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1.
Org Lett ; 25(3): 494-499, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634986

RESUMO

The annulation reactions of N-allylbenzamides with N-sulfonylaminopyridinium salts were developed under metal-free photoinduced mild conditions. Substituent-controlled sulfonaminoarylation and sulfonaminooxylation of benzamides were realized: N-allylbenzamides lead to benzosultams, while N-(2-phenylallyl)benzamides give sulfonamidylated oxazoline derivatives. Control experiments indicated that those reactions undergo a radical pathway with arylsulfonamidyl radicals as the intermediates. The aryl C-H bond functionalization in arylsulfonamidyl was involved for the first time to give benzosultams.

2.
Toxics ; 11(1)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36668793

RESUMO

Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide. Although glyphosate is not acutely toxic, the intake of glyphosate-based herbicides has caused many accidents. Some studies have suggested that surfactants might be the cause. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicokinetic (TK) properties of glyphosate according to different vehicles in rats. Glyphosate (1%) was dissolved in distilled water (DW), polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA), and Tween 20. After a single oral treatment of glyphosate (50 mg/kg), blood was collected at time intervals, and glyphosate concentrations in the target organ (liver and kidney) were determined 24 h after final blood collection. All samples were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The TK parameters of glyphosate were similar in the DW and Tween 20 groups. However, there were significant differences in Tmax and volume of distribution (Vd) between the DW and POEA group (p < 0.05). Glyphosate was absorbed about 10 times faster in POEA group rather than DW, and exhibited a higher distribution. However, other important TK parameters of T1/2, AUC, and Cmax were not statistically different among the different vehicle groups. Although glyphosate concentration in the liver was significantly higher in the POEA group than in the DW group, there was no significant difference in the kidney. These results indicate that the toxicokinetics of glyphosate are not significantly affected by POEA. It can be concluded that POEA toxicity itself can be attributed to the acute toxicity of glyphosate-containing products.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 16(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676330

RESUMO

Hydrogen production via water splitting has been extensively explored over the past few decades, and considerable effort has been directed toward finding more reactive and cost-effective electrocatalysts by engineering their compositions, shapes, and crystal structures. In this study, we developed hierarchical cobalt phosphide (Co-P) nanosphere assemblies as non-noble metal electrocatalysts via one-step electrodeposition. The morphologies of the Co-P nanostructures and their electrocatalytic activities towards the hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) were controlled by the applied potentials during electrodeposition. The physicochemical properties of the as-prepared Co-P nanostructures in this study were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed that the Co-P grown at -0.9 V showed the best HER performance exhibiting the highest electrochemical active surface area and lowest interfacial charge transfer resistance. The Co-P electrocatalysts showed superior long-term stability to electrodeposited Pt, indicating their potential benefits.

4.
Microorganisms ; 11(1)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677461

RESUMO

Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) infect various marine eukaryotes. However, little is known about NCLDV diversity and their relationships with eukaryotic hosts in marine environments, the elucidation of which will advance the current understanding of marine ecosystems. This study characterizes the interplay between NCLDVs and the eukaryotic plankton community (EPC) in the sub-Arctic area using metagenomics and metabarcoding to investigate NCLDVs and EPC, respectively, in the Kongsfjorden ecosystem of Svalbard (Norway) in April and June 2018. Gyrodinium helveticum (Dinophyceae) is the most prevalent eukaryotic taxon in the EPC in April, during which time Mimiviridae (31.8%), Poxviridae (25.1%), Phycodnaviridae (14.7%) and Pandoraviridae (13.1%) predominate. However, in June, the predominant taxon is Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae), and the NCLDVs, Poxviridae (32.9%), Mimiviridae (29.1%), and Phycodnaviridae (18.5%) appear in higher proportions with an increase in Pelagophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Chlorophyta groups. Thus, differences in NCLDVs may be caused by changes in EPC composition in response to environmental changes, such as increases in water temperature and light intensity. Taken together, these findings are particularly relevant considering the anticipated impact of NCLDV-induced EPC control mechanisms on polar regions and, therefore, improve the understanding of the Sub-Arctic Kongsfjorden ecosystem.

