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1.
Nanoscale ; 12(4): 2787-2792, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960875

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) integration is a promising strategy to integrate more functions into a given footprint. In this work, we report on a convenient new strategy to grow and integrate high density Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays on the parallel sidewall grooves formed by Bosch etching, via a low temperature (<350 °C) in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism. It is observed that both the pitch and the depth of the grooves can be reliably controlled, by tuning the Bosch etching parameters, to adjust the density of SiNWs, and the sidewall growth of SiNWs is rather stable even along the turnings. This approach has demonstrated a facile batch-manufacturing of stacked SiNWs, where the SiNWs exhibit a mean diameter of 40 nm and a spacing of 100 nm, without the use of any high resolution lithography. Prototype stacked channel transistors are also fabricated, with an impressive on/off current of >107 and a hole mobility of 57 cm2 V-1 s-1, in a unique vertical side-gate configuration. These results highlight the unique potential and benefit of combining conventional Bosch processing with high precision 3D guided growth of SiNWs for constructing more complex and functional stacked channel electronics.

2.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(1): e1901342, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794161

RESUMO

Implanted pacemakers are usually bulky and rigid electronics that are constraint by limited battery lifetimes, and need to be installed and repaired via surgeries that risk secondary infection and injury. In this work, a flexible self-powered photoelectric cardiac stimulator is demonstrated based on hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) radial p-i-n junctions (RJs), constructed upon standing Si nanowires grown directly on aluminum thin foils. The flexible RJ stimulators, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V and short-circuit current density of 12.7 mA cm-2 under standard AM1.5G illumination, can be conformally attached to the uneven tissue surface to pace heart-beating under modulated 650 nm laser illumination. In vivo pacing evaluations on porcine hearts show that the heart rate can be effectively controlled by the external photoelectric stimulations, to increase from the normal rate of 101-128 beating min-1 . Importantly, the a-Si:H RJ units are highly biofriendly and biodegradable, with tunable lifetimes in phosphate-buffered saline environment controlled by surface coating and passivation, catering to the needs of short term or lasting cardiac pacing applications. This implantable a-Si:H RJ photoelectric stimulation strategy has the potential to establish eventually a self-powered, biocompatible, and conformable cardiac pacing technology for clinical therapy.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 31(14): 145602, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860876

RESUMO

Germanium quantum dots (GeQDs), addressed by self-aligned and epitaxial silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electrodes, represent the most fundamental and the smallest units that can be integrated into Si optoelectronics for 1550 nm wavelength detection. In this work, individual GeQD photodetectors have been fabricated based on a low temperature self-condensation of uniform amorphous Si (a-Si)/a-Ge bilayers at 300 °C, led by rolling indium (In) droplets. Remarkably, the diameter of the GeQD nodes can be independently controlled to achieve wider GeQDs for maximizing infrared absorption with narrower SiNW electrodes to ensure a high quality Ge/Si hetero-epitaxial connection. Importantly, these hetero GeQD/SiNW photodetectors can be deployed into predesigned locations for scalable device fabrication. The photodetectors demonstrate a responsivity of 1.5 mA W-1 and a photoconductive gain exceeding 102 to the communication wavelength signals, which are related to the beneficial type-II Ge/Si alignment, gradient Ge/Si epitaxial transition and a larger QD/NW diameter ratio. These results indicate a new approach to batch-fabricate and integrate GeQDs for ultra-compact Si-compatible photodetection and imaging applications.

4.
Opt Express ; 27(26): 37248-37256, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878508

RESUMO

Geometry and doping control in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are both crucial aspects in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) radial junction thin film solar cells, while the coupling between them remains a peculiar aspect to be better understood. In this work, we focus on the geometry evolution and the doping effects realized in tin-catalyzed SiNWs grown via a plasma-enhanced vapor-liquid-solid procedure by using different diborane (B2H6) dopant flows. It is shown that with the increase of B2H6 flow rate from 0.3 to 2.1 SCCM, the radial growth of SiNWs is greatly accelerated by more than 30%, while the length is shortened to 50%. This can be related to the enhanced chemisorption probability of SiHx radicals, with the addition of B2H6, on the SiNW sidewall during silane (SiH4) plasma deposition in PECVD system, which leads to easier nucleation directly on the sidewalls and faster radial expansion of the SiNWs. A trade-off has to be sought between seeking a strong light trapping and ensuring a sufficient doping for high-quality PIN junction with the increase of B2H6 doping flow. These new understandings lay a critical basis for understanding and searching for an optimal growth control for constructing high-performance 3D radial junction thin-film solar cells.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19752, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875005

