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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 558: 155-162, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586735

RESUMO

A facile solvent-free method was developed to synthesize Co9S8 nanoparticles entrapped, N, S-codoped mesoporous carbon, which involved two steps, including hand milling and carbonation. This synthetic route did not require any solvent during the entire process. Moreover, no water and/or acid solution were needed to remove the impurity from the calcined samples. The final products had mesoporous structures, as well as high Co, N, and S contents. In details, N and S atoms both doped into the carboneous matrix, and the Co9S8 nanoparticles also dispersed well in the composites. The characterization results revealed that the ratios of the precursors and the calcination temperatures both determined the porosities of the final products, which could further affect the electrocatalytic activities. The optional sample, G2.0T1.0Co0.3-900, revealed excellent electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under acidic condition, requiring overpotential of 71 mV to afford a current density of 10 mA cm-2. Additionally, G2.0T1.0Co0.3-900 also showed superior stability and duration.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112261, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577939

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corni Fructus (CF), the red fruit of Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc, has been used both as food and medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Loganin is a major iridoid glycoside and one of the quality control indexes of CF. In TCM clinical practice, prescription containing CF is commonly used to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but the underlying mechanisms of loganin are not yet utterly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aims of the present study are to confirm the therapeutic effects of loganin in an OA mouse model and to determine the mechanisms involved in the OA protective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) procedure was performed on the right knee of 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice. 30 or 100 µg/ml of loganin was then injected into articular space twice a week for 8 and 12-week. Safranin O/Fast green staining, H&E staining, micro-CT analysis were performed to analyze structural and morphological changes. The protein expression of collagen type II (Col2), metalloproteinase-3 (Mmp3), matrix metalloproteinase 13 (Mmp13) collagen type X (Col10), cryopyrin and caspase-1 were detected by immunochemistry staining. Immuno-fluorescence assay was performed to assess changes in expression of CD31, endomucin, p65 and p-I-κB. RESULTS: Results of histomorphometry showed that loganin delays the progression of OA in the DMM model. In cartilage, loganin decreased the OARSI score, increasing hyaline cartilage (HC) thickness and decreasing calcified cartilage (CC) thickness. Moreover, loganin inhibited osteophyte formation, reduced the bone volume fraction (BV/TV), lowered trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in subchondral bone. Mechanistically, loganin increased the expressions of Col2, decreases the expression of Mmp3, Mmp13, Col10, cryopyrin and caspase-1 in cartilage. In parallel, loganin inhibited the expression of CD31 and endomucin in subchondral bone. Furthermore, loganin suppressed nuclear translocation of p65 protein, and decreased the amount of p-I-κB in chondrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these results uncovered that loganin inhibits NF-κB signaling and attenuates cartilage matrix catabolism and pyroptosis of chondrocytes in articular cartilage. Loganin may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for OA treatment.

3.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 358, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690320

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported errors in Figures 2, 3 and Figure 3 'continued'.

4.
J Exp Med ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699822

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been suggested to play an important role in epilepsy. However, the mechanism mediating the transition from cerebrovascular damage to epilepsy remains unknown. Here, we report that endothelial cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a central regulator of neuronal excitability. Endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout led to spontaneous seizures in mice. Knockout mice showed increased endothelial chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (Cxcl1) expression, decreased astrocytic glutamate reuptake through the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), and increased glutamate synaptic function. Ceftriaxone restored astrocytic GLT1 function and inhibited seizures in endothelial Cdk5-deficient mice, and these effects were also reversed after silencing Cxcl1 in endothelial cells and its receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (Cxcr2) in astrocytes, respectively, in the CA1 by AAV transfection. These results reveal a previously unknown link between cerebrovascular factors and epileptogenesis and provide a rationale for targeting endothelial signaling as a potential treatment for epilepsy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733839