5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677697

RESUMO

Emerging chromium (Cr) species have attracted increasing concern. A majority of Cr species, especially hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), could lead to lethal effects on human beings, animals, and aquatic lives even at low concentrations. One of the conventional water-treatment methodologies, adsorption, could remove these toxic Cr species efficiently. Additionally, adsorption possesses many advantages, such as being cost-saving, easy to implement, highly efficient and facile to design. Previous research has shown that the application of different adsorbents, such as carbon nanotubes (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives), activated carbons (ACs), biochars (BCs), metal-based composites, polymers and others, is being used for Cr species removal from contaminated water and wastewater. The research progress and application of adsorption for Cr removal in recent years are reviewed, the mechanisms of adsorption are also discussed and the development trend of Cr treatment by adsorption is proposed.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702473

RESUMO

Background: Background: The severity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to generate a risk model for predicting insulin-requiring GDM before pregnancy in Korean women. Methods: A total of 417,210 women who received a health examination within 52 weeks before pregnancy and delivered between 2011 and 2015 were recruited from the Korean National Health Insurance database. The risk prediction model was created using a sample of 70% of the participants, while the remaining 30% were used for internal validation. Risk scores were assigned based on the hazard ratios for each risk factor in the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. Six risk variables were selected, and a risk nomogram was created to estimate the risk of insulin-requiring GDM. Results: A total of 2,891 (0.69%) women developed insulin-requiring GDM. Age, body mass index (BMI), current smoking, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, and γ-glutamyl transferase were significant risk factors for insulin-requiring GDM and were incorporated into the risk model. Among the variables, old age, high BMI, and high FBG level were the main contributors to an increased risk of insulin-requiring GDM. The concordance index of the risk model for predicting insulin-requiring GDM was 0.783 (95% confidence interval, 0.766 to 0.799). The validation cohort's incidence rates for insulin-requiring GDM were consistent with the risk model's predictions. Conclusion: A novel risk engine was generated to predict insulin-requiring GDM among Korean women. This model may provide helpful information for identifying high-risk women and enhancing prepregnancy care.

7.
Bioresour Technol ; 371: 128607, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638894

RESUMO

Preventing catastrophic climate events warrants prompt action to delay global warming, which threatens health and food security. In this context, waste management using engineered microbes has emerged as a long-term eco-friendly solution for addressing the global climate crisis and transitioning to clean energy. Notably, Pseudomonas putida can valorize industry-derived synthetic wastes including plastics, oils, food, and agricultural waste into products of interest, and it has been extensively explored for establishing a fully circular bioeconomy through the conversion of waste into bio-based products, including platform chemicals (e.g., cis,cis-muconic and adipic acid) and biopolymers (e.g., medium-chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate). However, the efficiency of waste pretreatment technologies, capability of microbial cell factories, and practicability of synthetic biology tools remain low, posing a challenge to the industrial application of P. putida. The present review discusses the state-of-the-art, challenges, and future prospects for divergent biosynthesis of versatile products from waste-derived feedstocks using P. putida.

8.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700348

RESUMO

The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer on the mucosal surface that absorbs food-derived nutrients and functions as a barrier that protects mucosal integrity. Hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) is a flavanone glycoside comprised of the flavanone hesperetin and the disaccharide rutinose, which has various physiological benefits, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects. Here, we used human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers to examine the effect of hesperidin on intestinal barrier function. Hesperidin-treated Caco-2 cell monolayers displayed enhanced intestinal barrier integrity, as indicated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and a decreased apparent permeability (Papp ) for fluorescein. Hesperidin elevated the mRNA and protein levels of occludin, MarvelD3, JAM-1, claudin-1, and claudin-4, which are encoded by tight junction (TJ)-related genes. Moreover, hesperidin significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), indicating improved intestinal barrier function. Thus, our results suggest that hesperidin enhances intestinal barrier function by increasing the expression of TJ-related occludin, MarvelD3, JAM-1, and claudin-1 via AMPK activation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

