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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2219, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833227

RESUMO

1,2-Dihydropyridines are valuable and reactive synthons, and particularly useful precursors to synthesize piperidines and pyridines that are among the most common structural components of pharmaceuticals. However, the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of structurally diverse 1,2-dihydropyridines is limited to enantioselective addition of nucleophiles to activated pyridines. Here, we report a modular organocatalytic Mannich/Wittig/cycloisomerization sequence as a flexible strategy to access chiral 1,2-dihydropyridines from N-Boc aldimines, aldehydes, and phosphoranes, using a chiral amine catalyst. The key step in this protocol, cycloisomerization of chiral N-Boc δ-amino α,ß-unsaturated ketones recycles the waste to improve the yield. Specifically, recycling by-product water from imine formation to gradually release the true catalyst HCl via hydrolysis of SiCl4, whilst maintaining a low concentration of HCl to suppress side reactions, and reusing waste Ph3PO from the Wittig step to modulate the acidity of HCl. This approach allows facile access to enantioenriched 2-substituted, 2,3- or 2,6-cis-disubstituted, and 2,3,6-cis-trisubstituted piperidines.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844947

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic bacterium with a global distribution. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of C. burnetii in different animals and to assess the potential role of these species as reservoirs of infection and transmission to humans. A total of 592 blood samples (105 beef cattle, 61 dairy cattle, 110 Korean native goats, 83 Boer goats, and 233 horses) were collected in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The C. burnetii DNA was detected from blood samples using the transposon-like repetitive region (IS1111) by PCR method. The results showed that 22.7% of the Korean-native goats, 16.4% of the dairy cattle, 15.2% of the beef cattle, 6.0% of the Boer goats, and 5.2% of the horses were positive for C. burnetii. Significant differences were found between the animal species. The univariable binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of contracting C. burnetii was significantly high by 5.4-fold in Korean-native goats (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.60%-11.27%, p = 0.000), 3.6-fold in dairy cattle (95% CI: 1.48%-8.82%, p = 0.005), and 3.3-fold in beef cattle (95% CI: 1.51%-7.28%, p = 0.003) compared with horses. A phylogenetic tree based on the IS1111 gene revealed that our sequences had 92.2%-99.9% similarity and were clustered with those detected in humans, cattle, goats, dogs, rodents, and ticks. C. burnetii circulating in the ROK exhibits genetic variation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify C. burnetii DNA in a horse in the ROK. These results suggest that cattle, goats, and horses can be potential reservoirs for C. burnetii and play an important role in the transmission of infection. Further studies should assess the pathogenicity of C. burnetii circulating in the ROK.

3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 344, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DDH (Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip) screening can potentially avert many morbidities and reduce costs. The debate about universal vs. selective DDH ultrasonography screening in different countries revolves to a large extent around effectiveness, cost, and the possibility of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a Z-score enhanced Graf method to optimize population-specific DDH screening. METHODS: A total of 39,710 history ultrasonography hip examinations were collected to establish a sex, side specific and age-based Z-scores model using the local regression method. The correlation between Z-scores and classic Graf types was analyzed. Four thousand two hundred twenty-nine cases with follow-up ultrasonographic examinations and 5284 cases with follow-up X-ray examinations were used to evaluate the false positive rate of the first examination based on the subsequent examinations. The results using classic Graf types and the Z-score enhanced types were compared. RESULTS: The Z-score enhanced Graf types were highly correlated with the classic Graf's classification (R = 0.67, p < 0.001). Using the Z-scores ≥2 as a threshold could reduce by 86.56 and 80.44% the false positives in the left and right hips based on the follow-up ultrasonographic examinations, and reduce by 78.99% false-positive cases based on the follow-up X-ray examinations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using an age, sex and side specific Z-scores enhanced Graf's method can better control the false positive rate in DDH screening among different populations.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810315

