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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(5): 1649-1653, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the blood group of a patient with DEL phenotype combined with positive direct anti-human globulin test and to analyze the pedigree. METHODS: Routine serological reagents were used for serological analysis of RhD blood group in the pedigree members. Exons and flanking sequences of RHD gene were amplified, sequenced and analyzed for heterozygosity. The familial genetic state of DEL phenotype was further analyze in the family members. RESULTS: The DAT was strongly positive in the proband. The 1227G>A allele (RHD*DEL1) was present in the exon 9 of RHD gene, and the mother was the carrier of RHD*DEL1. The proband was identified as RHD+/RHD-, suggesting the CD1227Ae/Cde haplotype. CONCLUSION: The proband is DEL phenotype (RHD*DEL1).

2.
Gastric Cancer ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is found in various types of cancers and also showed its association with the occurrence and development of gastric cancer (GC). We found lncRNA COL1A1-014 was frequently upregulated in GC. METHODS: This study investigated COL1A1-014 for its biological function at both cellular and animal levels, using MTT, flow cytometry, colony formation and transwell assays. The expression levels of COL1A1-014 and other genes were detected by RT-PCR and western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the potential binding of miR-1273h-5p to COL1A1-014 and CXCL12. RESULTS: We found that COL1A1-014 was frequently upregulated in GC tissues as well as cells. COL1A1-014 increased cell proliferation, colony forming efficiency, migration ability, invasion ability, and weight and volume of grafted tumors, while reduced cell apoptosis. Overexpression of COL1A1-014 increased the mRNA expression of chemokine (CXCmotif) ligand (CXCL12) and high levels of CXCL12 and CXCR4 proteins in GC cells. The levels of miR-1273h-5p showed an inverse correlation with COL1A1-014 and CXCL12 in GC cells transfected with miR-1273h-5p. The mRNAs of wild-type COL1A1-014 and CXCL12 showed reduction in HEK293 cells transfected with miR-1273h-5p. This suggested that COL1A1-014 functions as an efficient miR-1273h-5p sponge and as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to regulate CXCL12. The proliferative activity of COL1A1-014 on GC cells was blocked by CXCL12-CXCR4 axis inhibitor AMD-3100. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated that COL1A1-014 play an important regulatory role in GC development by functioning as a ceRNA in regulating the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis via sponging miR-1273h-5p.

3.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 1006-1014, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474723

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been considered as one of important active components in a number of medicinal herbs. Recently our group demonstrated that caffeoyl salicylate scaffold derived from CGA can be employed for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents. The most active compound D104 can be a very promising starting point for the further structural optimization. A series of novel caffeoyl salicylate analogs were designed, synthesized, and evaluated by preliminary biological evaluation. The obtained results showed that the two compounds B12 and B13 can not only inhibit production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) effectively, but also have high safety in in vitro cytotoxic test, which could be comparable with D104. Molecular docking study on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein revealed that compounds B12 and B13 can follow the same binding mode with D104, and the carboxyl group of caffeoyl salicylate scaffold might play a key role in the interaction with protein target, which implied the carboxyl group should be retained in the further optimization.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/química , Células A549 , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Células RAW 264.7
4.
J Nat Med ; 73(4): 777-788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243669

RESUMO

Sanguinarine (SAN), a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid extracted from the root of Papaveraceae plants, has shown antitumour effects in multiple cancer cells. However, the therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of SAN in gastric cancer (GC) remain elusive. In this study, the in vitro proliferation inhibition effect of SAN in GC cells was determined using CCK-8 assay, the in vivo antitumor effect of SAN was evaluated in mice with xenotransplanted tumor. The mechanism underlying the antitumor activity of SAN was explored by gene microarray assay and bioinformatics analysis. The levels of differentially expressed miRNAs and target genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. SAN inhibited the proliferation of BGC-823 cells in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The miR-96-5p and miR-29c-3p were significantly upregulated in untreated BGC-823 cells and significantly downregulated in SAN treated cells. The mRNA and protein expression of their target gene MAP4K4 were upregulated in SAN treated xenotransplanted tumors, and pMEK4 and pJNK1 proteins in the MAPK/JNK signaling pathway were also upregulated by SAN. These indicate that SAN may inhibit the proliferation of BGC-823 cells through the inhibition of miR-96-5p and miR-29c-3p expression, and subsequent activation of the MAPK/JNK signaling pathway.