9.
J Neurosci ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669887

RESUMO

The velocity-storage circuit participates in the vestibulopostural reflex, but its role in the postural reflex requires further elucidation. The velocity-storage circuit differentiates gravitoinertial information into gravitational and inertial cues using rotational cues. This implies that a false rotational cue can cause an erroneous estimation of gravity and inertial cues. We hypothesized the velocity-storage circuit is a common gateway for all vestibular reflex pathways and tested that hypothesis by measuring the postural and perceptual responses from a false inertial cue estimated in the velocity-storage circuit. Twenty healthy human participants (40.5 ±8.2 years old, six men) underwent two different sessions of earth-vertical axis rotations at 120°/s for 60 s. During each session, the participants were rotated clockwise and then counterclockwise with two different starting head positions (head-down and head-up). During the first (control) session, the participants kept a steady head position at the end of rotation. During the second (test) session, the participants changed their head position at the end of rotation, from head-down to head-up or vice versa. The head position and inertial motion perception at the end of rotation were aligned with the inertia direction anticipated by the velocity-storage model. The participants showed a significant correlation between postural and perceptual responses. The velocity-storage circuit appears to be a shared neural integrator for the vestibulopostural reflex and vestibular perception. Since the postural responses depended on the inertial direction, the postural instability in vestibular disorders may be the consequence of the vestibulopostural reflex responding to centrally estimated false vestibular cues.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:The velocity-storage circuit appears to participate in the vestibulopostural reflex, which stabilizes the head and body position in space. However, it is still unclear whether the velocity-storage circuit for the postural reflex is in common with that involved in eye movement and perception. We evaluated the postural and perceptual responses to a false inertial cue estimated by the velocity-storage circuit. The postural and perceptual responses were consistent with the inertia direction predicted in the velocity-storage model and were correlated closely with each other. These results show that the velocity-storage circuit is a shared neural integrator for vestibular-driven responses and suggest that the vestibulopostural response to a false vestibular cue is the pathomechanism of postural instability clinically observed in vestibular disorders.

10.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678229

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the association between dietary zinc intake and total deaths, cancer, and cardiovascular disease death. In this prospective, 10-year, community-based cohort analysis, data from 143,050 adult participants (aged 40 years and older) were analyzed. Dietary zinc intake at baseline was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Harrell's C-index was used to determine the optimal cut-off of dietary zinc intake with the log-rank test. Using the Cox proportional hazards regression models, the association between dietary zinc intake and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality was estimated using hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. During the mean 10.1 years of follow-up, 5436 participants expired, of whom 2355 died due to cancer and 985 died due to cardiovascular causes. After adjustment for confounders, dietary zinc intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (≤5.60 mg/day vs. >7.98 mg/day; hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25) and cardiovascular disease mortality (≤5.12 mg/day vs. >7.28 mg/day; hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.81) but not with cancer mortality (≤5.60 mg/day vs. >10.08 mg/day; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.33). Dietary zinc intake was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality but not with cancer mortality. Our findings could suggest that recommending optimal dietary zinc intake is helpful for human health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Prospectivos , Zinco , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678294

RESUMO

Elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP) is the only major modifiable risk factor of glaucoma. While low serum vitamin D levels are considered a potential risk factor for glaucoma, there is conflicting evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and EIOP despite the possible linkage between vitamin D and intraocular pressure through oxidative stress and systemic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to verify the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and EIOP using data from 15,338 individuals who visited the health promotion center of an education hospital. The cubic spline curve revealed an inverse dose-dependent association between serum 25(OH)D level and EIOP. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the EIOP of the serum 25(OH)D per increment was 0.97 (0.96-0.990). The fully adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the EIOP of the 25(OH)D insufficiency and 25(OH)D sufficiency groups, compared to 25(OH)D deficiency group, were 0.72 (0.56-0.92) and 0.51 (0.34-0.78), respectively. The relationship remained significant in male and young age subgroups. In conclusion, the clinical assessment of intraocular pressure may prove helpful when treating patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, which may be a preventive strategy against the development of glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Humanos , Masculino , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Pressão Intraocular , Vitamina D , Calcifediol , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Food Sci Biotechnol ; : 1-9, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683865

