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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130741, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399272

RESUMO

Volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSCs) provide an important contribution to foods due to their special odors. In this study, VSCs in 21 cold-pressed rapeseed oils (CROs) from 9 regions in China were extracted and separated by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography coupled with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. 19 VSCs were identified by authentic standards, and the total concentration of VSCs in all CROs ranged from 49.0 to 18129 µg/kg. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), with its high odor activity value (7-14574), was the most significant aroma contributor to the CROs. Furthermore, S-methylmethionine (SMM) in rapeseed was first affirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and isotope quantitation. The positive correlation coefficient between DMS and SMM was 0.793 (p < 0.05), which confirmed SMM as a crucial precursor of DMS in CROs. This study provided a theoretical basis for selecting rapeseed materials by the distribution of essential VSCs and the source of DMS.


Assuntos
Compostos de Enxofre , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus , Sulfetos , Enxofre , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
2.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-22, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complications affect the outcome of patients with cirrhosis. The favorable prognosis of patients with Wilson disease (WD)-related cirrhosis suggests that its complications differ from those of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related cirrhosis. We aimed to delineate the differences in complications between WD-related and HBV-related cirrhosis. METHODS: The electronic-medical data from patients with WD-related and HBV-related cirrhosis were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 211 patients with WD-related cirrhosis and 374 patients with HBV-related cirrhosis were enrolled. Most patients with WD progressed to cirrhosis <10 years after disease onset, whereas those with HBV infection often progressed after >10 years. Patients with WD-related cirrhosis had a markedly lower prevalence of ascites (8.5% vs. 38.5%), gastroesophageal varices/variceal bleeding (13.3% vs. 47.6%), renal impairment (0 vs. 7.6%) and primary liver cancer (0 vs. 39.3%; all P < 0.001) than those with HBV-related cirrhosis. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with WD-related cirrhosis carried a lower risk of varices/variceal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with WD progressed to cirrhosis much faster, the prevalence of complications from WD-related cirrhosis was low. Patients with WD-related cirrhosis were less likely to develop gastroesophageal varices/variceal bleeding than those with HBV-related cirrhosis.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19747, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611234

RESUMO

The objective of the present exploration is to examine the nanoliquid flow amid two horizontal infinite plates. The lower plate is stretchable and permeable. The uniqueness of the flow model is assimilated with the Hall effect, variable thermal conductivity, thermal radiation, and irregular heat source/sink. Transmission of mass is enhanced with the impression of chemical reaction incorporated with activation energy. Appropriate similarity transformation is applied to transform the formulated problem into ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The numerical solution is obtained by employing MATLAB software function bvp4c. The dimensionless parameters are graphically illustrated and discussed for the involved profiles. An increasing behavior is exhibited by the temperature field on escalating the Brownian motion, thermophoresis parameter, variable thermal conductivity, and radiation parameter. For larger values of Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameter, the concentration profile deteriorates, while a reverse trend is seen for activation energy. The rate of heat transfer is strengthened at the lower wall on amplifying the Prandtl number. A comparative analysis of the present investigation with already published work is also added to substantiate the envisioned problem.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proximal humerus fracture (PHF) is the third most common fragility fracture. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both risks for fragility fractures; however, the interplay of DM and CKD makes treatment outcomes unpredictable. This study aimed to investigate and compare early and late outcomes following proximal humerus fracture fixation surgery in diabetic patients with different renal function conditions. METHODS: DM patients receiving PHF fixation surgery during 1998-2013 were recruited from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. According to their renal function, patients were divided into three study groups: non-chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-dialysis CKD, and dialysis. Outcomes of interest were early and late perioperative outcomes. Early outcomes included in-hospital newly-onset morbidities. Late outcomes included infection, revision, readmission, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: This study included a total of 10,850 diabetic patients: 2152 had CKD (non-dialysis CKD group), 196 underwent permanent dialysis (dialysis group), and the remaining 8502 did not have CKD (non-CKD group). During a mean follow-up of 5.56 years, the dialysis group showed the highest risk of overall infection, all-cause revision, readmission, and mortality compared to the non-dialysis CKD group and non-CKD group. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed that CKD patients had a higher risk of surgical infection following PHF surgery than non-CKD patients in cases with a traffic accident or fewer comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index, CCI <3) (P for interaction: 0.086 and 0.096, respectively). Also, CKD patients had an even higher mortality risk after PHF surgery than non-CKD patients, in females, those living in higher urbanization areas, or with more comorbidities (CCI ≥3) (P for interaction: 0.011, 0.057, and 0.069, respectively). CONCLUSION: CKD was associated with elevated risks for infection, revision, readmission, and mortality after PHF fixation surgery in diabetic patients. These findings should be taken into consideration when caring for diabetic patients.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 690662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660265