RESUMO

A series of mesoporous germanium materials were synthesized via the self-templating method. Germanium tetrachloride and sodium potassium alloy were utilized as germanium precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The by-products, NaCl and KCl, could be considered as the in-situ templates. The characterization results showed that the mesopores could be obtained, when the salts were removed by water washing. Moreover, the crystalline germanium could also be achieved, when the calcination temperature is as high as 500 °C. However, when the calcination temperatures are 300 °C, the as-received mesoporous germanium materials are amorphous. When evaluated as anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the obtained mesoporous germanium exhibits outstanding cycling stability, showing a high reversible specific capacity of 803 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles, as well as enhanced rate performance (655 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677790

RESUMO

A failure of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to adhere to hematopoietic cells is an essential cause of the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia and is also a cause of failure of bone marrow (BM) transplantation, but the exact mechanisms of this have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are contained in leukemia-derived exosomes and are involved in modulating the BM microenvironment. In this study, we found that K562 cell-derived exosomes transfer miR-711 to BM-MSCs and suppress the adhesive function of BM-MSCs. Using qRT-PCR, we also confirmed a significantly higher level of miR-711 in exosomes derived from K562 cells than in exosomes derived from parental cells. The BM-MSCs co-cultured with exosomes derived from K562 cells showed a lower adhesion rate than did controls. We further demonstrated that exosomal transfer of miR-711 induced decreased adhesive abilities by inhibiting expression of adhesion molecule CD44 in BM-MSCs. In conclusion, our study reveals that K562 cell-derived exosomal miR-711 can be transferred to BM-MSCs and weaken adhesive abilities by silencing the expression of the adhesion molecule CD44.

7.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(12): 972-982, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749344

RESUMO

As a crucial signaling molecule, calcium plays a critical role in many physiological and pathological processes by regulating ion channel activity. Recently, one study resolved the structure of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel from Nematostella vectensis (nvTRPM2). This identified a calcium-binding site in the S2-S3 loop, while its effect on channel gating remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of this calcium-binding site in both nvTRPM2 and human TRPM2 (hTRPM2) by mutagenesis and patch-clamp recording. Unlike hTRPM2, nvTRPM2 cannot be activated by calcium alone. Moreover, the inactivation rate of nvTRPM2 was decreased as intracellular calcium concentration was increased. In addition, our results showed that the four key residues in the calcium-binding site of S2-S3 loop have similar effects on the gating processes of nvTRPM2 and hTRPM2. Among them, the mutations at negatively charged residues (glutamate and aspartate) substantially decreased the currents of nvTRPM2 and hTRPM2. This suggests that these sites are essential for calcium-dependent channel gating. For the charge-neutralizing residues (glutamine and asparagine) in the calcium-binding site, our data showed that glutamine mutating to alanine or glutamate did not affect the channel activity, but glutamine mutating to lysine caused loss of function. Asparagine mutating to aspartate still remained functional, while asparagine mutating to alanine or lysine led to little channel activity. These results suggest that the side chain of glutamine has a less contribution to channel gating than does asparagine. However, our data indicated that both glutamine mutating to alanine or glutamate and asparagine mutating to aspartate accelerated the channel inactivation rate, suggesting that the calcium-binding site in the S2-S3 loop is important for calcium-dependent channel inactivation. Taken together, our results uncovered the effect of four key residues in the S2-S3 loop of TRPM2 on the TRPM2 gating process.

8.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 20(12): 1003-1013, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inhibitory role of a novel oncolytic adenovirus (OA), GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5, on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 was constructed by integrating Golgi protein 73 (GP73) promoter and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), and transfecting into HCC Huh7 cells and normal human liver HL-7702 cells. The expression of SphK1 and adenovirus early region 1 (E1A) was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot, respectively. Cell viability was detected by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry. An Huh7 xenograft model was established in mice injected intratumorally with GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5. Twenty days after injection, the tumor volume and weight, and the survival time of the mice were recorded. The histopathological changes in tumor tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Transfection of GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 significantly upregulated E1A and downregulated SphK1 in Huh7 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 transfection significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptotic rate of Huh7 cells, but had no effect on HL7702 cells. Intratumoral injection of GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 into the Huh7 xenograft mouse model significantly decreased tumor volume and weight, and prolonged survival time. It also significantly decreased the tumor infiltration area and blood vessel density, and increased the percentages of cells with nucleus deformation and cells with condensed chromatin in tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS: GP73-SphK1sR-Ad5 serves as a novel OA and can inhibit HCC progression with high specificity and efficacy.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(45): 42661-42670, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638366

