by gender, age and enrolled date. Vaccination history was confirmed through vaccination card or hospital record. VE was calculated as (1 - odds ratio of vaccination) × 100%. RESULTS: Totally 4248 AGE patients and 2242 non-AGE controls were enrolled. A total of 330 case-patients with rotavirus AGE, 1226 rotavirus-negative AGE controls and 1122 non-AGE controls were included for analysis. Unvaccinated rate was 85.15% for rotavirus-positive cases, 42.9% for rotavirus-negative controls, and 34.31% for non-AGE controls. VE of two-dose RV1 was 84.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]:77.7%, 90.1%) for rotavirus-negative AGE and 88.9% (95% CI: 83.4%, 92.8%) for non-AGE controls, while VE of three-dose RV5 was 92.5% (95% CI: 85.1%, 96.7%) and 96.4% (95% CI: 91.9%, 98.6%), respectively. For respective vaccine, VEs were not significantly different in term of rotavirus genotypes. VEs of both vaccines declined <80% in children aged three years by combined controls. CONCLUSIONS: Both vaccines provided excellent and sustained protection against rotavirus AGE hospitalization in children in Taiwan, but the effectiveness declined slightly in children aged three years.

12.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 119(10): 1490-1499, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens and to estimate the incidence of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Taiwan. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at eight medical centers from November 2010 to September 2013. Children aged 6 weeks to 18 years who met the radiologic criteria for pneumonia were enrolled. To detect classical and atypical bacteria and viruses, blood and pleural fluids were cultured, and respiratory specimens were examined by multiple conventional and molecular methods. RESULTS: At least one potential pathogen was identified in 705 (68.3%) cases of 1032 children enrolled, including bacteria in 420 (40.7%) cases, virus in 180 (17.4%) cases, and mixed viral-bacterial infection in 105 (10.2%) cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (31.6%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22.6%). Adenovirus (5.9%) was the most common virus. RSV was significantly associated with children aged under 2 years, S. pneumoniae in children aged between 2 and 5 years, and M. pneumoniae in children aged >5 years. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization for CAP was highest in children aged 2-5 years (229.7 per 100,000). From 2011 to 2012, significant reduction in hospitalization rates pertained in children under 5 years of age, in pneumonia caused by pneumococcus, adenovirus or co-infections and complicated pneumonia. CONCLUSION: CAP related pathogens have changed after increased conjugated pneumococcal vaccination rates. This study described the latest incidences and trends of CAP pathogens, which are crucial for prompt delivery of appropriate therapy.

13.
Nature ; 582(7813): 501-505, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541968

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD)1-3 is a theoretically secure way of sharing secret keys between remote users. It has been demonstrated in a laboratory over a coiled optical fibre up to 404 kilometres long4-7. In the field, point-to-point QKD has been achieved from a satellite to a ground station up to 1,200 kilometres away8-10. However, real-world QKD-based cryptography targets physically separated users on the Earth, for which the maximum distance has been about 100 kilometres11,12. The use of trusted relays can extend these distances from across a typical metropolitan area13-16 to intercity17 and even intercontinental distances18. However, relays pose security risks, which can be avoided by using entanglement-based QKD, which has inherent source-independent security19,20. Long-distance entanglement distribution can be realized using quantum repeaters21, but the related technology is still immature for practical implementations22. The obvious alternative for extending the range of quantum communication without compromising its security is satellite-based QKD, but so far satellite-based entanglement distribution has not been efficient23 enough to support QKD. Here we demonstrate entanglement-based QKD between two ground stations separated by 1,120 kilometres at a finite secret-key rate of 0.12 bits per second, without the need for trusted relays. Entangled photon pairs were distributed via two bidirectional downlinks from the Micius satellite to two ground observatories in Delingha and Nanshan in China. The development of a high-efficiency telescope and follow-up optics crucially improved the link efficiency. The generated keys are secure for realistic devices, because our ground receivers were carefully designed to guarantee fair sampling and immunity to all known side channels24,25. Our method not only increases the secure distance on the ground tenfold but also increases the practical security of QKD to an unprecedented level.

14.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 22: 100756, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346617

RESUMO

Development of resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy in patients suffering from advanced cervical cancer narrows the therapeutic window for conventional therapies. Previously we reported that a combination of the selective BCL-2 family inhibitors ABT-263 and A-1210477 decreased cell proliferation in C33A, SiHa and CaSki human cervical cancer cell lines. As ABT-263 binds to both BCL-2 and BCL-XL with high affinity, it was unclear whether the synergism of the drug combination was driven either by singly inhibiting BCL-2 or BCL-XL, or inhibition of both. In this present study, we used the BCL-2 selective inhibitor ABT-199 and the BCL-XL selective inhibitor A1331852 to resolve the individual antitumor activities of ABT-263 into BCL-2 and BCL-XL dependent mechanisms. A-1210477 was substituted for the orally bioavailable S63845. Four cervical cancer cell lines were treated with the selective BCL-2 family inhibitors ABT-199, A1331852 and S63845 alone and in combination using 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture models. The SiHa, C33A and CaSki cell lines were resistant to single agent treatment of all three drugs, suggesting that none of the BCL-2 family of proteins mediate survival of the cells in isolation. HeLa cells were resistant to single agent treatment of ABT-199 and A1331852 but were sensitive to S63845 indicating that they depend on MCL-1 for survival. Co-inhibition of BCL-2 and MCL-1 with ABT-199 and S63845, inhibited cell proliferation of all cancer cell lines, except SiHa. However, the effect of the combination was not as pronounced as combination of A1331852 and S63845. Co-inhibition of BCL-XL and MCL-1 with A1331852 and S63845 significantly inhibited cell proliferation of all four cell lines. Similar data were obtained with 3-dimensional spheroid cell culture models generated from two cervical cancer cell lines in vitro. Treatment with a combination of A1331852 and S63845 resulted in inhibition of growth and invasion of the 3D spheroids. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the combination of MCL-1-selective inhibitors with either selective inhibitors of either BCL-XL or BCL-2 may be potentially useful as treatment strategies for the management of cervical cancer.