5.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(8): 1792-1800, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219017

RESUMO

Since the discovery of exosomes, their potential diagnostic value has been the focus of considerable research. However, the lack of a rapid and simple technique for the quantitative analysis of exosomes greatly limits the application of exosomes in clinical research. In this study, we describe a newly developed one-step chemiluminescence immunoassay for the rapid quantitative analysis of exosomes from biofluids. Our new technique, named ExoNANO, adopts a double-antibody sandwich strategy using anti-CD63 antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SIOPs) and acridinium ester (ACE)-labeled anti-CD9 antibodies. SIOPs have narrow size distribution and high magnetic susceptibility, and ACE has excellent chemiluminescent properties such as low background signal and no need for a catalyst. We demonstrated that ExoNANO allows the quantitative analysis of exosomes in the range of 2.92 ×105 to 2.80×108 particles/µL, with a limit of detection of 2.63×105 particles/µL. Using ExoNANO, we quantified exosomes in cell culture medium and clinical biofluids such as serum, saliva, ascitic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. We believe that ExoNANO might pave the way for the rapid isolation and quantitative analysis of exosomes for routine clinical applications.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Compostos Férricos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3061-3068, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes mellitus. While lifestyle changes can reduce diabetes risk, it is unclear whether improved lifestyle can slow or reverse DN progression. This study evaluated whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (IL-I) targeting weight loss and inflammation through increased physical activity and reduced caloric intake can delay DN progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Both groups received diet and exercise guidelines, but one (IL-I) received more frequent external support than the other (control). We compared markers of metabolic and cardiovascular health, redox status, inflammation, and renal function between groups at 3 and 6 months. Metabolic and cardiovascular metrics included BMI, blood pressure, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and serum HDL-cholesterol. Redox status was evaluated by serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the lipid oxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), while inflammation was assessed by serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Renal function was assessed by urine/serum 8-OHdG, albumin: creatinine ratio (ACR), and the renal fibrosis marker TGF-ß1. RESULTS Both groups demonstrated initial BMI reduction, lower HbA1c, and higher HDL-cholesterol, but changes were significantly larger in the IL-I group at 6 months. Blood pressure at 6 months was reduced only in the IL-I group. The IL-I group also achieved a greater sustained SOD increase and MDA reduction. Finally, only the IL-I group demonstrated significant reductions in urine ACR, serum/urine 8-OHdG, and plasma TGF-ß1. These indicators deteriorated after IL-I was stopped. CONCLUSIONS Lifestyle changes including exercise and diet can delay renal damage and promote improvement from DN.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6908-6913, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877258

RESUMO

Rapid phenotypic changes in traits of adaptive significance are crucial for organisms to thrive in changing environments. How such phenotypic variation is achieved rapidly, despite limited genetic variation in species that experience a genetic bottleneck is unknown. Capsella rubella, an annual and inbreeding forb (Brassicaceae), is a great system for studying this basic question. Its distribution is wider than those of its congeneric species, despite an extreme genetic bottleneck event that severely diminished its genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate that transposable elements (TEs) are an important source of genetic variation that could account for its high phenotypic diversity. TEs are (i) highly enriched in C. rubella compared with its outcrossing sister species Capsella grandiflora, and (ii) 4.2% of polymorphic TEs in C. rubella are associated with variation in the expression levels of their adjacent genes. Furthermore, we show that frequent TE insertions at FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in natural populations of C. rubella could explain 12.5% of the natural variation in flowering time, a key life history trait correlated with fitness and adaptation. In particular, we show that a recent TE insertion at the 3' UTR of FLC affects mRNA stability, which results in reducing its steady-state expression levels, to promote the onset of flowering. Our results highlight that TE insertions can drive rapid phenotypic variation, which could potentially help with adaptation to changing environments in a species with limited standing genetic variation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Capsella , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Capsella/genética , Capsella/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/biossíntese , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Plant Cell ; 31(5): 1012-1025, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886128

