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1.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in liver cancer. Circular RNA_0090049 (circ_0090049) has been shown to be involved in the advance of HCC. However, the interaction between circ_0090049 and microRNA (miRNA) in HCC has not been studied. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of related genes. Through detection of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and rate of tumor sphere formation, the capping experiment was carried out to verify the regulatory relationship between miRNA and circ_0090049 or circ_0090049 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 T (UBE2T). The expression of related proteins was detected by Western blotting. The interaction of miRNA with circ_0090049 or UBE2T was notarized by Dual-luciferase reporter assay. Xenotransplantation experiments confirmed the function of circ_0090049 in vivo. RESULTS: Circ_0090049 and UBE2T were upregulated in liver cancer. Silencing circ_0090049 reduced the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor spheroid formation rate of Huh7 and HCCLM3 cells. MiR-605-5p and miR-548c-3p were identified as targets of circ_0090049, and UBE2T was the target of miR-605-5p and miR-548c-3p. Anti-miR-605-5p, anti-miR-548c-3p or UBE2T overexpression restored the inhibitory effect of circ_0090049 knockdown on HCC cells. Animal experiments confirmed the antitumor effect of silence circ_0090049. CONCLUSION: Circ_0090049 regulates the expression of UBE2T by regulating miR-605-5p or miR-548c-3p, thereby promoting the development of HCC cells.

2.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 180, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to regulate the gut microbiota and physiology in various contexts, but their precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. RESULTS: By population genomic analysis of 418 Bifidobacterium longum strains, including 143 newly sequenced in this study, three geographically distinct gene pools/populations, BLAsia1, BLAsia2, and BLothers, were identified. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, particularly peptidoglycan biosynthesis, varied considerably among the core genomes of the different populations, but accessory genes that contributed to the carbohydrate metabolism were significantly distinct. Although active transmission was observed inter-host, inter-country, inter-city, intra-community, and intra-family, a single B. longum clone seemed to reside within each individual. A significant negative association was observed between host age and relative abundance of B. longum, while there was a strong positive association between host age and strain genotype [e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms in the arginine biosynthesis pathway]. Further animal experiments performed with the B. longum isolates via using a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model supported these associations, in which B. longum strains with different genotypes in arginine biosynthesis pathway showed divergent abilities on protecting against host aging possibly via their different abilities to modify the metabolism of gut microbes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known example of research on the evolutionary history and transmission of this probiotic species. Our results propose a new mechanistic insight for promoting host longevity via the informed use of specific probiotics or molecules. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Sulfaleno , Envelhecimento , Animais , Galactose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos
3.
Foods ; 10(8)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441495

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been paid to the potential probiotic effects of Latilactobacillus sakei. To explore the genetic diversity of L. sakei, 14 strains isolated from different niches (feces, fermented kimchi, and meat products) and 54 published strains were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the average genome size and GC content of L. sakei were 1.98 Mb and 41.22%, respectively. Its core genome mainly encodes translation and transcription, amino acid synthesis, glucose metabolism, and defense functions. L. sakei has open pan-genomic characteristics, and its pan-gene curve shows an upward trend. The genetic diversity of L. sakei is mainly reflected in carbohydrate utilization, antibiotic tolerance, and immune/competition-related factors, such as clustering regular interval short palindromic repeat sequence (CRISPR)-Cas. The CRISPR system is mainly IIA type, and a few are IIC types. This work provides a basis for the study of this species.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 698914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422681