RESUMO

Radiotherapy was considered to induce an abscopal effect initiated through antigen release and presented by dendritic cells (DC), while the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TEM) attenuated the effects. Herein, we utilized bioactive polysaccharides extracted from the natural herb Astragalus membranaceus and developed polysaccharide nanoparticles (ANPs) that can reverse TEM and, accordingly, enhance the radiation-induced abscopal effect. ANP showed ability to prolong the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ANP dramatically inhibited the growth of the primary tumor subjected to radiation as well as the secondary tumor distant from the primary lesion. Mechanistic study demonstrated that an ANP-induced immune response was mainly reflected by DC activation, represented by phenotypic maturation and enhanced antigen presentation through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Mature DC induced by ANP migrated to the tumor-draining lymph node and initiated T-cell expansion. Specifically, DC activation was successfully translated into an increase in CD4+ T/Treg and CD8+ T/Treg ratios within both primary (irradiated) and secondary (unirradiated) tumors. Our results also indicated that the systemic antitumor immune response and immune memory were enhanced with the increase in IFN-γ production and effector memory T-cell population. Our work provided a novel strategy to facilitate the incorporation of immunoactive macromolecules purified from natural herbs into modern nanotechnology in the era of immunotherapy.

10.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605439

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the tumor microenvironment immune types (TMIT) based on tumor cell programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) distribution and whether distinct TMIT subtypes (TMIT I, PD-L1high /TILhigh ; TMIT II, PD-L1low /TILlow ; TMIT III, PD-L1high /TILlow ; and TMIT IV, PD-L1low /TILhigh ) differentially affect clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 and the spatial distribution of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and CD8 TILs on the surgically resected specimens from 205 cases of LAC and 149 cases of SCC. PD-1 and CD8 TILs were more frequently distributed in SCC than those in LAC, regardless of their infiltrating in the tumor islets or stroma. The density of TILs was a poor prognostic factor in LAC but a favorable one in SCC. PD-L1 levels and its clinical prognostic significance differed in LAC vs SCC. LAC patients with TMIT III and SCC patients with TMIT I had the longest survival, respectively (P = .0197 and .0049). Moreover, TMIT stratification based on tumor cell PD-L1 expression and stromal CD8+ TILs could be considered as an independent prognostic factor of SCC patients' survival as determined by both univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that different type of TMIT provides its specific microenvironment with diverse impact on survival of LAC and SCC patients and highlights the importance of the integrative assessment of PD-L1 status and TILs' spatial distribution to predict patients' prognosis.

11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4346-4359, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626691

RESUMO

Purpose: Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative eye disease characterized by gradually impaired visual field and irreversible blindness due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Our previous studies have confirmed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in the glaucomatous process and contributes to RGC protection. The present study aimed to further investigate the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) pathway underlying the impact of H2S, to better understand the mechanism through which H2S exerts neuroprotection in glaucoma. Methods: An established rat glaucoma model was used and 168 rats were qualified to undergo sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor)/PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor) treatment. Then the survival and apoptosis of RGC were evaluated through retrograde labeling and TUNEL staining, along with activity evaluations of ERK 1/2 pathway, intrinsic apoptotic pathway, glial activation, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, autophagy, and TNF-α production through immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and ELISA. Results: The study demonstrated that NaHS suppressed ERK 1/2 pathway activity similarly to PD98059 in retinas of experimental glaucoma rats, while PD98059 also similarly suppressed glial activation, NF-κB pathway, NADPH oxidase, and TNF-α production. However, PD98059 did not affect RGC survival, apoptotic regulation, or autophagy as NaHS did. Conclusions: Our study indicated that inhibition of ERK 1/2 pathway might partly contribute to the neuroprotection by H2S in experimental glaucoma; however, it was insufficient to initiate the therapeutic effect on its own.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14575, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601856