RESUMO

According to the less-is-more hypothesis, gene loss is an engine for evolutionary change. Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations resulting in the natural knockout of protein-coding genes not only provide information about gene function but also play important roles in adaptation and phenotypic diversification. Although the less-is-more hypothesis was proposed two decades ago, it remains to be explored on a large scale. In this study, we identified 60,819 LoF variants in 1071 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genomes and found that 34% of Arabidopsis protein-coding genes annotated in the Columbia-0 genome do not have any LoF variants. We found that nucleotide diversity, transposable element density, and gene family size are strongly correlated with the presence of LoF variants. Intriguingly, 0.9% of LoF variants with minor allele frequency larger than 0.5% are associated with climate change. In addition, in the Yangtze River basin population, 1% of genes with LoF mutations were under positive selection, providing important insights into the contribution of LoF mutations to adaptation. In particular, our results demonstrate that LoF mutations shape diverse phenotypic traits. Overall, our results highlight the importance of the LoF variants for the adaptation and phenotypic diversification of plants.

9.
Peptides ; 112: 139-148, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552913

RESUMO

Trichomoniasis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, and prolonged persistence may lead to serious ill effects in patients. Thus, the development of new therapeutic strategies to combat drug-resistant T. vaginalis would be clinically beneficial. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) comprise an emerging class of molecules that may serve as effective alternatives to antibiotics. In this report, we demonstrate that the synthetic fish AMP, Epinecidin-1 (Epi-1), acts against T. vaginalis both in vitro and in vivo. Under in vitro conditions, Epi-1 disrupted the membrane of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis and completely killed the pathogen. To mimic human infection in vivo, estradiol-stimulated mice with vaginal Lactobacillus acidophilus colonization were infected with T. vaginalis, followed by treatment with Epi-1, Vigill, metronidazole or furazolidone. After seven days, the T. vaginalis content was effectively decreased in Epi-1 treated mice, as measured by acridine orange staining of wet smears and tissue biopsies, as well as qPCR of vaginal discharge DNA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Epi-1 is a strong candidate for development as an alternative therapeutic for T. vaginalis infection.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Peixes/uso terapêutico , Tricomoníase/tratamento farmacológico , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 509(2): 448-454, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594392

RESUMO

Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified but few have been functionally characterized in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). LINC00152 was known as cytoskeleton regulator RNA (CYTOR) and expressed in various cancers including breast cancer. But the underlying molecular mechanism of LINC00152 in pathogenesis of TNBC have not been elucidated. In our study, we identified that LINC00152 expression was dramatically elevated in TNBC tissue and cells. Inhibition or overexpression of LINC00152 obviously increased or suppressed PTEN protein expression but did not affect the mRNA expression level. Our further experiments showed up-regulated LINC00152 in TNBC obviously enhanced NEDD4-1 mediated ubiquitination and degradation of PTEN protein. Finally, we demonstrated that YY1 bound with LINC00152 promotor and mostly inhibited the transcription of LINC00152. Furthermore, analysis of clinical samples resource retrieved from databases suggested high LINC00152 expression was correlated with ER or PR negative expression, late TNM stage and lymphatic invasion, as well as shorter overall survival time in patients. Consequently, this study firstly reveals that up-regulated LINC00152 mediates PTEN protein stability attenuation in TNBC.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ubiquitinação , Fator de Transcrição YY1/metabolismo
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488322