RESUMO

Akkermansia muciniphila is a commensal bacterium of the gut mucus layer. Although both in vitro and in vivo data have shown that A. muciniphila strains exhibit strain-specific modulation of gut functions, its ability to moderate immunity to ulcerative colitis have not been verified. We selected three isolated human A. muciniphila strains (FSDLZ39M14, FSDLZ36M5 and FSDLZ20M4) and the A. muciniphila type strain ATCC BAA-835 to examine the effects of different A. muciniphila strains on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. All of the A. muciniphila strains were cultured anaerobically in brain heart infusion medium supplemented with 0.25% type II mucin from porcine stomach. To create animal models, colitis was established in C57BL/6 mice which randomly divided into six groups with 10 mice in each group by adding 3% dextran sulfate sodium to drinking water for 7 days. A. muciniphila strains were orally administered to the mice at a dose of 1 × 109 CFU. Only A. muciniphila FSDLZ36M5 exerted significant protection against ulcerative colitis (UC) by increasing the colon length, restoring body weight, decreasing gut permeability and promoting anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. However, the other strains (FSDLZ39M14, ATCC BAA-835 and FSDLZ20M4) failed to provide these effects. Notably, A. muciniphila FSDLZ20M4 showed a tendency to exacerbate inflammation according to several indicators. Gut microbiota sequencing showed that A. muciniphila FSDLZ36M5 supplementation recovered the gut microbiota of mice to a similar state to that of the control group. A comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the positive effects of A. muciniphila FSDLZ36M5 compared with the FSDLZ20M4 strain may be associated with specific functional genes that are involved in immune defense mechanisms and protein synthesis. Our results verify the efficacy of A. muciniphila in improving UC and provide gene targets for the efficient and rapid screening of A. muciniphila strains with UC-alleviating effects.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Akkermansia , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Verrucomicrobia
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 736129, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447391

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the protection of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM8661, a candidate probiotic with excellent benzopyrene (B[a]P)-binding capacity in vitro, against B[a]P-induced toxicity in the colon and brain of mice. Mice that received B[a]P alone served as the model group. Each mouse in the L. plantarum treatment groups were administered 2×109 colony forming unit (CFU) of L. plantarum strains once daily, followed by an oral dose of B[a]P at 50 mg/kg body weight. Behavior, biochemical indicators in the colon and brain tissue, and the gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels in the gut were investigated. Compared to the treatment in the model group, CCFM8661 treatment effectively reduced oxidative stress in the brain, improved behavioral performance, increased intestinal barrier integrity, and alleviated histopathological changes in mice. Moreover, CCFM8661 increased the gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Ruminococcus and Lachnospiraceae and reduced the abundance of pro-inflammatory Turicibacter spp. Additionally, the production of SCFAs was significantly increased by L. plantarum CCFM8661. Our results suggest that CCFM8661 is effective against acute B[a]P-induced toxicity in mice and that it can be considered as an effective and easy dietary intervention against B[a]P toxicity.

6.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 9117805, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195297

RESUMO

Although the strain-dependent effects of Bacteroides vulgatus on alleviating intestinal inflammatory diseases have been demonstrated, the literature has rarely focused on the underlying causes of this effect. In this study, we selected four B. vulgatus strains (FTJS5K1, FTJS7K1, FSDTA11B14, and FSDLZ51K1) with different genomic characteristics and evaluated their protective roles against dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis. Compared to the other three tested strains, B. vulgatus 7K1 more strongly ameliorated the DSS-induced weight loss, shortening of the colon length, increased disease activity index scores, colonic tissue injury, and immunomodulatory disorder. In contrast, B. vulgatus 51K1 significantly worsened the DSS-induced alterations in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration and colonic histopathology. A comparative genomic analysis of B. vulgatus 7K1 and 51K1 showed that the beneficial effects of B. vulgatus 7K1 may be associated with some of its specific genes involved in the production of short-chain fatty acids or capsular polysaccharides and enhancement of its survivability in the gut. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the supplementation of B. vulgatus 7K1 is a potentially efficacious intervention for alleviating colitis and provides scientific support for the screening of probiotics with anticolitis effect.