RESUMO

Although patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) face a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is not known whether people with NAFLD are less likely to achieve optimal management of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than those without NAFLD. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal effect of NAFLD on the management of LDL cholesterol in 5610 adults from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Participants were classified into NAFLD and normal groups. Non-achievement of the target LDL cholesterol level was set according to one's cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk level. The estimated proportion of individuals who did not achieve their LDL cholesterol targets was higher in the NAFLD group than in the normal group during the follow-up period of 12 years in a generalized estimation equation model. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for incident non-achievement of one's LDL cholesterol target of 1.196 (1.057-1.353) in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005). We found that NAFLD was significantly related to non-achievement of LDL cholesterol targets in this prospective cohort study. Prevention and proper management of NAFLD have important health implications for the prevention of CVD.

5.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(5): 469-478, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824235

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 10%-20% of kidney transplant (KT) recipients suffer from acute rejection (AR); thus, sensitive and accurate monitoring of allograft status is recommended. We evaluated the clinical utility of donor-derived DNA (dd-DNA) detection in the urine of KT recipients as a non-invasive means for diagnosing AR. Methods: Urine samples serially collected from 39 KT recipients were tested for 39 single-nucleotide variant loci selected according to technical criteria (i.e., high minor allele frequency and low analytical error) using next-generation sequencing. The fraction of dd-DNA was calculated and normalized by the urine creatinine (UCr) level (%dd-DNA/UCr). The diagnostic performance of %dd-DNA/UCr for AR was assessed by ROC curve analysis. Results: There was an increasing trend of %dd-DNA/UCr in the AR group before subsequent graft injury, which occurred before (median of 52 days) histological rejection. The serum creatinine (SCr) level differed significantly between the AR and non-AR groups at two and four months of follow-up, whereas %dd-DNA/UCr differed between the groups at six months of follow-up. The combination of %dd-DNA/UCr, SCr, and spot urine protein (UPtn)/UCr showed high discriminating power, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.00) and a high negative predictive value of 100.0%. Conclusions: Although the dd-DNA-based test cannot eliminate the need for biopsy, the high negative predictive value of this marker could increase the prebiopsy probability of detecting treatable injury to make biopsy an even more effective diagnostic tool.