RESUMO

Vibrio cholerae, which is autochthonous to estuaries worldwide, can cause human cholera that is still pandemic in developing countries. A number of V. cholerae isolates of clinical and environmental origin worldwide have been subjected to genome sequencing to address their phylogenesis and bacterial pathogenesis, however, little genome information is available for V. cholerae isolates derived from estuaries, particularly in China. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae CHN108B (non-O1/O139 serogroup) isolated from the Yangtze River Estuary, China and performed comparative genome analysis between CHN108B and other eight representative V. cholerae isolates. The 4,168,545-bp V. cholerae CHN108B genome (47.2% G+C) consists of two circular chromosomes with 3,691 predicted protein-encoding genes. It has 110 strain-specific genes, the highest number among the eight representative V. cholerae whole genomes from serogroup O1: there are seven clinical isolates linked to cholera pandemics (1937-2010) and one environmental isolate from Brazil. Various mobile genetic elements (such as insertion sequences, prophages, integrative and conjugative elements, and super-integrons) were identified in the nine V. cholerae genomes of clinical and environmental origin, indicating that the bacterium undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer. Comparative genomics also revealed different virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene patterns among the V. cholerae isolates, suggesting some potential virulence factors and the rising development of resistance among pathogenic V. cholerae. Additionally, draft genome sequences of multiple V. cholerae isolates recovered from the Yangtze River Estuary were also determined, and comparative genomics revealed many genes involved in specific metabolism pathways, which are likely shaped by the unique estuary environment. These results provide additional evidence of V. cholerae genome plasticity and will facilitate better understanding of the genome evolution and pathogenesis of this severe water-borne pathogen worldwide.

12.
J Cell Biochem ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367509

RESUMO

A rat model of tendon repair was established to investigate the effects of hydrogen water on tendon adhesion reduction. Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal saline (NS) group and a hydrogen water (HS) group according to the processing reagents after a tendon repairing operation. Pre- and postoperative superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) in subjects' serum were observed. Skin fibroblasts were grouped into an NS group, H2 O2 group, H2 group, and H2 O2 H2 group. Expressions of Nrf2, CATA, and γ-GCS were also tested by Western blot analysis. 8-OHdG, GSH, MDA, and SOD of the cells were analyzed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The postoperative SOD activity and GSH contents were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), whereas the postoperative MDA level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Similarly, the postoperative HS group showed significantly higher SOD activity and GSH contents (P < 0.05) but lower MDA (P < 0.05) compared with the postoperative NS group. MDA and 8-OHdG were significantly decreased in hydrogen-rich medium, while SOD and GSH were increased. The expression of Nrf2, CATA, and γ-GCS in antioxidant system were reduced after H2 O2 processing, which were restored after the application of hydrogen-rich medium. Hydrogen water can reduce tendon adhesion after tendon repairing and prohibit excessive inflammatory response, which could be associated with the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(17): 3513-3518, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347920

RESUMO

This study is to investigate the effect of antidepressant medicine prescription Dingzhi Xiaowan (DZ) on miR-16 expression levels in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the mechanism of DZ elevated levels of 5-HT from the perspective of post transcriptional regulation. Firstly, a chronic unpredictable mild moderate stimulation (CUMS) combined with solitary rising depression rat model was established, the behavior changes were detected after different doses of DZ (600, 300, 150 mg·kg⁻¹) given for 3 weeks, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect 5-HT level in hippocampal, PCR method was used to observe the effect of DZ on the expression of SERT mRNA and miR-16 in hippocampus of CUMS rat. The effects of DZ (10, 100, 200, 500 mg·L⁻¹) on the expression of miR-16 and SERT mRNA in the cell model induced by miR-16 silencing and corticosterone or glutamate injury were observed in primary cultured hippocampal neurons of rats in vitro. It was found that 300 mg·kg⁻¹ and 600 mg·kg⁻¹ DZ could significantly improve the behavioral score of CUMS rats, increase the level of 5-HT in hippocampus, and increase the expression of miR-16 and decrease the expression of SERT in the hippocampus of rats. At the same time, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons, 100, 200, 500 mg·L⁻¹ of DZ could significantly increase the expression level of miR-16 in miR-16 silencing and corticosterone or glutamate injury cell model, and decrease the expression level of SERT significantly. So DZ could inhibit the reuptake of 5-HT by inhibiting the expression of SERT by up regulating the expression level of miR-16, and finally increase the level of 5-HT in the brain and exert antidepressant effect.