RESUMO

Background: Laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) has been increasingly used for the treatment of locally advanced Siewert type II and III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). However, whether LG can achieve the same short-term efficacy in the treatment of patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) remains controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of NACT combined with LG for Siewert type II and III AEG. Methods: This retrospective study identified patients with locally advanced Siewert type II and III AEG diagnosed between May 2011 and October 2020 using the clinical tumor-node-metastasis (cTNM) staging system. The short-term outcomes were compared between the matched groups using a 1:3 propensity score matching (PSM) method, which was performed to reduce bias in patient selection. Results: After PSM, 164 patients were selected, including 41 in the NACT group and 123 in the LG group. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Compared with the LG group, the NACT group exhibit a smaller tumor size and significantly less advanced pathological tumor classification and nodal classification stages. The time to first flatus of the NACT group was significantly shorter, but the hospital stay was significantly longer than that of the LG group. The NACT group showed similar overall (29.3% vs 25.2%, P=0.683), systemic (24.4% vs 21.1%, P=0.663), local (12.2% vs 9.8%, P=0.767), minor (19.5% vs 19.5%, P=1.000) and major (9.8% vs 5.7%, P=0.470) complications as the LG group. Subgroup analyses showed no significant differences in most stratified parameters. Operation time≥ 300 minutes was identified as an independent risk factor for overall complications. Age≥ 60 years was identified as an independent risk factor for major complications. Conclusion: NACT combined with LG for AEG does not increase the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality compared with LG.

6.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114807, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673015

RESUMO

The molecular events underlying aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy are poorly understood, and specific therapies for treatment of AA nephropathy are still lacking. Here we aimed to investigate a potential role of REV-ERBα and ferroptosis in renal injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI), a typical AA. The regulatory effects of REV-ERBα on AAI-induced renal injury were determined using kidney-specific Rev-erbα knockout mice. Ferroptosis was assessed based on measurements of iron, GSH, and GPX4. Targeted antagonism of REV-ERBα to alleviate AAI-induced renal injury and ferroptosis was assessed using the small molecule antagonist SR8278. mRNAs and proteins were quantified by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. We first showed that REV-ERBα was upregulated and its target BMAL1 was downregulated in the kidney of mice with AAI nephropathy. Upregulation of REV-ERBα protein was confirmed in aristolactam I (ALI, a nephrotoxic metabolite of AAI)-treated mRTECs. We also observed enhanced ferroptosis (known to be regulated by REV-ERBα) in mice with AAI nephropathy and in ALI-treated mRTECs. Kidney-specific knockout of Rev-erbα reduced the sensitivity of mice to AAI-induced ferroptosis and renal injury. Furthermore, knockdown of Rev-erbα by siRNA or SR8278 (a REV-ERBα antagonist) treatment attenuated ALI-induced ferroptosis in mRTECs. Moreover, REV-ERBα antagonism by SR8278 alleviated ferroptosis and renal injury caused by AAI in mice. In conclusion, we identify REV-ERBα as a regulator of AAI-induced renal injury via promoting ferroptosis. Targeting REV-ERBα may represent a promising approach for management of AAI nephropathy.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009704, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673836

RESUMO

Development of effective therapeutics for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing global need. Neutralizing antibodies are known to be effective antivirals, as they can be rapidly deployed to prevent disease progression and can accelerate patient recovery without the need for fully developed host immunity. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a series of chimeric antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Some of these antibodies exhibit exceptionally potent neutralization activities in vitro and in vivo, and the most potent of our antibodies target three distinct non-overlapping epitopes within the RBD. Cryo-electron microscopy analyses of two highly potent antibodies in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein suggested they may be particularly useful when combined in a cocktail therapy. The efficacy of this antibody cocktail was confirmed in SARS-CoV-2-infected mouse and hamster models as prophylactic and post-infection treatments. With the emergence of more contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2, cocktail antibody therapies hold great promise to control disease and prevent drug resistance.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(37): e27147, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In newborns, propofol anesthesia is commonly utilized. Propofol is increasingly being shown to be effective and safe in treating procedural sedation and anesthesia in neonates. This research aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of propofol in neonates using systematic review and meta-analysis methodologies. METHODS: A thorough review and meta-analysis of studies on propofol anesthesia in neonates will be conducted. Conduct comprehensive searches in Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE database, WanFang database, and Chinese biomedical literature database before May 25, 2021, to obtain published and qualified research. Two reviewers will assess the quality of the included papers and extract the data independently. Then, for meta-analysis, we will utilize RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will pool the data of separate trials to analyze the efficacy and safety of propofol in the treatment of procedural sedation/anesthesia in neonates. CONCLUSION: Our findings will give strong data for determining whether propofol is an effective treatment for procedural anesthesia in neonates.