15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 41, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus is a risk factor for the pathogen transmission and the development of infections. Limited information is available on the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus colonization in pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional, island-wide study was conducted in 2011. Nasal swabs were collected from pediatric ICU patients at six tertiary hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS: Of 114 patients enrolled in total, nasal colonization of S. arueus was detected in 30 (26.3%) of them, among whom 20 (17.5%) with methicillin-resistant S. arueus (MRSA). The ST59/SCCmec IV and V clones were most common and accounted for 45% of MRSA isolates, followed by ST239/SCCmec III (25%) and ST45/SCCmec IV (20%) clones. Three ST59 MRSA isolates carried the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin genes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated a high prevalence of S. arueus and MRSA nasal colonization among pediatric ICU patients in Taiwan. Identification of epidemic clones warrants the implement of infection control measures to reduce colonization and prevent the dissemination of MRSA in hospitals.

17.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 61(1): 3-8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870559

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral infection which is prevalent in Taiwan. The virus circulates in an enzootic cycle in pigs which serve as amplifying hosts. Outbreaks typically occur during summer. A universal vaccination program using 4-shot mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has successfully controlled JE epidemics in Taiwan since 1968. More than 90% of JE cases in recent years were older than 20 years in Taiwan. Because of several drawbacks, mouse brain-derived vaccine has been replaced by newer generation JE vaccines, including inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine and live chimeric vaccine. The present article describes the recommendations in Taiwan for the use of new JE vaccines and the schedules for shifting between different JE vaccines.


Assuntos
Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Vacinação , Humanos , Taiwan , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(26): 260503, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449747

RESUMO

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), based on two-photon interference, is immune to all attacks against the detection system and allows a QKD network with untrusted relays. Since the MDI-QKD protocol was proposed, fiber-based implementations aimed at longer distance, higher key rates, and network verification have been rapidly developed. However, owing to the effect of atmospheric turbulence, MDI-QKD over a free-space channel remains experimentally challenging. Herein, by developing a robust adaptive optics system, high-precision time synchronization and frequency locking between independent photon sources located far apart, we realized the first free-space MDI-QKD over a 19.2-km urban atmospheric channel, which well exceeds the effective atmospheric thickness. Our experiment takes the first step toward satellite-based MDI-QKD. Moreover, the technology developed herein opens the way to quantum experiments in free space involving long-distance interference of independent single photons.

19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the efficacy and safety resulting from the potential interactions of herbs with Western medications due to the use of both herbs and Western medicine by the general public. Information obtained from the web must be critically evaluated prior to its use in making decisions. DESCRIPTION: This study aimed to construct an herb-drug interaction (HDI) website (https://drug-herb-interaction.netlify.com) with a critically reviewed database. Node.js was used to store the database by running JavaScript. Vue.js is a front-end framework used for web interface development. A total of 135 sets of information related to the interactions of ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai with Western medicine from the literature identified in Medline were collected, followed by critical reviews to prepare nineteen items of information for each HDI monograph. A total of 80 sets of validated HDIs met all criteria and were further assessed at the individual reliability level (likely, possible, and unevaluable) and labeled with the "interaction" item. This query system of the website can be operated in both the Chinese and English languages to obtain all monographs on HDIs in the database, including bilingual interaction data. The database of HDI monographs can be updated by simply uploading a new version of the information Excel file. The designed "smart search" module, in addition to the "single search", is convenient for requesting multiple searches. Among the "likely" interactions (n = 26), 50% show negative HDIs. Ten of these can increase the effect of the Western drug, and the others (n = 3) imply that the HDI can be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a website platform and 80 sets of validated bilingual HDIs involving ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai in an online database. A search of HDI monographs related to these three herbs can be performed with this bilingual, easy-to-use query website, which is feasible for professionals and the general public. The identified reliability level for each HDI may assist readers' decisions regarding whether taking Western medications concomitant with one of three herbal medicinal foods is safe or whether caution is required due to potentially serious outcomes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Multilinguismo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Competência Cultural , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Internet , Panax , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 52(6): 880-887, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of acute respiratory infection burden worldwide, leading to many hospitalizations. An annual influenza vaccine is believed to be the best way to prevent influenza-related illnesses. We focused on the efficacies of other possible preventive measures such as increasing sun exposure time and dietary supplements to prevent these illnesses. METHODS: We conducted a matched-pair case-control study along with the Taiwan Pediatric Infectious Disease Alliance. We included influenza-related hospitalized patients with age ranging from 6 months to 5 years during the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 influenza seasons. The controls were comparable to cases in age, sex, and residential area and had no influenza-related hospitalization records in the same season. We extracted data from vaccination histories and got the patients' guardians to complete questionnaires. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We enrolled 1514 children (421 influenza-infected cases and 1093 controls) in the study. We found seasonal influenza vaccination to be an independent protective factor against hospitalizations owing to influenza [p < 0.01; odds ratio (OR), 0.427; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.306-0.594]. Children with mean sun exposure time of >7 h/week had a significantly lower risk of influenza-related hospitalizations than those with the mean sun exposure time of ≤7 h/week (p < 0.05; OR, 0.667; 95% CI, 0.491-0.906). CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal influenza vaccination effectively prevents influenza-related hospitalizations in children aged ≤5 years. Besides, >7 h of sun exposure/week may also be associated with lower risk of influenza-related hospitalizations in children.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Luz Solar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Proteção , Estações do Ano , Taiwan , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
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