14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218124

RESUMO

A molecular beacon (MB) is an oligonucleotide hybridization probe with a hairpin-shaped structure that leads to specific and instantaneous nucleic acid hybridization, enabling a variety of applications. However, integration of additional module sequences interferes with the performance of MBs and increases the complexity of sequence design. Herein, we develop and characterize a toehold integrated molecular beacon (ToMB) strategy for nucleic acid hybridization, where the reaction rate can be flexibly regulated by a target-induced MB conformational switch. Using this basic mechanism, the ToMB is capable of identifying nucleic acids with high specificity and a wider linearity range compared with the conventional molecular beacon system. We further applied the ToMB to the construction of a hybridization chain reaction system and a basic OR logic gate VJHto explore its programmability and versatility. Our results strongly suggest that the novel ToMB can act as a powerful nano-module to construct universal and multifunctional biosensors or molecular computations. Graphical abstract Molecular beacon is employed as a flexible and switchable spacer to control the toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

15.
Front Oncol ; 8: 290, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109214

RESUMO

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a DNA damage repair mechanism in mammals, but the relationship between NER and human colorectal cancer (HRC) progression has not been clarified yet. In this study, the expression of the NER genes XPA, XPC, XPF, XPG, ERCC1, and XPD was measured in normal and cancerous human colorectal tissue. Among them, only the XPC gene expression was significantly increased in colorectal cancer tissue. To establish the role of XPC in colorectal cancer, small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting XPC was used to knockdown the expression of XPC in HRC cell lines. In addition, an expression vector plasmid containing the XPC cDNA was constructed and stably transfected into HRC cell lines to overexpress the XPC gene. Interestingly, MTT and apoptosis assay demonstrated that XPC gene overexpression significantly increased the susceptibility of HRC cell lines to cisplatin and X-ray radiation. In order to study the relationship between XPC expression and the progression of HRC, XPC expression was measured in 167 patients with colorectal cancer. The results showed that patients with high XPC expression had longer survival time. Cox regression analysis showed that high XPC expression might be a potential predictive factor for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, XPC plays a key role in the susceptibility of colorectal cancer to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation and is associated with a good patients' prognosis.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(5): 2283-2288, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965529

RESUMO

The hydrolysis of sludge organic matter is the rate-limiting step of anaerobic sludge digestion. Because pretreatments can effectively convert the solid organic matter into dissolved organic matter, it can improve the degradation rate and methane conversion rate of organic matter. In this study, the effects of heat and heat-alkaline treatments (two common pretreatments) on the composition, relative molecular weight distribution, and structure of dissolved organic matter in sludge were studied. The results showed that the heat and heat-alkaline treatments released a large amount of organic matter, which resulted in the SCOD increasing 21.9 times (heat treatment) and 47.8 times (heat-alkaline treatment). These pretreatments changed the molecular weight distribution of dissolved organic matter and decreased the molecular weight of the organic matter to the greatest degree. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy showed that both of the pretreatments can hydrolyze protein, the main component of sludge soluble organic matter, with the heat-alkaline treatment being more significant. In dissolved organic matter, the byproducts of the microorganisms and humic acids are not easily hydrolyzed further by the two pretreatments. In addition, the two pretreatments led to the appearance of new organic structures and the change and even disappearance of the original organic matter.