RESUMO

Inverse correlations between serum bilirubin level and obesity had been reported in adults. We aimed to investigate the associations between neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and childhood obesity. Data was obtained from the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), a multicenter study from 1959 to 1976. Data of serum bilirubin in term newborns were used to observe the association with obesity at age of 7 years. Logistic regression models were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for obesity. For children from the same mother sharing similar factors, Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to correct for intracluster correlation. Relative to newborns with total serum bilirubin (TSB) < 3 mg/dl, there are lower risks for obesity in those with 3 mg/dl ≤ TSB < 6 mg/dl (aOR 0.91; 95%CI 0.81, 1.02), 6 mg/dl ≤ TSB < 9 mg/dl (aOR 0.88; 95%CI 0.78, 0.99), 9 mg/dl ≤ TSB<13 mg/dl (aOR 0.83; 95%CI 0.71, 0.98). By stratifying for subtypes of bilirubin, the inverse correlations only existed in exposure to unconjugated bilirubin. By using the GEE model correcting for intracluster correlations, the results are consistent. In summary, exposure to bilirubin up to 13 mg/dl is inversely associated with obesity at the age of 7 years in term infants.

14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcineurin (CaN) is involved in numerous cellular processes and Ca2+ -dependent signal transduction pathways. According to our previous transcriptome studies, thousands of host larval (Spodoptera exigua) transcripts were downregulated after the infection of Heliothis virescent ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h), while the Spodoptera exigua calcineurin genes (SeCaNs) were significantly upregulated. To understand the regulation of SeCaNs in S. exigua larvae during the infection of HvAV-3h, the functions of CaN subunit A (SeCaN-SubA) and CaN binding protein (SeCaN-BP) were analysed. RESULTS: The in vitro assays indicated that the bacterial expressed SeCaN-SubA is an acid phosphatase, but no phosphatase activity was detected with the purified SeCaN-BP. The transcription level of SeCaN-SubA was upregulated after HvAV-3h infection and the CaN activity was significantly increased after HvAV-3h infection in S. exigua larvae. Interestingly, the SeCaN-BP transcripts were only detectable in the HvAV-3h infected larvae. Further immunoblotting results consistently agree with those obtained by qPCR, indicating that the infection of HvAV-3h causes the upregulated expression of SeCaN-SubA and the appearance of SeCaN-BP. An interaction between the cleaved SeCaN-SubA and SeCaN-BP was detected by co-immunoprecipitation assays, and the expression of SeCaN-BP in Spodoptera frugiperda-9 (Sf9) cells can help to increase the CaN activity of SeCaN-SubA. Further investigations with CaN inhibitors suggested that HvAV-3h. Further investigations with CaN inhibitors suggested that the inhibition on host larval CaN activity can also inhibit the viral replication of HvAV-3h. CONCLUSION: The increase in CaN activity caused by HvAV-3h infection might be due to the upregulation of SeCaN-SubA and the induced expression of SeCaN-BP, and increased CaN activity is essential for ascoviral replication. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