RESUMO

In this work, three-dimensional (3D) radial heterojunction photodetectors (PD) were constructed over vertical crystalline Si nanowires (SiNWs), with stacked hydrogenated amorphous germanium (a-Ge:H)/a-Si:H thin film layer as absorbers. The hetero absorber layer is designed to benefit from the type-II band alignment at the a-Ge/a-Si hetero-interface, which could help to enable an automated photo-carrier separation without exterior power supply. By inserting a carefully controlled a-Si passivation layer between the a-Ge:H layer and the p-type SiNWs, we demonstrate first a convenient fabrication of a new hetero a-Ge/a-Si structure operating as self-powered photodetectors (PD) in the near-infrared (NIR) range up to 900 nm, indicating a potential to serve as low cost, flexible and high performance radial junction sensing units for NIR imaging and PD applications.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e1903945, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746050

RESUMO

Silicon and other inorganic semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been extensively investigated in the last two decades for constructing high-performance nanoelectronics, sensors, and optoelectronics. For many of these applications, these tiny building blocks have to be integrated into the existing planar electronic platform, where precise location, orientation, and layout controls are indispensable. In the advent of More-than-Moore's era, there are also emerging demands for a programmable growth engineering of the geometry, composition, and line-shape of NWs on planar or out-of-plane 3D sidewall surfaces. Here, the critical technologies established for synthesis, transferring, and assembly of NWs upon planar surface are examined; then, the recent progress of in-plane growth of horizontal NWs directly upon crystalline or patterned substrates, constrained by using nanochannels, an epitaxial interface, or amorphous thin film precursors is discussed. Finally, the unique capabilities of planar growth of NWs in achieving precise guided growth control, programmable geometry, composition, and line-shape engineering are reviewed, followed by their latest device applications in building high-performance field-effect transistors, photodetectors, stretchable electronics, and 3D stacked-channel integration.

7.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-15, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502515

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors in a sample of Chinese migrant workers. It also examined the mediating role of alexithymia and social support in the link between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors. A total of 1,563 migrant workers were surveyed by using cluster sampling. Results showed that the estimated lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among Chinese migrant workers was 12.8%, 8.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed a significant positive association between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors; this association was partially mediated by social support. A significant path from childhood abuse through alexithymia and social support to suicidal behaviors was also established. Findings of this study emphasize the importance of social support and alexithymia in understanding the possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidal behaviors and suggest possible avenues for suicide interventions.

8.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10359-10365, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480845

RESUMO

The actual light absorption photovoltaic responses realized in three-dimensional (3D) radial junction (RJ) units can be rather different from their planar counterparts and remain largely unexplored. We here adopt a laser excitation photoelectric microscope (LEPM) technology to probe the local light harvesting and photoelectric signals of 3D hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) RJ thin film solar cells constructed over a Si nanowire (SiNW) matrix, with a high spatial resolution of 600 nm thanks to the use of a high numerical aperture objective. The LEPM scan can help to resolve clearly the impacts of local structural damages, which are invisible to optical and SEM observations. More importantly, the high-resolution photoelectric mapping establishes a straightforward link between the local 3D geometry of RJ units and their light conversion performance. Surprisingly, it is found that the maximal photoelectric signals are usually recorded in the void locations among the standing SiNW RJs, instead of the overhead positions above the RJs. This phenomenon can be well explained and reproduced by finite element simulation analysis, which highlights unambiguously the dominant contribution of inter-RJ-unit scattering against direct mode incoupling in the 3D solar cell architecture. This LEPM mapping technology and the results help to achieve a straightforward and high-resolution evaluation of the local photovoltaic responses among the 3D RJ units, providing a solid basis for further structural optimization and performance improvement.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6235-6243, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415178