17.
Fitoterapia ; 129: 25-33, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29852263

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity. However, the development of anti-inflammatory agent based on CGA has not been investigated. In this paper, a series of caffeoyl salicylate compounds derived from CGA were designed, synthesized, and evaluated by LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase inhibition and QRT-PCR technique. Most compounds showed modest activity to inhibit production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Among these compounds, QRT-PCR and western blotting results indicated that compounds 6b, 6c, 6f, 6g and D104 that possess 5-member ring or 6-member ring caused a significant inhibition against expression of the iNOS2 in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, cytotoxic assay displayed most derivatives have good safety in vitro. This new promising scaffold could be further exploited for the development of anti-inflammatory agent in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Ácidos Cafeicos/síntese química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Salicilatos/síntese química
18.
Plant Cell ; 30(6): 1322-1336, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764984

RESUMO

Flowering time is an adaptive life history trait. Capsella rubella, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana and a young species, displays extensive variation for flowering time but low standing genetic variation due to an extreme bottleneck event, providing an excellent opportunity to understand how phenotypic diversity can occur with a limited initial gene pool. Here, we demonstrate that common allelic variation and parallel evolution at the FLC locus confer variation in flowering time in C. rubella. We show that two overlapping deletions in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of C. rubella FLC, which are associated with local changes in chromatin conformation and histone modifications, reduce its expression levels and promote flowering. We further show that these two pervasive variants originated independently in natural C. rubella populations after speciation and spread to an intermediate frequency, suggesting a role of this parallel cis-regulatory change in adaptive evolution. Our results provide an example of how parallel mutations in the same 5' UTR region can shape phenotypic evolution in plants.

19.
3 Biotech ; 8(5): 231, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719773

RESUMO

Adaptable exploitation of the catalytic potential of membrane-bound d-sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans is desperately needed in the industrial-scale production of miglitol. In the present study, a carbonyl group-dependent colorimetric quantification method was developed for the assay of miglitol key intermediate 6-(N-hydroxyethyl)-amino-6-deoxy-α-l-sorbofuranose (6NSL), and a high-throughput screening process of positive mutants was processed. Combined with several rounds of ultraviolet irradiation mutagenesis and screening procedure, a positive mutant strain G. oxydans ZJB16009 was obtained with significant increase in mSLDH catalytic activity by 1.5-fold, which exhibited an extremely accelerated uptake rate of d-sorbitol, and the fermentation time was significantly shortened from 22 to 11 h. In a 5-L biotransformation system, 60 g/L substrate N-2-hydroxyethyl glucamine (NHEG) was catalyzed by the resting cells of the mutant strain within 36 h and accumulated 53.6 g/L 6NSL, showing a 33.6% increase in the product yield. Therefore, it was indicated that the established high-throughput screening method could provide a highly efficient platform for the breading of G. oxydans strain for the industrial biosynthesis of miglitol intermediate 6NSL.

20.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2018: 4248971, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707525

RESUMO

Background: Since circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) offers clear advantages as a minimally invasive method for tumor monitoring compared with tumor tissue, we aimed to evaluate genotyping ctDNA using a next-generation sequencing- (NGS-) based panel to identify the prognostic value of mutation status in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with primary tumor resected and with subsequent lines of treatment in this study. Methods: 76 mCRC patients treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2011 to 2017 were enrolled. Genotyping of RAS/BRAF in tumor tissue and ctDNA was determined by ARMS PCR and with a 40-gene panel using NGS, respectively. Patient clinicopathologic features and RAS/BRAF gene mutation status were evaluated by survival analysis for disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Among 76 patients, KRAS distributions were not significantly correlated with any clinicopathologic features. The concordance between tumor tissue and ctDNA KRAS mutation was 81.25%. Mutations of RAS/BRAF had no significant impact on DFS after surgery (hazard ratio (HR), 1.205; 95% CI, 0.618 to 2.349; P = 0.5837) but prognosticated poorer PFS in subsequent first-line therapy (HR, 3.351; 95% CI, 1.172 to 9.576; P = 0.024). Conclusion: ctDNA was comparable with tumor tissue for mutation detection. RAS/BRAF mutations detected in ctDNA predict a worse PFS in mCRC patients with first-line chemotherapy. Our results provide support for the prognostic value of RAS/BRAF ctDNA mutation detection in mCRC patients.

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