15.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 32(8): 750-755, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore infection rate of different adeno-associated virus (AAV) on knee joint cartilage in mice and to find a good gene editing tool for mice chondrocytes of knee joint. METHODS: Forty-five 4-week-old SPF C57BL/6 weighed(14.3±0.2) g were selected. According to different injections(6 µl) for right knee joint, mice were divided into 9 different groups, 5 mice in each group. The groups were such as following:control group (normal saline), Vigene 2 group (AAV2 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Vigene 5 group (AAV5 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Vigene 6 group (AAV6 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Vigene 7 group (AAV7 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Vigene 8 group (AAV8 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Vigene 9 group (AAV9 from vigene biosciences, titer for 1×10¹³ vg/ml), Hanbio DJ group(AAV2-DJ from Hanbio, titer for 1×10¹² vg/ml), Hanbio 5 group (AAV5 from Hanbio, titer for 1×10¹² vg/ml). All AAVs were over-expressed green fluorescent protein(GFP). Knee joint specimens were taken and observed injury of cartilage under stereomicroscope at 30 days after injection, then 10 µm thick frozen sections were prepared. Distribution of green fluorescent protein of meniscus and cartilage of knee joint was observed under fluorescence microscope. RESULTS: Stereomicroscope observation indicated that no obvious lesion was observed in knee joint cartilage of mice after intra-articular injection of AAV. According to frozen sections of knee joints, strong green fluorescence was observed in knee joint cartilage in all AAV experimental groups. Compared with other groups, significantly stronger green fluorescence were observed both in AAV2 and AAV7 groups, whose average fluorescence density was 0.077±0.020 and 0.061±0.022. There were significant differences between two groups and other groups. CONCLUSIONS: AAV could infect chondrocyte of knee joint in vivo by injecting into knee joint cavity. Higher infection efficiency of AAV2 and AAV7 on knee joint cartilage were observed. Local injection of AAV into knee joint cavity could be used as an effective tool for gene editing of knee joint chondrocyte.


Assuntos
Dependovirus , Articulação do Joelho , Animais , Cartilagem , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
16.
Chemistry ; 25(66): 15131-15140, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475756

RESUMO

To endow all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density, cycling stability, and flexibility, we design a binder-free supercapacitor electrode by in situ growth of well-distributed broccoli-like Ni0.75 Mn0.25 O/C solid solution arrays on a flexible and three-dimensional Ni current collector (3D-Ni). The electrode consists of a bottom layer of compressed but still porous Ni foam with excellent flexibility and high electrical conductivity, an intermediate layer of interconnected Ni nanoparticles providing a large specific surface area for loading of active substances, and a top layer of vertically aligned mesoporous nanosheets of a Ni0.75 Mn0.25 O/C solid solution. The resultant 3D-Ni/Ni0.75 Mn0.25 O/C cathode exhibits a specific capacitance of 1657.6 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2 and shows no degradation of the capacitance after 10 000 cycles at 3 mA cm-2 . The assembled 3D-Ni/Ni0.75 Mn0.25 O/C//activated carbon asymmetric supercapacitor has a high specific capacitance of 797.7 mF cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2 and an excellent cycling stability with 85.3 % of capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 3 mA cm-2 . The energy density and power density of the asymmetric supercapacitor are up to 6.6 mW h cm-3 and 40.8 mW cm-3 , respectively, indicating a fairly promising future of the flexible 3D-Ni/Ni0.75 Mn0.25 O/C electrode for efficient energy storage applications.

17.
Biomater Sci ; 7(12): 5035-5043, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535105

RESUMO

Catheter-associated infections (CAIs) caused by bacterial colonization are significant problems in clinics. Thus, effective antibacterial coatings for biomedical catheters to prevent bacterial infections are urgently needed. Ideal coatings should include the advantage of potent antibacterial properties and being easily and economically modified on the catheter surface. Due to their advantages of adhesive capability on various substrates, an increasing number of coatings based on plant polyphenols have been developed. However, the hydrophilicity of plant polyphenols limits their utilization in coatings. Herein, hydrophobic tannic acid (TA) was synthesized via the one-step electrostatic assembly of TA and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) with the green solvent water as the medium. The as-prepared hydrophobic TA (TBA) facilely formed a stable and colorless coating on the luminal and outer surface of biomedical catheters with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and biocompatiblity. It was demonstrated that the TBA-coated surfaces displayed excellent bactericidal activity toward Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), and more than 99% of the above bacteria were killed by the TBA-coated films. The test of the coated catheters in vitro also showed the excellent antibacterial activity of both the outer and luminal surfaces of the catheter. Moreover, in an in vivo mouse model, the coated catheters relatively prevented bacterial colonization compared to the uncoated catheters. Meantime, no significant cytotoxicity and host response for Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and tissue compatibility in vivo were observed, indicating the better biocompatibility of the TBA coating. This preparation method overcomes the limitation of the traditional hydrophilic tannic acid as a coating and provides a new method for preventing medical indwelling device-associated infections.