RESUMO

Assembling nanoscale building blocks into an orderly network with a programmable layout and channel designs represents a critical capability to enable a wide range of stretchable electronics. Here, we demonstrate the growth-in-place integration of silicon nanowire (SiNW) springs into highly stretchable, transparent, and quasicontinuous functional networks with a close to unity interconnection among the discrete electrode joints because of a unique double-lane/double-step guiding edge design. The SiNW networks can be reliably transferred to a soft elastomer substrate, conformally attached to highly curved surfaces, or deployed as self-supporting/movable membranes suspended over voids. A high stretchability of >40% is achieved for the SiNW network on an elastomer, which can be employed as a transparent and semiconducting thin-film material endowed with a high carrier mobility of >50 cm2/(V s), Ion/Ioff ratio >104, and a tunable transmission of >80% over a wide spectrum range. Reversibly stretchable and bendable sensors based on the SiNW network have been successfully demonstrated, where the local strain distribution within the spring network can be directly observed and analyzed by finite element simulations. This SiNW network has a unique potential to eventually establish a new generically purposed waferlike platform for constructing soft electronics with Si-based hard performances.

10.
Nanoscale ; 11(31): 14777-14784, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353390

RESUMO

Plasmonic metal nanoparticles in conjunction with the cavity mode resonance in crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanopillars (NPs) can help achieve strongly enhanced broadband light absorption far beyond the limit of bulk c-Si. However, a major concern arises from the stability of metal nanoparticles, particularly at a high temperature, as the diffusion and conglomeration of the nanoparticles will undermine the very basis for the advantageous plasmonic effect. We here carried out a systematic investigation of the thermal stability of different metal nanoparticles coated on 3D Si-based NPs and found that simple Al2O3 encapsulation could help stabilize the gold (Au) particles coated on Si NPs even when subjected to annealing at >1073 K while accomplishing excellent broadband optical absorption (∼95%) from 200 nm to 2500 nm. This could be assigned mainly to the excellent dispersion retention capability of the Al2O3-encapsulated Au nanoparticles and the beneficial plasmon resonance absorption among the Au nanoparticles and Si NPs, as also revealed from the FDTD simulation analysis. Finally, a rapid vapor generation application was demonstrated based on the optimized Au/Si NPs, where salt water drops could be directly injected onto the high-temperature photo-heated Au/Si NPs and could vaporize/bounce off quickly without leaving any salt precipitation on the surface. This new strategy can also pave the way for high-performance Si-based photothermal applications.

11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 208, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214812

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) exhibit long electronic carrier diffusion length, high optical absorption coefficient, and impressive photovoltaic device performance. At the core of any optoelectronic device lie the charge transport properties, especially the microscopic mechanism of scattering, which must efficiently affect the device function. In this work, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) films were fabricated by a vapor solution reaction method. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements were introduced to investigate the scattering mechanism in MAPbI3 films. Two kinds of temperature-mobility behaviors were identified in different thermal treatment MAPbI3 films, indicating different scattering mechanisms during the charge transport process in films. We found that the scattering mechanisms in MAPbI3 films were mainly influenced by the decomposed PbI2 components, which could be easily generated at the perovskite grain boundaries (GBs) by releasing the organic species after annealing at a proper temperature. The passivation effects of PbI2 in MAPbI3 films were investigated and further discussed with emphasis on the scattering mechanism in the charge transport process.

12.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3295-3304, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025869

RESUMO

Photogenerated nonequilibrium hot carriers play a key role in graphene's intriguing optoelectronic properties. Compared to conventional photoexcitation, plasmon excitation can be engineered to enhance and control the generation and dynamics of hot carriers. Here, we report an unusual negative differential photoresponse of plasmon-induced "ultrahot" electrons in a graphene-boron nitride-graphene tunneling junction. We demonstrate nanocrescent gold plasmonic nanostructures that substantially enhance the absorption of long-wavelength photons whose energy is greatly below the tunneling barrier and significantly boost the electron thermalization in graphene. We further analyze the generation and transfer of ultrahot electrons under different bias and power conditions. We find that the competition among thermionic emission, the carrier-cooling effect, and the field effect results in a hitherto unusual negative differential photoresponse in the photocurrent-bias plot. Our results not only exemplify a promising platform for detecting low-energy photons, enhancing the photoresponse, and reducing the dark current but also reveal the critically coupled pathways for harvesting ultrahot carriers.