6.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814350

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ß-lactams and fluoroquinolones are extensively used worldwide in the treatment of infections caused by Enterobacterales. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL), their correlation with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (PMQR) and clonal distribution among the cefotaxime-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. METHODS: In Korea, a total of 429 K. pneumoniae collected in 2015 were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was performed by broth microdilution method. By PCR and/or sequencing, mutations in gyrA and parC genes, PMQR genes and ESBL were identified. Multilocus-sequence-type (MLST) was determined for isolates harboring CTX-M-15. RESULTS: Among the 149 K. pneumoniae showing cefotaxime MICs of >1 µg/ml, 142 (95.3%) isolates were ESBL-producers and CTX-M-15 was predominant (99 isolates). Among the 142 ESBL-producers, mutations in gyrA and parC were found in 112 (78.9%) and 93 isolates (65.5%), respectively. PMQR genes were detected in 141 isolates and the non-susceptibility rate to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was 95.1% (135/142) and 82.4% (117/142), respectively. The most frequently found PMQR combination was qnrB-aac(6')-Ib-cr-oqxAB, (58/142, 40.8%). By MLST, four major STs/CC: ST48, ST392, ST307 and CC15 accounted for 67% of the CTX-M-15 producers and the prevalence of qnrB was significantly higher in these four major STs/CC than other groups (P = 0.004). Of note, we found the additive effect of PMQR genes; the more PMQR genes, the higher ciprofloxacin MICs. CONCLUSIONS: CTX-M-15 was predominant among the cefotaxime-resistant K. pneumoniae and co-harboring CTX-M-15 and PMQR genes, especially qnrB, seems to contribute the spread of high risk clones.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) affects the reaction of oxidative stress and free radicals in the neurodegenerative processes. However, whether SUA impacts Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore whether high SUA levels can aggravate the neurobiological changes of AD in preclinical AD. METHODS: We analyzed cognitively intact participants (n = 839, age 62.16 years) who received SUA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid-ß [Aß], total tau [t-Tau], and phosphorylated tau [p-Tau]) measurements from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) database using multivariable-adjusted linear models. RESULTS: Levels of SUA in the preclinical AD elevated compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.007) and subjects with amyloid pathology had higher concentration of SUA than controls (p = 0.017). Roughly, equivalent levels of SUA displayed among cognitively intact individuals with or without tau pathology and neurodegeneration. CSF Aß1 - 42 (p = 0.019) and Aß1 - 42/Aß1 - 40 (p = 0.027) were decreased and CSF p-Tau/Aß1 - 42 (p = 0.009) and t-Tau/Aß1 - 42 (p = 0.043) were increased with the highest (>  75th percentile) SUA when compared to lowest SUA, implying a high burden of cerebral amyloidosis in individuals with high SUA. Sensitivity analyses using the usual threshold to define hyperuricemia and precluding drug effects yielded robust associations. Nevertheless, the quadratic model did not show any U-shaped relationships between them. CONCLUSION: SUA may aggravate brain amyloid deposition in preclinical AD, which corroborated the detrimental role of SUA.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure has been considered as a potential modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), an indicator of cardiac dysfunction, has also been associated with cognitive aging. However, the effect of LVEF on Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is still less known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations of LVEF with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for AD in cognitively normal elders. METHODS: A total of 423 cognitively normal individuals without heart failure were included from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) study. Participants were divided into low LVEF group (50%≤LVEF <  60%) and high LVEF group (LVEF≥60%). The associations of LVEF with CSF AD biomarkers including CSF amyloid-ß 42 (Aß 42), total-tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: Participants with low LVEF had higher levels of CSF t-tau (ß= -0.009, p = 0.006) and t-tau/Aß 42 ratios (ß= -0.108, p = 0.026). Subgroup analyses showed that the associations only existed in female and middle-aged groups (<  65 years old). Besides, participants with low LVEF had higher levels of CSF p-tau (ß= -0.002, p = 0.043) in middle-aged group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings revealed the associations between LVEF and AD pathology, which may provide new insights into AD prevention through maintaining cardiac function.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814452

RESUMO

Mutations in ITM2B have been found to be associated with familial Danish dementia (FDD) and familial British dementia (FBD). Here, we describe a patient with dementia caused by a novel ITM2B p. *267Leuext *11 mutation. The patient presented with dementia, ataxia, deafness, and paraplegia. Amyloid PET and Tau PET showed abnormal deposition of amyloid and tau protein in brain. Summarized from previous 26 FBD and FDD cases, the clinical phenotype of ITM2B; p. *267Leuext *11 mutation in ITM2B is different from the features of FBD and FDD. Our findings increased genetic knowledge of familial dementia and extend the ethnic distribution of ITM2B mutations.

10.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 121, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The motion capture has been used as the usual method for measuring movement parameters of human, and most of the measuring data are obtained by partial manual process based on commercial software. An automatic kinematics data process was developed by programming on MATLAB software in this paper. METHODS: The motion capture measurement of healthy volunteers was carried out and the MATLAB program was used for data process. Firstly, the coordinate data of markers and anatomical points on human lower limb measured by motion capture system were read and repaired through the usual and the patch program. Meantime, the local coordinate systems of human femur and tibia were established with anatomical points. Then flexion/extension, abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation of human knee tibiofemoral joint were obtained by special coordinate transformation program. RESULTS: Using the above methods, motion capture measurements and batch data processing were carried out on squatting and climbing stairs of 29 healthy volunteers. And the motion characteristics (flexion/extension, internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction) of the knee joint were obtained. For example, the maximum internal/external rotation in squatting and climbing stairs were respectively was 30.5 degrees and 14 degrees, etc. Meantime, the results of this paper also were respectively compared with the results processed by other research methods, and the results were basically consistent, thus the reliability of our research method was verified. After calibration processing, the compiled MATLAB program of this paper can directly be used for efficient batch processing and avoiding manual modeling one by one. CONCLUSION: A novel Patch Program of this paper has been developed, which can make reasonable compensation for missing and noise signals to obtain more complete motion data. At the same time, a universal data processing program has also been developed for obtaining the relative movement of various components of the human body, and the program can be modified for detail special analysis. These motion capture technologies can be used to judge whether the human body functions are abnormal, provide a reference for rehabilitation treatment and design of rehabilitation equipment, and evaluate the effectiveness before and after surgery.