RESUMO

One of the interfering factors in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cytokine storm, which contributes to hyperinflammation. Mast cells cause COVID-19 hyperinflammation by increasing inflammatory cytokine levels. We investigated whether caudatin, an active compound of Cynanchum auriculatum, could suppress inflammatory response signaling in human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Caudatin suppressed activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in HMC-1 cells. Caudatin suppressed nuclear translocation of catalytic subunit (p65) of nuclear factor (NF)-κB by blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. Caudatin also reduced levels of activated-caspase-1 protein and activation of caspase-1. Non-toxic caudatin doses inhibited the mRNA expression and protein synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A significant finding was that caudatin inhibited JNK/AP-1/NF-κB/caspase-1 signaling molecules, reducing the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, we propose that caudatin might be used as a material in health functional foods to alleviate mast cell-mediated inflammatory conditions like COVID-19.

13.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; : 102189, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634813

RESUMO

Throughout the recent COVID-19 pandemic, South Korea led national efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. The project proceeded as follows: 1) evaluation system setup (including Animal Biosafety Level 3 (ABSL3) facility alliance, standardized nonclinical evaluation protocol, and laboratory information management system), 2) application (including committee review and selection), and 3) evaluation (including expert judgment and reporting). After receiving 101 applications, the selection committee reviewed pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy data and selected 32 final candidates. In the nonclinical efficacy test, we used golden Syrian hamsters and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgenic mice under a cytokeratin 18 promoter to evaluate mortality, clinical signs, body weight, viral titer, neutralizing antibody presence, and histopathology. These data indicated eight new drugs and one repositioned drug having significant efficacy for COVID-19. Three vaccine and four antiviral drugs exerted significant protective activities against SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Additionally, two anti-inflammatory drugs showed therapeutic effects on lung lesions and weight loss through their mechanism of action but did not affect viral replication. Along with systematic verification of COVID-19 animal models through large-scale studies, our findings suggest that ABSL3 multicenter alliance and nonclinical evaluation protocol standardization can promote reliable efficacy testing against COVID-19, thus expediting medical product development.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202217724, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625565

RESUMO

We report the first highly enantioselective construction of silicon-stereocenters by asymmetric enamine catalysis. An unprecedented desymmetric intramolecular aldolization of prochiral siladials was thus developed for the facile access of multifunctional silicon-stereogenic silacycles in high to excellent enantioselectivity. With an enal moiety, these adducts could be readily elaborated for the diverse synthesis of silicon-stereogenic compounds, and for late-stage modification.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674389

RESUMO

The aim of poverty alleviation relocation is to break the vicious cycle of poverty and ecological degradation. The improvement of human capital, specifically women's human capital, is important to realize the poverty alleviation and sustainable development of relocated peasant households. Based on the survey data of 902 peasant households in southern Shaanxi in 2020, using the PSM model and the mediation effect test model, this paper explores the impact of participation in relocation on human capital from the perspective of gender differences, and the mediation effect of fuelwood consumption in the effect of participation in relocation on the human capital of peasants with different genders. The results show that firstly, in general, participation in relocation effectively improves the human capital of peasants. Secondly, there are gender differences in the improvement of the human capital of relocated peasants. Compared with male peasants, the health level of female peasants is significantly improved. Finally, fuelwood consumption plays an important mediation role in the impact of participation in relocation on human capital and the mediation role is more significant in improving the human capital of relocated female peasants.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Pobreza , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , China
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that have been glycated nonenzymatically by reducing sugars and their derivatives such as methylglyoxal. AGEs are known to cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and diseases in the human body. The toxic effects of AGEs and their structures on the origin of the protein being modified have not been well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five different types of AGEs: AGE1 (glucose-derived), AGE2 (glyceraldehyde-derived), AGE3 (glycolaldehyde-derived), AGE4 (methylglyoxal-derived), and AGE5 (glyoxal-derived); were used to examine the effect of AGEs on HepG2 cells. AGE2 through 5 increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver cells, an initiating factor for apoptosis. At the mRNA and protein levels, AGE5 treatment showed the greatest increase in expression of apoptosis-related factors such as Bax, p53, and Caspase 3. Quantitative analysis revealed that Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD) were the important types of AGE5. The ROS generation and the expression of apoptotic factors both increased when cells were treated with CML and GOLD. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that AGE5 treatment activates the apoptosis-related gene expression in hapatocytes, with CML and GOLD as potential major AGE compounds.