13.
Nanotechnology ; 30(30): 302001, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849766

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) construction of radial junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells on standing silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is a promising strategy to maximize the light harvesting performance and improve the photocarrier collection in an optimized junction configuration. The unique light in-coupling and absorption behaviour in the antenna-like 3D photonic structures also necessitates a set of new theoretical models and simulation tools to design, predict and optimize the photovoltaic performance of radial junction solar cells, which can be rather different from planar junction solar cells. Recently, the performance of radial junction a-Si:H thin film solar cells has progressed steadily to a level comparable or even superior to that of their planar counterparts, with plenty of room for further improvement. This review will first address the growth strategy and critical parameter control of SiNWs produced via a plasma-assisted low-temperature vapour-liquid-solid procedure using low-melting-point metals as the catalyst. Then, the construction of high-performance radial junction thin film solar cells over the standing SiNW matrix, as well as their optimal structural designs, will be introduced. At the end, the new applications of 3D radial junction units will be summarized, which include, for example, the construction of very flexible, low-cost and efficient a-Si:H solar cells with the highest power-to-weight ratio, the demonstration of highly sensitive solar-blind photodetectors operating at the ultraviolet wavelength spectrum and the development of novel biomimetic radial tandem junction photodetectors with an intrinsic red-green-blue (RGB) colour distinguishing capability.

14.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486261

RESUMO

Inorganic perovskites have emerged as a promising candidate for light-emitting devices due to their high stability and tunable band gap. However, the power consumption and brightness have always been an issue for perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we improved the luminescence intensity and decreased the current density of the PeLEDs based on CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) and p-type Si substrate through an alternating current (AC) driving mode. For the different driving voltage modes (under a sine pulsed bias or square pulsed bias), a frequency-dependent electroluminescent (EL) behavior was observed. The devices under a square pulsed bias present a stronger EL intensity under the same voltage due to less thermal degradation at the interface. The red PeLEDs under a square pulsed bias driving demonstrate that the EL intensity drop-off phenomenon was further improved, and the integrated EL intensity shows the almost linear increase with the increasing driving voltage above 8.5 V. Additionally, compared to the direct current (DC) driving mode, the red PeLEDs under the AC condition exhibit higher operating stability, which is mainly due to the reducing accumulated charges in the devices. Our work provides an effective approach for obtaining strong brightness, low power consumption, and high stability light-emitting devices, which will exert a profound influence on coupling LEDs with household power supplies directly.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6931-6940, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346786

RESUMO

Geometric and compositional modulations are the principal parameters of control to tailor the band profile in germanium/silicon (Ge/Si) heteronanowires (NWs). This has been achieved mainly by alternating the feeding precursors during a uniaxial growth of Ge/Si NWs. In this work, a self-automated growth of Ge/Si hetero island-chain nanowires (hiNWs), consisting of wider c-Ge islands connected by thinner c-Si chains, has been accomplished via an indium (In) droplet-mediated transformation of uniform amorphous a-Si/a-Ge bilayer thin films. The surface-running In droplet enforces a circulative hydrodynamics in the nanoscale droplet, which can modulate the absorption depth into the amorphous bilayer and enable a single-run growth of a superlattice-like hiNWs without the need for any external manipulation. Meanwhile, the separation and accumulation of electrons and holes in the phase-modulated Ge/Si superlattice leads to a modulated surface potential profile that can be directly resolved by Kelvin probe force microscopy. This simple self-assembly growth and modulation dynamics can help to establish a powerful new concept or strategy to tailor and program the geometric and compositional profiles of more complex hetero nanowire structures, as promising building blocks to develop advanced nanoelectronics or optoelectronics.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(7): 1592-1599, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533622

RESUMO

Hybrid perovskite photodetectors (PDs) exhibit outstanding performance in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum but have poor detectability in the deep ultraviolet (DUV) region (200-350 nm). In this work, a novel inorganic-hybrid architecture that incorporates a dual-phase (CsPbBr3-Cs4PbBr6) inorganic perovskite material as a down-conversion window layer and a hybrid perovskite as a light capture layer was prepared to achieve faster, highly sensitive photodetection in the DUV spectrum. A dual-phase inorganic perovskite film coated on the back surface of the photodetector enables strong light absorption and tunes the incident energy into emission bands that are optimized for the perovskite photodetector. The presence of Cs4PbBr6 enhances the capture and down-conversion of the incident DUV light. Due to the down-conversion and transport of the DUV photons, a self-driven perovskite photodetector with this composite structure exhibits a fast response time of 7.8/33.6 µs and a high responsivity of 49.4 mA W-1 at 254 nm without extra power supply.