11.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806510

RESUMO

It has been reported that monoamine neurotransmitters can be produced by gut microbiota, and that several related metabolites of amino acids in these pathways are associated with nervous system (NVS) diseases. Herein, we focused on three pathways, namely, phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), and glutamic acid (Glu), and established an underivatized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of nineteen monoamine neurotransmitters and related metabolites in the gut microbiota. The neurotransmitters and related metabolites included Phe, tyrosine (Tyr), l-dopa (Dopa), dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine, Trp, hydroxytryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), kynurenine (KN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), melatonin, tryptamine (TA), indole-3-lactic acid (ILA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indolyl-3-propionic acid (IPA), Glu, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine (Ach). A fluoro-phenyl bonded column was used for separation, and the mobile phase consisted of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1) and water, with 0.2% formic acid in both phases. The compounds exhibited symmetric peak shapes and sufficient sensitivity under a total analysis time of 8.5 min. The method was fully validated with acceptable linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery, and stability. The results showed that neurotransmitters, such as Dopa, DA, 5-HT, GABA, and Ach, were present in the gut microbiota. The metabolic pathway of Trp was disordered under depression, with lower levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, KN, KYNA, TA, ILA, IAA, IPA, and Glu, and a higher ratio of KYNA/KN. In addition, some first-line NVS drugs, such as sertraline, imipramine, and chlorpromazine, showed regulatory potential on these pathways in the gut microbiota.

12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 337-342, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827196

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common species of microsporidia that infects humans and animals worldwide. However, no information is available on E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Here, we investigated the prevalence of E. bieneusi among animals kept in zoos and the zoonotic potential of the E. bieneusi identified. E. bieneusi was detected only in one African lion (Panthera leo) with diarrhea, using PCR and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene. A phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS gene showed that the lion isolate was classified into a novel genotype KPL belonging to Group 2. The KPL genotype identified in this study differed from genotype I in 6 nucleotides and from genotype I-like in 3 nucleotides, respectively, indicating that Group 2 has the capacity to infect a wide range of hosts. This is the first report of the presence of E. bieneusi in an African lion housed in a zoo in the ROK. Further investigation is necessary to study E. bieneusi infection among zoo animals in various regions and to determine the transmission route, in order to control E. bieneusi infection.

13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 498-505, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies have suggested that subjective wellbeing and personality traits link to risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it is unclear if these associations are causal. METHODS: We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization to assess potential causality. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies in Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (N = 298,420), Genetics of Personality Consortium (N = 81,036), and four independent consortia of AD (N = 455,258). We run the inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as one primary analysis. A Bonferroni-corrected threshold of p < 8.33 × 10-3 was considered significant, and p values between 8.33 × 10-3 and 0.05 were considered to be suggestive of an association. RESULTS: The suggestive association with decreased risk of AD was noted for a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in subjective wellbeing (odds ratio = 0.963, 95% confidence interval = 0.930-0.997; p = 0.032). Genetically predicted greater neuroticism was significantly associated with lower subjective wellbeing (ß = -0.077; p = 0.004). No putative personality traits were significantly associated with AD risk after correction for multiple tests, including agreeableness (ß = -0.0010; p = 0.477), conscientiousness (ß = 0.0018; p = 0.270), openness (ß = 0.0004; p = 0.738), neuroticism (ß = -0.0098; p = 0.262), or extraversion (ß = 0.0120; p = 0.262). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective wellbeing may independently reduce the risk of AD. Residual confounding is likely to be responsible for the previous observational relationships between personality traits and AD.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807042