17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279533, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638106

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that infects humans, companion animals, livestock, and wildlife. Infections in cattle caused by this parasite are often asymptomatic, but such infections can cause diarrhea, reduced weight gain, and ill-thrift in young calves. Although G. duodenalis causes diarrhea in calves, only a few studies have been conducted on calves in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages in pre-weaned calves with diarrhea in the ROK, identify the association between the occurrence of G. duodenalis and the age of calf, and perform molecular characterization of G. duodenalis. We collected 455 fecal samples from pre-weaned native Korean calves (≤60 days old) with diarrhea in four different regions. G. duodenalis was detected using nested PCR targeting the beta-giardin (bg) gene, and positive samples were further genotyped for the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in calves with diarrhea was 4.4% (20/455) based on the analysis of bg. The highest prevalence was observed in calves aged 11-30 days (7.5%; 95% confidence interval: 3.7%-11.3%), whereas the lowest prevalence was observed in neonatal calves. From the 20 samples that were positive for bg, 16, 5, and 6 sequences were obtained following genotyping of bg, gdh, and tpi, respectively. Sequencing analysis of the bg gene revealed the presence of assemblage E (n = 15) and sub-assemblage AⅠ (n = 1) in the samples. Moreover, we detected mixed infections with assemblages E and A in two calves for the first time. Among the sequences obtained herein, two new subtypes of assemblage E were detected in gdh and tpi sequences each. The results suggest that G. duodenalis is an infectious agent causing diarrhea in calves, and pre-weaned calves are at a higher risk of infection than neonatal calves. Multilocus genotyping should be performed to confirm the presence of potentially zoonotic genotypes. These results highlight the importance of cattle as a source of zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis to humans.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
18.
J Clin Neurol ; 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is one of the most important nonmotor symptoms in patients with α-synucleinopathies. Atomoxetine is a selective norepinephrine transporter blocker that is a treatment option for nOH. This systematic review and expert focus-group study was designed to obtain evidence from published data and clinical experiences of Korean movement-disorder specialists about the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine for the pharmacological treatment of nOH in patients with α-synucleinopathies. METHODS: The study comprised a systematic review and a focus-group discussion with clinicians. For the systematic review, multiple comprehensive databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and KoreaMed were searched to retrieve articles that assessed the outcomes of atomoxetine therapy. A focus-group discussion was additionally performed to solicit opinions from experts with experience in managing nOH. RESULTS: The literature review process yielded only four randomized controlled trials on atomoxetine matching the inclusion criteria. Atomoxetine effectively increased systolic blood pressure and improved OH-related symptoms as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. Its effects were pronounced in cases with central autonomic failure, including multiple-system atrophy (MSA). Atomoxetine might be a safe monotherapy regarding the risk of supine hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Atomoxetine is an effective and safe option for short-term nOH management, which could be more evident in patients with central autonomic dysfunction such as MSA. However, there is a paucity of evidence in the literature, and data from the focus-group discussion were inadequate, and so further investigation is warranted.