17.
Small ; 14(7)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266759

RESUMO

Inorganic perovskites with special semiconducting properties and structures have attracted great attention and are regarded as next generation candidates for optoelectronic devices. Herein, using a physical vapor deposition process with a controlled excess of PbBr2 , dual-phase all-inorganic perovskite composite CsPbBr3 -CsPb2 Br5 thin films are prepared as light-harvesting layers and incorporated in a photodetector (PD). The PD has a high responsivity and detectivity of 0.375 A W-1 and 1011 Jones, respectively, and a fast response time (from 10% to 90% of the maximum photocurrent) of ≈280 µs/640 µs. The device also shows an excellent stability in air for more than 65 d without encapsulation. Tetragonal CsPb2 Br5 provides satisfactory passivation to reduce the recombination of the charge carriers, and with its lower free energy, it enhances the stability of the inorganic perovskite devices. Remarkably, the same inorganic perovskite photodetector is also highly flexible and exhibits an exceptional bending performance (>1000 cycles). These results highlight the great potential of dual-phase inorganic perovskite films in the development of optoelectronic devices, especially for flexible device applications.

18.
Nano Lett ; 17(12): 7638-7646, 2017 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189013

RESUMO

Line-shape engineering is a key strategy to endow extra stretchability to 1D silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown with self-assembly processes. We here demonstrate a deterministic line-shape programming of in-plane SiNWs into extremely stretchable springs or arbitrary 2D patterns with the aid of indium droplets that absorb amorphous Si precursor thin film to produce ultralong c-Si NWs along programmed step edges. A reliable and faithful single run growth of c-SiNWs over turning tracks with different local curvatures has been established, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals a high quality monolike crystallinity in the line-shaped engineered SiNW springs. Excitingly, in situ scanning electron microscopy stretching and current-voltage characterizations also demonstrate a superelastic and robust electric transport carried by the SiNW springs even under large stretching of more than 200%. We suggest that this highly reliable line-shape programming approach holds a strong promise to extend the mature c-Si technology into the development of a new generation of high performance biofriendly and stretchable electronics.

19.
Langmuir ; 33(43): 12114-12119, 2017 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954510

RESUMO

We present our systematic work on the in situ generation of In nanoparticles (NPs) from the reduction of ITO thin films by hydrogen (H2) plasma exposure. In contrast to NP deposition from the vapor phase (i.e., evaporation), the ITO surface can be considered to be a solid reservoir of In atoms thanks to H2 plasma reduction. On one hand, below the In melting temperature, solid In NP formation is governed by the island-growth mode, which is a self-limiting process because the H2 plasma/ITO interaction will be gradually eliminated by the growing In NPs that cover the ITO surface. On the other hand, we show that above the melting temperature In droplets prefer to grow along the grain boundaries on the ITO surface and dramatic coalescence occurs when the growing NPs connect with each other. This growth-connection-coalescence behavior is even strengthened on In/ITO bilayers, where In particles larger than 10 µm can be formed, which are made of evaporated In atoms and in situ released ones. Thanks to this understanding, we manage to disperse dense evaporated In NPs under H2 plasma exposure when inserting an ITO layer between them and substrate like c-Si wafer or glass by modifying the substrate surface chemistry. Further studies are needed for more precise control of this self-assembling method. We expect that our findings are not limited to ITO thin films but could be applicable to various metal NPs generation from the corresponding metal oxide thin films.

20.
Nanoscale ; 9(29): 10350-10357, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702558

RESUMO

High mobility, scalable and even transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs) are always being pursued in the field of large area electronics. While excimer laser-beam-scanning can crystallize amorphous Si (a-Si) into high mobility poly-Si, it is limited to small areas. We here demonstrate a robust nano-droplet-scanning strategy that converts an a-Si:H thin film directly into periodic poly-Si nano-channels, with the aid of well-coordinated indium droplets. This enables the robust batch-fabrication of high performance Fin-TFTs with a high hole mobility of >100 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an excellent subthreshold swing of only 163 mV dec-1, via a low temperature <350 °C thin film process. More importantly, precise integration of tiny poly-Si channels, measuring only 60 nm in diameter and 2 µm apart on glass substrates, provides an unprecedented transparent Si-based TFT technology to visible light, which is widely sought for the next generation of high aperture displays and fully transparent electronics. The successful implementation of such a reliable nano-droplet-scanning strategy, rooted in the strength of nanoscale growth dynamics, will enable eventually the batch-manufacturing and upgrade of high performance large area electronics in general, and high definition and scalable flat-panel displays in particular.

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