RESUMO

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has been disrupting the daily lives of people across the world, causing a major concern for psychological well-being in children. This study aimed to examine (1) how life satisfaction and its potential predictors have been affected by the pandemic among school-aged children in Korea, and (2) which factors would predict their life satisfaction during the pandemic. We surveyed 166 fourth-graders in the Seoul metropolitan area to assess their psychological well-being and potentially related variables during the pandemic. The data were compared with those available from two pre-COVID-19 surveys, the 2018 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (n = 1236) and the 2019 Korean Children and Youth Well-being Index Survey (n = 334). Higher levels of stress were observed in children during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the level of their life satisfaction remained unchanged when compared with data from the pre-COVID-19 surveys. The pandemic also affected peer relationship quality and susceptibility to smartphone addiction, but not perceived parenting style nor academic engagement. Interestingly, peer relationship quality no longer predicted life satisfaction during the pandemic; perceived parenting styles and parent-child conversation time predicted life satisfaction. The results suggest a central role of parent-child relationship in supporting the psychological well-being of school-aged children during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Seul
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848253

RESUMO

Manual scoring of sleep stages from polysomnography (PSG) records is essential to understand the sleep quality and architecture. Since the PSG requires specialized personnel, a lab environment, and uncomfortable sensors, non-contact sleep staging methods based on machine learning techniques have been investigated over the past years. In this study, we propose an attention-based bidirectional long short-term memory (Attention Bi-LSTM) model for automatic sleep stage scoring using an impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) radar which can remotely detect vital signs. Sixty-five young (30.0 8.6 yrs.) and healthy volunteers underwent nocturnal PSG and IR-UWB radar measurement simultaneously; From 51 recordings, 26 were used for training, 8 for validation, and 17 for testing. Sixteen features including movement-, respiration-, and heart rate variability-related indices were extracted from the raw IR-UWB signals in each 30-s epoch. Sleep stage classification performances of Attention Bi-LSTM model with optimized hyperparameters were evaluated and compared with those of conventional LSTM networks for same test dataset. In the results, we achieved an accuracy of 82.6 6.7% and a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.73 0.11 in the classification of wake stage, REM sleep, light (N1+N2) sleep, and deep (N3) sleep which is significantly higher than the conventional LSTM networks (p < 0.01). Moreover, the classification performances were higher than those reported in comparative studies, demonstrating the effectiveness of the attention mechanism coupled with bi-LSTM networks for the sleep staging using cardiorespiratory signals.

16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800583

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic relapsing disease. Multiple factors can cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including diet, imbalance of the immune system, and impaired intestinal barrier function. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and chronic metabolic disease caused by a combination of insulin resistance and an ineffective insulin secretory response. The co-occurrence of these two diseases, demonstrating interrelated effects within the gut microbiota, has been frequently reported. This study evaluated the effects of a fermented glycated conjugate of whey protein and galactose with Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 (FMRP) to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus with inflammatory bowel disease. C57BLKS/J- db/db mice were orally administered FMRP for 14 consecutive days and 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in water ad libitum for 5 days to induce colitis. FMRP-fed mice showed improved insulin secretion and symptoms of colitis. Compared to the DSS group, the FMRP group showed a decreased abundance of six bacterial genera and increased abundance of Alistipes and Hungateiclostridium. In cecal contents, the levels of short-chain fatty acids increased in the FMRP group compared to those in the DSS group. Continuous administration of FMRP thus may improve the homeostasis of not only insulin secretion and inflammation, but also the intestinal environment in inflammatory bowel disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