7.
Food Funct ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308455

RESUMO

The role of supplementation with different Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) strains in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear due to the controversial results from animal experiments. In this study, three B. fragilis strains were evaluated for their ability to alleviate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in C57BL/6J mice. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory effects of different B. fragilis strains and the changes they caused in the intestinal microbiota composition, intestinal epithelial permeability, cytokine concentrations, protein expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and the underlying specific genes. The results showed that when orally administered, the different B. fragilis strains exerted different effects on the assessed parameters of the mice. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining showed that the supplementation of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1, but not FJSWX11BF, enhanced the expression of the tight-junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1. Western blot analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 were related to the NF-κB pathway. Genomic analysis suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of FSHCM14E1 may be mediated through specific genes associated with defense mechanisms and the secretion of SCFAs. Overall, this study indicates the therapeutic potential of B. fragilis FSHCM14E1 for the prevention of UC.

8.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(6): 7349-7355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of transitional care and its impact on quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent total laryngectomy. METHODS: The study enrolled 68 patients who were admitted to our hospital and underwent total laryngectomy from January 2017 to January 2019. The subjects were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group. Conventional care was given to the control group (34 cases), while conventional and transitional care was given to the observation group (34 cases). The study sought to compare the self-care ability, health knowledge, satisfaction with nursing, and QoL between the two groups at discharge and 6 months after discharge. RESULT: Compared with the control group, the observation group showed higher scores in self-care ability, more extensive health knowledge, greater satisfaction, and better QoL at 6 months after discharge from the hospital. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Transitional care can effectively improve the following performance in patients, including self-care activity after hospital discharge, health knowledge, and satisfaction with care, medication adherence, and QoL. Transitional care can be considered in a broader application.

9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(8): 1225-1235, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129122

RESUMO

A novel strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain FXJYN30E22T, was isolated from the feces of a healthy woman in Yining county, Xinjiang province, China. This strain was non-spore-forming, bile-resistant, non-motile and rod-shaped. It was found to belong to a single separate group in the Phocaeicola genus based on its 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. Alignments of 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed only a low sequence identity (≤ 95.5 %) between strain FXJYN30E22T and all other Phocaeicola strains in public data bases. The genome (43.0% GC) of strain FXJYN30E22T was sequenced, and used for phylogenetic analysis which showed that strain FXJYN30E22T was most closely related to the type strain Phocaeicola massiliensis JCM 13223T. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) between FXJYN30E22T and P. massiliensis JCM 13223T were 90.4 and 41.9 %, which were lower than the generally accepted species boundaries (94.0 and 70 %, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids were anteiso-branched C15:0 and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. The result of genome annotation and KEGG analysis showed that strain FXJYN30E22T contains a number of genes in polysaccharide and fatty acid synthesis that indicated adaptation to the human gut system. Furthermore, a pbpE (penicillin-binding protein) gene was found in the genome of strain FXJYN30E22T but in no other Phocaeicola species, which suggested this gene might be contribute to the adaptive capacity of strain FXJYN30E22T. Based on our data, strain FXJYN30E22T (= CGMCC1.17870T/KCTC25195T) was classified as a novel Phocaeicola species, and the name Phocaeicola faecalis sp. nov., was proposed.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Food Funct ; 12(15): 6740-6754, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105590

RESUMO

Research studies have shown that Lactobacillus fermentum generally exists in the human gut and has potential health benefits on host health due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, the lack of an effective culture medium for the isolation of L. fermentum has presented a significant obstacle on the path to screen L. fermentum strains from the human intestinal tract with a large diversity of commensal microbes. In this study, a total of 51 Lactobacillus species are detected in 200 human fecal samples and we aim to distinguish L. fermentum from these common existing Lactobacillus species and design a more efficient culture medium for isolating L. fermentum strains from the human gut. Based on antibiotic susceptibility and sugar utilization tests, a new optimized medium called LFMATA containing arabinose as the carbon source and 20 mg L-1 vancomycin, 64 mg L-1 gentamicin and 256 mg L-1 streptomycin was developed. Genotype and phenotype analysis for antibiotic resistance and carbohydrate metabolism showed that though glycometabolism-related genes (araA, xylA, manX, bglX, treP and rbsK) correlated with the carbon utilization of Lactobacillus, the genes conferring resistance to streptomycin (gidB and rpsL) and gentamicin (tlyA) were not directly associated with the antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus strains. This new selective medium greatly increased the efficiency of screening L. fermentum strains from human fecal samples, with the rate of L. fermentum isolation on LFMATA being 10-fold higher than that on LAMVAB.