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6744-6761, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline-based chemotherapy (ABC) is one of the standard therapies against breast cancer. However, few guidelines are currently available to optimize the use of ABC. Therefore, the present analysis aimed at determining the profile and treatment patterns of ABC and the association of clinicopathological characteristics with ABC selection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a nation-wide multicenter epidemiological study, which collected the medical records of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in different settings from seven geographic regions in China (NCT03047889). RESULTS: In total, 3393 patients were included, with 2917 treated with ABC. Among them, 553 (89.8%), 2165 (81.7%), and 814 (25.7%) were subjected to ABC as neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and advanced chemotherapy, respectively. The most frequently used regimens were anthracycline-taxane-based combinations for neo- and adjuvant chemotherapy, along with taxanes and oral fluorouracils for the palliative stages. In the overall cohort, patients aged < 40 or 40-65 (p < 0.001), in premenopause (p < 0.001), without comorbidities (p = 0.016), with invasive ductal carcinoma (p= 0.001), high lymph node involvement (p < 0.001), in the pTNM stage II, III, or IV versus stage I (p < 0.001), subjected to mastectomy (p < 0.001) or subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy combined with axillary lymph node dissection (p = 0.044), or with a decreased disease-free survival (p < 0.001) were more likely to be recommended to ABC. CONCLUSION: Taken together, ABC remained the mainstay of breast cancer treatment, especially in neo and adjuvant therapy. ABC was mainly used as a combination therapy, and the correlation between influencing factors and ABC choice varied during different settings, indicating the preference and different perspectives of medication considered by medical oncologists regarding the use ABC in China.

10.
Bot Stud ; 62(1): 13, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural management and temporal change including climate conditions and soil properties can result in the alteration of soil enzymatic activity and bacterial community, respectively. Therefore, different agricultural practices have been used globally to explore the soil quality. In this study, the temporal variations in soil property, enzymatic activity, and bacterial community at three successive trimester sampling intervals were performed in the soil samples of litchi orchards that were maintained under conventional and sustainable agricultural practices. RESULTS: Agricultural management found to significantly influence arylsulfatase, ß-glucosidase, and urease activities across time as observed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and the relative abundance of predominant Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were significantly influenced by temporal change but not agricultural management. This suggested that soil enzymatic activity was more susceptible to the interaction of temporal change and agricultural management than that of the bacterial community. Multiple regression analysis identified total nitrogen, EC, and phosphorus as the significant predictors of acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and ß-glucosidase for explaining 29.5-39% of the variation. Moreover, the soil pH and EC were selected for the SOBS, Chao, ACE, and Shannon index to describe 33.8%, 79% of the variation, but no significant predictor was observed in the dominant bacterial phyla. Additionally, the temporal change involved in the soil properties had a greater effect on bacterial richness and diversity, and enzymatic activity than that of the dominant phyla of bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term sustainable agriculture in litchi orchards would also decrease soil pH and phosphorus, resulting in low ß-glucosidase and urease activity, bacterial richness, and diversity. Nevertheless, application of chemical fertilizer could facilitate the soil acidification and lead to adverse effects on soil quality. The relationship between bacterial structure and biologically-driven ecological processes can be explored by the cross-over analysis of enzymatic activity, soil properties and bacterial composition.

11.
Surg Innov ; : 15533506211047011, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to compare the postoperative complications after Robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) and robotic distal gastrectomy (RDG) and to systematically evaluate the safety and feasibility of RTG for the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Patients with GC who underwent RTG or RDG for curative intent between March 2010 and August 2019 were analyzed. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to reduce selection bias. The morbidity and mortality within 30 days after surgery between the RTG and the RDG groups were compared. RESULTS: According to Clavien-Dindo (C-D) classification, the morbidity and mortality of the RTG group were comparable to those of the RDG group. Subgroup analyses showed no significant difference between the RTG and RDG groups in all stratified parameters (all P > .05). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≥70 years (P = .002) and surgeons' experience ≤25 cases (P = .013) were independent risk factors for overall complication. Surgeons' experience ≤25 cases (P = .010) was identified as an independent risk factor for severe complication. CONCLUSION: RTG is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for the treatment of GC with acceptable morbidity and mortality. More complications were observed for RTG, indicating that RTG is more invasive than RDG.

