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1.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(2): e21635, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625210

RESUMO

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Longevidade/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Vespas/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore the mechanism of immunosuppression in septic Acute Renal Injury (AKI) and the role of programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway in septic AKI. METHODS: This study established a septic AKI model by Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57/B6 mice, ELISA was used to test the level of lactate and creatinine in serum, blood was collected for flow cytometry and kidney samples for Western blot analyses. This study further analyzed the expression of PD-L1 in kidney and the expression of PD-1 in CD4+, CD8+ T cell, and the number of CD3+ T cells to identify apoptosis in T cells in the blood. RESULTS: The CLP sepsis model induced AKI in C57/B6 mice; The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 were increased in septic AKI mice; PD-1/PD-L1 induced apoptosis in T cells: the number of lymphocytes decreased by 64%, while the number of CD3+ T cells decreased by 27% compared with the sham group; Results also indicated that lactate up-regulates expression of PD-L1 in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate activated PD-1/PD-L1 pathway can induce immunosuppression by inducing apoptosis in lymphocytes in septic AKI. Moreover, blocking the receptor of lactate or PD-1/PD-L1 might be a new therapy for septic AKI.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709584

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of immunonutrition vs standard nutrition in cancer patients treated with surgery. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Web of Science were searched. Sixty-one randomized controlled trials were included. Immunonutrition was associated with a significantly reduced risk of postoperative infectious complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.71 [95% CI, 0.64-0.79]), including a reduced risk of wound infection (RR 0.72 [95% CI, 0.60-0.87]), respiratory tract infection (RR 0.70 [95% CI, 0.59-0.84]), and urinary tract infection (RR 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.94]) as well as a decreased risk of anastomotic leakage (RR 0.70 [95% CI, 0.53-0.91]) and a reduced hospital stay (MD -2.12 days [95% CI -2.72 to -1.52]). No differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to sepsis or all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that receiving arginine + nucleotides + ω-3 fatty acids and receiving enteral immunonutrition reduced the rates of wound infection and respiratory tract infection. The application of immunonutrition at 25-30 kcal/kg/d for 5-7 days reduced the rate of respiratory tract infection. Perioperative immunonutrition reduced the rate of wound infection. For malnourished patients, immunonutrition shortened the hospitalization time. Therefore, immunonutrition reduces postoperative infection complications and shortens hospital stays but does not reduce all-cause mortality. Patients who are malnourished before surgery who receive arginine + nucleotides + ω-3 fatty acids (25-30 kcal/kg/d) via the gastrointestinal tract during the perioperative period (5-7 days) may show better clinical efficacy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to assess the effects of immunonutrition on chemoradiotherapy patients. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Web of Science. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Our primary outcomes were the incidence of oral mucositis and diarrhea. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of esophagitis, grade ≥3 oral mucositis, grade ≥3 diarrhea, grade ≥3 esophagitis, and body weight loss. RESULTS: A total of 1478 patients and 27 studies were included. There were no significant differences in the incidence of oral mucositis (relative risk [RR] = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.05), diarrhea (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.05), or esophagitis (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.11-2.86) between the immunonutrition group and standard nutrition/placebo group. Nevertheless, immunonutrition significantly reduced the incidence of grade ≥3 oral mucositis (RR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92), grade ≥3 diarrhea (RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.88), grade ≥3 esophagitis (RR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.54), and losing >5% body weight (RR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, immunonutrition failed to reduce the incidence rates of oral mucositis, diarrhea, or esophagitis but was conducive to significantly improving the severity of oral mucositis and diarrhea esophagitis and reducing the rate of body weight loss.

5.
Anal Biochem ; 581: 113340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226253

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. To date, no non-invasive and specific biomarkers have been identified for the diagnosis of CRC. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is attracting increasing attention and provides the possibility of a non-invasive diagnosis. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used to analyze the VOCs released from the headspace gas of LS174T (Dukes' type B colorectal adenocarcinoma) cells, arsenic trioxide (ATO)-treated LS174T cells and the blood from tumor-bearing mice. The data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), which showed that the levels of decanal, 2,4-dimethyl- heptane, and twelve other metabolites were significantly greater in the headspace gas of the LS174T cells and blood of tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, in vivo experiments indicated that formic acid, ethenyl ester and p-trimethylsilyloxyphenyl-(trimethylsilyloxy)trimethylsilylacrylate were consumed during tumor growth. In conclusion, VOCs such as 1-methoxy-hexane and 2,4-dimethyl-heptane could be useful diagnostic markers for CRC. Further research should focus on the potential metabolic pathways associated with these profiles.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(9): 2826-2830, 2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624843

RESUMO

Benzofurans are among the most popular structural units in bioactive natural products, however, the synthesis of such structures by radical cyclization cascade reactions is rare. Herein, we report a mild and broadly applicable method for the construction of complex benzofurylethylamine derivatives through a unique radical cyclization cascade mechanism. Single-electron transfer (SET) from 2-azaallyl anions to 2-iodo aryl allenyl ethers initiates a radical cyclization that is followed by intermolecular radical-radical coupling. This expedient approach enables the synthesis of a range of polycyclic benzofurans that would otherwise be difficult to prepare.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 178, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is among the top ten traditional flowers in China, and one of the four major cut flowers in the world, but the growth of chrysanthemum is severely restricted by high temperatures which retard growth and cause defects in flowers. DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, whether the DREB A-6 subgroup is involved in heat tolerance has not been reported conclusively. RESULT: In the present study, CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) 'Jinba'. CmDREB6, containing a typical AP2/ERF domain, was classed into the DREB A-6 subgroup and shared highest homology with Cichorium intybus L. CiDREB6 (73%). CmDREB6 was expressed at its highest levels in the leaf. The CmDREB6 protein localized to the nucleus. Based on the yeast one hybrid assay, CmDREB6 showed transcription activation activity in yeast, and the transcriptional activation domain was located in the 3 'end ranging from 230 to 289 amino acids residues. CmDREB6 overexpression enhanced the tolerance of chrysanthemum to heat. The survival rate of two transgenic lines was as high as 85%, 50%, respectively, in contrast to 3.8% of wild-type (WT). Over-expression of CmDREB6 promoted the expression of CmHsfA4, CmHSP90, and the active oxygen scavenging genes CmSOD and CmCAT. CONCLUSION: In this study, DREB A-6 subgroup gene CmDREB6 was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. Overexpression of CmDREB6 enhanced heat tolerance of chrysanthemum by regulating genes involved in the heat shock response and ROS homeogenesis.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Chrysanthemum , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22238, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26935980

RESUMO

Ce(3+)-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized via a facile sol-gel method. Multiple characterization techniques were employed to study the structure, morphology, composition and photoluminescence properties of YAG:Ce nanophosphors. The YAG:Ce0.0055 sintered at 1030 °C exhibited a typical 5d(1)-4f(1) emission band with the maximum peak located at 525 nm, and owned a short fluorescence lifetime τ1 (~28 ns) and a long fluorescence lifetime τ2 (~94 ns). Calcination temperature and Ce(3+) doping concentration have significant effects on the photoluminescence properties of the YAG:Ce nanophosphors. The emission intensity was enhanced as the calcination temperature increased from 830 to 1030 °C, but decreased dramatically with the increase of Ce(3+) doping concentration from 0.55 to 5.50 at.% due to the concentration quenching. By optimizing the synthesized condition, the strongest photoluminescence emission intensity was achieved at 1030 °C with Ce(3+) concentration of 0.55 at.%.

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