11.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110331, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053534

RESUMO

The link between the gut microbiome and bone health has begun to attract widespread interest in recent years. The gut microbiome are vital in many diseases involving bone loss. Probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary supplements have been suggested to protect bone health by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. Notably, studying the relationship between the gut microbiome and bone health can provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. This review focuses on the link between the gut microbiome and bone diseases, exploring current knowledge of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria affect bone health. In addition, the influences of dietary supplements on the interactions between the gut microbiome and bone health are discussed. This knowledge will promote new ideas for gut microbiota-mediated dietary interventions in patients with bone diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Densidade Óssea , Dieta , Humanos , Prebióticos
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794601

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the gender difference of clinical features in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and explore the relationship between OSAHS and gender. Methods:4499 patients with OSAHS were examined by polysomnography (PSG) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Subjects were divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to the severity of OSAHS. The results were compared and analyzed between male and female patients. Results:The ESS score of female patients was lower than that of male, and difference was still significant in moderate and severe subgroups[8.0(4.0, 13.0) vs 10.0(5.0, 15.0), P<0.05]. The apnea hypopnea index(AHI) of female patients was significantly lower than that of male patients[22.8(11.6, 43.1) vs 35.7(16.5, 61.3), P<0.05]. Compared with male patients, female patients had older age, smaller neck circumference, smaller body mass index(BMI) and higher lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and the difference mentioned above was most significant in severe subgroup(P<0.05). Difference was also found in the distribution of severity between male and female patients. Conclusion:The age of onset, daytime sleepiness, neck circumference, BMI index, lowest blood oxygen saturation, sleep time and OSAHS severity are different between male and female, suggesting that there are gender differences in OSAHS patients. Therefore, in clinical diagnosis and treatment of female patients, more attention should be paid to atypical symptoms, and the ESS scale should be modified to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of female OSAHS patients, to actively intervene and improve their prognosis.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polissonografia , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
13.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3476-3492, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900330

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) species are widely used to prevent and treat ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, phylogenetic and pan-genomic characterization of 122 B. longum strains was performed on the basis of 936 core genes; among these, four strains from different branches of the phylogenetic tree were selected for an evaluation of anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Among the tested B. longum strains (B. longum FBJ20M1, B. longum FGDLZ8M1, B. longum FGSZY16M3, and B. longum FJSWXJ2M1), B. longum FGDLZ8M1 was found to most effectively alleviate colitis by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, restoring the colon length, and maintaining the mucosal integrity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 were related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Genomic analysis indicated that these protective effects of B. longum FGDLZ8M1 may be related to specific genes associated with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and defense mechanisms (e.g., tolerance to bile salts and acids). Correlation analysis indicated that gastrointestinal transit tolerance was the most strongly associated factor. Our findings may contribute to the rapid screening of lactic acid bacterial strains with UC-alleviating effects.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Bifidobacterium longum/classificação , Bifidobacterium longum/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Filogenia
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 655258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816357