19.
Can J Vet Res ; 87(1): 51-58, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606037

RESUMO

Enterococci are environmental pathogens that can cause bovine mastitis, which is treated with macrolides, one of which is erythromycin (ERY). The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of high-level erythromycin-resistant (HLER) Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) isolates from bulk tank milk of 4 dairy companies, identified as A to D, in order to assess the threat to public health. Although isolates from company D showed the highest prevalence of E. faecalis, the prevalence of HLER E. faecalis in isolates from company A showed a significant difference. A total of 149 of the 301 HLER E. faecalis isolates showed the highest rate of resistance to tetracycline. In the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, 147 isolates carried the ermB gene alone and 2 isolates carried both ermA and ermB genes. Also, 72 and 60 isolates carried both tetM and tetL genes and the tetM gene alone, respectively, and 38 isolates carried the optrA gene. The prevalence of both aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)-la and ant(6')-Ia genes was the highest and 104 isolates harbored the Int-Tn gene carrying the Tn916/1545-like transposon. Although the distribution of the e rmB gene showed no significant difference among dairy companies, the prevalence of other resistance genes and transposons showed significant differences among dairy companies. Virulence genes were highly conserved in the HLER E. faecalis isolates. Our results indicated that there were significant differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of HLER E. faecalis isolates in milk from 4 different dairy companies. A structured management protocol by companies and constant monitoring are therefore necessary to minimize public health hazards.


Les entérocoques sont des agents pathogènes environnementaux qui peuvent causer la mammite bovine, qui est traitée avec des macrolides, dont l'érythromycine (ERY). Le but de cette étude était de comparer les caractéristiques des isolats d'Enterococcus f aecalis (E. faecalis) hautement résistants à l'érythromycine (HLER) provenant du lait de réservoir en vrac de quatre entreprises laitières, identifiées comme A à D, afin d'évaluer la menace pour santé publique. Bien que les isolats de la société D aient montré la prévalence la plus élevée d'E. faecalis, la prévalence d'E. faecalis HLER dans les isolats de la société A montrait une différence significative. Un total de 149 des 301 isolats d'E. faecalis HLER ont montré le taux le plus élevé de résistance à la tétracycline. Dans la distribution des gènes de résistance aux antimicrobiens, 147 isolats portaient le gène ermB seul et deux isolats portaient à la fois les gènes ermA et ermB. En outre, 72 et 60 isolats portaient à la fois les gènes tetM et tetL et le gène tetM seul, respectivement, et 38 isolats portaient le gène optrA. La prévalence des gènes aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)-la et ant(6')-Ia était la plus élevée et 104 isolats portaient le gène Int-Tn portant le transposon de type Tn916/1545. Bien que la distribution du gène ermB n'ait montré aucune différence significative entre les entreprises laitières, la prévalence d'autres gènes de résistance et transposons a montré des différences significatives entre les entreprises laitières. Les gènes de virulence étaient hautement conservés dans les isolats d'E. faecalis HLER. Nos résultats ont indiqué qu'il y avait des différences significatives dans les caractéristiques phénotypiques et génotypiques des isolats d'E. faecalis HLER dans le lait de quatre entreprises laitières différentes. Un protocole de gestion structuré par les entreprises et une surveillance constante sont donc nécessaires pour minimiser les risques pour la santé publique.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecalis , Eritromicina , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos
20.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615907

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) intake is commonly related to a substantial risk of cognitive impairment for senior citizens over 65 years of age, which constitutes a profound global health burden with several economic and social consequences. It is critical to investigate the effects of long-term HFD consumption on cognitive function and to inspect the potential underlying mechanisms. In the present study, 9-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a normal diet (ND, 10 kcal% fat) or an HFD diet (60 kcal% fat) for 10 months. Then a series of behavioral tests, and histological and biochemistry examinations of the hippocampus and cortex proceeded. We found that long-term HFD-fed aged mice exhibited cognitive function decline in the object place recognition test (OPR). Compared with the ND group, the HFD-fed mice showed Tau hyperphosphorylation at ps214 in the hippocampus and at ps422 and ps396 in the cortex, which was accompanied by GSK-3ß activation. The higher activated phenotype of microglia in the brain of the HFD group was typically evidenced by an increased average area of the cell body and reduced complexity of microglial processes. Immunoblotting showed that long-term HFD intake augmented the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 in the hippocampus. These findings indicate that long-term HFD intake deteriorates cognitive dysfunctions, accompanied by Tau hyperphosphorylation, microglial activation, and inflammatory cytokine expression, and that the modifiable lifestyle factor contributes to the cognitive decline of senior citizens.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Microglia , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fosforilação , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo
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