18.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124439, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376693

RESUMO

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been widely used as end-of-pipe technology to degrade low-concentration volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, the influence of DBD conditions including discharge voltage, VOC residence time in DBD plasma, VOC initial concentration and synergistic effect of multiple VOC mixing on the decomposition efficiency of three VOCs (toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone) were investigated systematically. One focus of this work was to investigate size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol by-products. The results suggested that high discharge voltage, long residence time and low VOC initial concentration would increase VOC removal ratio and their conversion to CO2. Among the three VOCs, toluene was easiest to form particles with a mode diameter between 40 and 100 nm and most difficult to be decomposed completely to CO2. Maximum aerosol yield from toluene was observed to account for 13.1 ±â€¯1.0% of initial concentration (400 ppm) in the condition of discharge voltage 6 kV and residence time 0.52 s. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that non-nitrogen containing benzene derivatives, nitrophenol derivatives and amines were the main components of toluene aerosol by-products. For ethyl acetate and acetone, aerosols could only be produced in the condition of high discharge voltages (>7.5 kV) and long gas residence time (≥0.95 s) with a bimodal distribution below 20 nm. When the mixture of three VOCs was fed into the plasma, we observed a strong synergistic effect that led to higher VOC removal ratio, but lower conversion of decomposed VOCs to CO2 and aerosols.

19.
Metab Eng ; 56: 28-38, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449878

RESUMO

The wild-type transcription factors are sensitive to their corresponding signal molecules. Using wild-type transcription factors as biosensors to screen industrial overproducers are generally impractical because of their narrow detection ranges. This study took transcription factor BmoR as an example and aimed to expand the detection range of BmoR for screening alcohols overproducers. Firstly, a BmoR mutation library was established, and the mutations distributed randomly in all predicted functional domains of BmoR. Structure of BmoR-isobutanol complex were modelled, and isobutanol binding sites were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Subsequently, the effects of the mutations on the detection range or output were confirmed in the BmoR mutants. Four combinatorial mutants containing one increased-detection-range mutation and one enhanced-output mutation were constructed. Compared with wild-type BmoR, F276A/E627N BmoR and D333N/E627N BmoR have wider detection ranges (0-100 mM) and relatively high outputs to the isobutanol added quantitatively or produced intracellularly, demonstrating they have potential for screening isobutanol overproduction strains. This work presented an example of engineering the wild-type transcription factors with physiological significance for industrial utilization.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(21): 6511-6523, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PD-1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy induces long and durable response in patients with advanced melanoma. However, only a subset of patients with melanoma benefit from this approach. The mechanism triggering the innate resistance of anti-PD-1 therapy remains unclear.Experimental Design: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses were performed in a training cohort (n = 31) using baseline tumor biopsies of patients with advanced melanoma treated with the anti-PD-1 antibody. Copy-number variations (CNVs) for the genes CDK4, CCND1, and CDKN2A were assayed using a TaqMan copy-number assay in a validation cohort (n = 85). The effect of CDK4/6 inhibitors combined with anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy was evaluated in PD-1-humanized mouse (C57BL/6-hPD-1) and humanized immune system (HIS) patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. RESULTS: WES revealed several significant gene copy-number gains in the patients of no clinical benefit cohort, such as 12q14.1 loci, which harbor CDK4. The association between CDK4 gain and innate resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy was validated in 85 patients with melanoma (P < 0.05). RNA-Seq analysis of CDK4-normal cell lines and CDK4-normal tumors showed altered transcriptional output in TNFα signaling via NF-κB, inflammatory response, and IFNγ response gene set. In addition, CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib) treatment increased PD-L1 protein levels and enhanced efficacy (P < 0.05) in the C57BL/6-hPD-1 melanoma cell and the HIS PDX model. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we discovered that genetic aberrations in the CDK4 pathway are associated with innate resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. Moreover, our study provides a strong rationale for combining CDK4/6 inhibitors with anti-PD-1 antibody for the treatment of advanced melanomas.

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