RESUMO

Constipation is a prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that seriously reduces the quality of life. Clinical studies have shown that a great change or severe imbalance occurs in the intestinal microbiota of people with constipation. This study explored whether bacteriocin-producing and non-bacteriocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici strains resulted in differences in the alleviation of constipation and changes in the fecal flora in BALB/c mice. The constipation-related indicators, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and gut microbiota were identified to evaluate their alleviating effects and underlying mechanisms. The time to the first black-stool defecation and the gastrointestinal transit rate in constipated mice were found to be somewhat improved by four P. acidilactici strains (P > 0.05). Moreover, there were significant differences in the level of most gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in the serum, as well as in the composition and abundance of intestinal microbiota in different groups (P < 0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was significantly increased, but those of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were significantly reduced after the administration of four P. acidilactici strains for 14 d (P < 0.05). The levels of Bacteroides and genera from Enterobacteriaceae were significantly decreased, whereas Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were upregulated when bacteriocin-producing P. acidilactici CCFM18 and CCFM28 strains were provided in the diet (P < 0.05). The results indicated that although constipation-related symptoms were alleviated to only a limited degree, the administration of four P. acidilactici strains effectively regulated the gut flora and provided a potential health benefit to the host, especially the bacteriocin-producing P. acidilactici strains.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pediococcus acidilactici , Animais , Constipação Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Qualidade de Vida
15.
J Med Food ; 24(3): 319-330, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739885

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, and its prevalence continues to increase. Dietary supplements, including probiotics, prebiotics, and plant extracts, have been shown to alleviate diabetes. In this study, the synergistic effects of two types of dietary supplements were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty mice were divided into the following six groups: control, model (induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin), drug (metformin), probiotic (Lactobacillus spp.), formula A (probiotics, plant extracts, and soybean peptide), and formula B (probiotics, prebiotics, and soybean peptide). All three dietary interventions (probiotic, formula A, and formula B groups) significantly reduced the blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance level and effectively improved some biochemical parameters (e.g., chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid level) and regulated gut microbiota. Notably, formula B exhibited a better ability on reducing the blood glucose level, regulating the gut microbiota, and increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels compared with the probiotics alone and formula A. Thus, formula B may exert synergistic protective effects against T2DM through a mechanism involving probiotics and prebiotics of gut microbiota regulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of probiotic dietary supplements to the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Camundongos , Prebióticos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525627

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the potential mechanisms. SD rats underwent gavage with each B. longum strain (CCFM 1077, I3, J3 and B3) daily for 28 days. B. longum CCFM 1077 exerted the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect, followed by B. longum I3 and B3, whereas B. longum B3 had no effect in alleviating hypercholesterolemia. Divergent alleviation of different B. longum strains on hypercholesterolemia can be attributed to the differences in bile salt deconjugation ability and cholesterol assimilation ability in vitro. By 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis, the relative abundance of beneficial genus increased in the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment group. The expression of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were also altered after the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment. In conclusion, B. longum exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to differences in bacterial characteristics, bile salt deconjugation ability, cholesterol assimilation ability, expressions of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bifidobacterium longum/fisiologia , Colesterol/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium longum/classificação , Colesterol/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Metagenômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2354-2377, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629669

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence shows the potential role of probiotics in ameliorating multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the effects of probiotics on MS remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics on multiple sclerosis by systematically reviewing the preclinical trials (animal trials) and performing meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane central of randomized clinical trials, EMBASE, Clinical Trials, and a search engine Google Scholar were systematically searched and manually screened updated to November 2020, resulting in eligible 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 22 preclinical studies. Meta-analysis of RCTs enrolling 173 patients with MS receiving probiotics revealed significant beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health (expanded disability status scale scores: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.22; I2 = 92%; 95% CI, -2.40 to -0.03, P = 0.04; Beck depression inventory total scores: SMD = -1.58; I2 = 94%; 95% CI, -3.03 to -0.12; P = 0.03; general health questionnaire scores: SMD = -0.71; I2 = 0%; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.40; P < 0.00001; depression anxiety and stress scale scores: SMD = -0.72; I2 = 0%; 95% CI, -1.12 to -0.33; P = 0.0003), with very low certainty of evidence. In addition, probiotic intake markedly improved insulin resistance and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Preclinical studies have shown that probiotic consumption reduces the incidence and severity of MS, delays MS progression (15 studies), and improves motor impairment (3 studies) with favorable alterations of immune and inflammatory markers (20 studies) and intestinal microbiome compositions (4 studies) in MS. These results indicated that probiotics may have beneficial effects on the prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 258: 117651, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593539