17.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801938

RESUMO

There is currently no cure for infertility in women with a poor ovarian response (POR). Neogenin is reported to be abundantly expressed in the ovary; however, its role in mammalian follicular development is unclear and its ligand and signaling pathway remain uncertain. We systematically investigated the role of neogenin and the ligand repulsive guidance molecule c (RGMc) during follicular development. We treated hyperstimulated mouse ovaries with RGMc and analyzed follicular development. Furthermore, we investigated clusters of up/downregulated genes in RGMc-treated ovaries using whole-transcriptome next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition, we investigated whether expression of up/downregulated factors identified by NGS was also altered in cumulus cells (CCs) of patients with a POR. The number of oocytes was 40% higher in RGMc-treated ovaries than in control ovaries. NGS data indicated that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) was involved in the RGMc signaling pathway during follicular development. RGMc treatment significantly elevated the PGD2 level in culture medium of CCs obtained from patients with a POR. Our results demonstrate that RGMc as neogenin ligand promotes follicular development in ovaries via the PGD2 signaling pathway. Therefore, it may be possible to use RGMc for ovarian stimulation in patients with a POR.

18.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803122

RESUMO

Organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) has been recognized as an eco-friendly separation system owing to its excellent cost and energy saving efficiency, easy scale-up in the narrow area and mild operation conditions. Membrane properties are the key part in terms of determining the separation efficiency in the OSN system. In this review paper, the recently reported OSN thin-film composite (TFC) membranes were investigated to understand insight of membrane materials and performance. Especially, we highlighted the representative study concepts and materials of the selective layer of OSN TFC membranes for non-polar solvents. The proper choice of monomers and additives for the selective layer forms much more interconnected voids and the enhanced microporosity, which can improve membrane performance of the OSN TFC membrane with reducing the transport resistance. Therefore, this review paper could be an important bridge to connect with the next-generation OSN TFC membranes for non-polar solvents.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5575524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791364

RESUMO

We aimed to describe the location of fibular footprint of each anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), as well as their common origin in relation to bony landmarks of the fibula in order to determine the location of the fibular tunnel. In 105 ankle specimens, the center of the footprints of the ATFL and CFL (cATFL and cCFL, respectively) and the intersection point of their origin (intATFL-CFL) were investigated, and the distances from selected bony landmarks (the articular tip (AT) and the inferior tip (IT) of the fibula) were measured. Forty-two (40%) specimens had single-bundle ATFL, and 63 (60%) had double-bundle patterns. The distance between intATFL-CFL and IT was 12.0 ± 2.5 mm, and a significant difference was observed between the two groups (p = 0.001). Moreover, the ratio of the intATFL-CFL location based on the anterior fibular border for all cadavers was 0.386. The present study suggests a reference ratio that can help surgeons locate the fibular tunnel for a more anatomically accurate reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligament. Also, it may be necessary to make a difference in the location of the fibular tunnel according to the number of ATFL bundles during surgery.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793211

RESUMO

As COVID-19 exemplifies, respiratory diseases transmitted through aerosols or droplets are global threats to public health, and respiratory protection measures are essential first lines of infection prevention and control. However, common face masks are single use and can cause cross-infection due to the accumulated infectious pathogens. We developed salt-based formulations to coat membrane fibers to fabricate antimicrobial filters. Here, we report a mechanistic study on salt-induced pathogen inactivation. The salt recrystallization following aerosol exposure was characterized over time on sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium chloride (KCl) powders and coatings, which revealed that NaCl and KCl start to recrystallize within 5 min and K2SO4 within 15 min. The inactivation kinetics observed for the H1N1 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae matched the salt recrystallization well, which was identified as the main destabilizing mechanism. Additionally, the salt-coated filters were prepared with different methods (with and without a vacuum process), which led to salt coatings with different morphologies for diverse applications. Finally, the salt-coated filters caused a loss of pathogen viability independent of transmission mode (aerosols or droplets), against both DI water and artificial saliva suspensions. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of the salt-recrystallization-based technology to develop highly versatile antimicrobial filters.

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