RESUMO

Intestinal mucins glycosylation is regulated by host cues and environmental signals from the microbiome and diets. However, the mechanisms responsible for the dialogue between these three factors and mucin glycosylation in the digestive environment of the host are not well understood. In this review, the dynamic alterations of mucin glycosylation induced by immune responses to gut diseases are summarized. The various types of interactions between mucin glycans and gut microbes, including adhesins, glycosidases, metabolic products and surface components, are discussed. The mechanisms that determine how dietary components (fat, fiber, prebiotics, protein, and food additives) affect intestinal mucin glycosylation and maintain mucosal homeostasis are identified. A potential framework for individualized dietary recommendations is proposed for the prevention of abnormal mucin glycosylation driven by immune dysregulation, gut microbiome alterations and other factors. This review may provide a basis for future research on glycosylation-inspired therapies for gut diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicosilação , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Prebióticos , Coelhos
19.
Chemosphere ; 275: 129973, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639553

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) is widely used in daily production and life due to its good emulsification. In this review, we discuss toxicology studies that examined behavioral disorders caused by NP, the corresponding toxicological mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS), and strategies for protection. Available in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that exposure to NP during adulthood or early childhood is associated with cognitive dysfunction, including depression-like behaviors, anxiety-like behaviors, and impaired learning and memory. The main mechanisms underlying NP-related cognitive disorders include inflammation, destruction of synaptic plasticity, and destruction of important signaling pathways that affect the synthesis and secretion of neurotransmitters. The effects and mechanisms of NP exposure on CNS-mediated reproductive function, including interference with the expression of hormones, proteins, and enzymes, are discussed. Other abnormal behaviors such as locomotor activity and swimming behavior are also described. Several measures to prevent NP neurotoxicity are summarized. These measures are based on the toxicological mechanisms underlying NP exposure and include external protection and internal self-regulation of the nervous system. Finally, a new treatment idea is proposed based on the gut-brain axis. Characterizing the behavioral changes and underlying toxicity mechanisms associated with NP exposure and investigating the possible methods of treatment will help to expand the understanding of these mechanisms and could lead to more effective treatments.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal , Fenóis , Adulto , Ansiedade , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Memória , Fenóis/toxicidade
20.
Food Funct ; 12(3): 1121-1134, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427835

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic intestinal disorder accompanied by low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Several studies have indicated that Lactobacillus supplementation can help to alleviate IBS symptoms and that these effects are strain-specific. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the key physiological characteristics and functional genes contributing to the IBS-alleviating effects of Lactobacillus. An IBS model was established by subjecting C57BL/6 mice to Citrobacter rodentium ingestion and water avoidance stress. Lactobacillus strains with different physiological characteristics were administered to mice intragastrically for 4 weeks (5 × 109 CFU/0.2 mL per mouse per day). Indicators of colonic inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, and gut microbiota were also evaluated. Finally, differences in functional genes between Lactobacillus strains were analyzed by a comparative genomic analysis, and the relationships between the physiological characteristics, functional genes, and IBS-alleviating effects of the strains were quantified using correlation analysis. Among the eight tested Lactobacillus strains, only Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 significantly inhibited the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, PAR-2, and mast cell tryptase. L. plantarum CCFM8610 also significantly increased the intestinal barrier function, inhibited visceral hypersensitivity symptoms, and modulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition. The correlation analysis of factors associated with the IBS-alleviating effects of Lactobacillus revealed the ability to synthesize conjugated linoleic acid as the most strongly associated physiological characteristic and COG1028-related genes as the most strongly associated functional genes. In conclusion, these findings can facilitate the rapid screening of Lactobacillus strains with IBS-alleviating effects and lay a foundation for studies of the related mechanisms.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/genética , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Citrobacter rodentium , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor PAR-2/genética , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Triptases/metabolismo
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