13.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571824

RESUMO

Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 is pivotal for limiting excessive inflammation in the central nervous system. Reports show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial IL-10 emerges in a delayed manner in vitro and in vivo, lagging behind proinflammatory cytokines to facilitate the resolution of neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that IL-10 releases quite quickly based on our pilot investigation. Here, we uncovered a bimodal expression of microglial IL-10 gene transcription induced by LPS in mouse primary mixed glial cultures. This pattern consisted of a short brief early-phase and a long-lived late-phase, enabling the production of IL-10 protein in a rapid manner. The removal and addition of IL-10 protein assays indicated that early-released IL-10 exerted potent modulatory effects on neuroinflammation at picomolar levels, and IL-10 released at the onset of neuroinflammation is tightly controlled. We further showed that the early-released, but not the late-released, IL-10 was crucial for mediating and potentiating the anti-inflammatory function of a ß2-adrenergic receptor agonist salmeterol. This study in vitro highlights the essential role of early-released IL-10 in regulating the appropriate degree of neuroinflammation, overturning the previous notion that microglial IL-10 produces and functions in a delayed manner and providing new insights into anti-inflammatory mechanisms-mediated neuroimmune homeostasis.

14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 910: 174498, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase inhibitors can be used to enhance second messenger signaling to regulate intracellular Ca2+ cycling. This study investigated whether ITI-214, a selective phosphodiesterase-1 inhibitor, modulates intracellular Ca2+ regulation, resulting in a positive inotropic effect in sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-deficient cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific Sirt1 knockout (Sirt1-/-) were used, with Sirt1flox/flox mice serving as controls. Electromechanical analyses of ventricular tissues were conducted, and we monitored intracellular Ca2+ using Fluo-3 as well as reactive oxygen species production in isolated cardiomyocytes. RESULTS: Sirt1-/- ventricles showed prolonged action potential duration at 90% repolarization and increased contractile force after treatment with ITI-214. The rates and sustained durations of burst firing in ventricles were higher and longer, respectively, in Sirt1-/- ventricles than in controls. ITI-214 treatment decreased the rates and shortened the durations of burst firing in Sirt1-/- mice. Sirt1-/- cardiomyocytes showed reduced Ca2+ transient amplitudes and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ stores compared to those in control cardiac myocytes, which was reversed after ITI-214 treatment. SR Ca2+ leakage was larger in Sirt1-/- cardiac myocytes than in control myocytes. ITI-214 reduced SR Ca2+ leakage in Sirt1-/- cardiac myocytes. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species in Sirt1-/- cardiomyocytes compared to those in controls were reduced after ITI-214 treatment. Levels of Ca2+ regulatory proteins, including ryanodine receptor 2, phospholamban, and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a were not affected by ITI-214 administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that ITI-214 improves intracellular Ca2+ regulation, which in turn exerts inotropic effects and suppresses arrhythmic events in Sirt1-deficient ventricular myocytes.

15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572989

RESUMO

Gossypetin (GTIN), known as 3,5,7,8,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavone, has been demonstrated to exert anti-atherosclerotic potential against apoptotic injury in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-incubated endothelial cells, and atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed rabbits. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of GTIN on abnormal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration, a major event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, is still unknown. In this study, non-cytotoxic doses of GTIN abolished the VSMCs A7r5 proliferation and cell-cycle S phase distribution. The GTIN-arrested G0/G1 phase might be performed by increasing the expressions of phosphorylated p53 and its downstream molecules that inhibit the activation of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2, blocking retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and the subsequent dissociation of Rb/transcription factor E2F1 complex. In addition, the results indicated that GTIN inhibited VSMCs wound-healing and migratory abilities through reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and expression, as well as down-regulating protein kinase B (PKB)/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling. GTIN also revealed potential in diminishing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These findings suggested the inhibitory effects of GTIN on VSMCs dysfunction could likely lead to the containment of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular illness.

16.
J Oncol ; 2021: 6621722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567118

RESUMO

Objective: To better understand the status of medical treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer and the differences between the Chinese and the international clinical practice. Methods: This was a retrospective, nationwide, multicenter, epidemiological study of advanced breast cancer patients from China. Between January 01, 2012, and December 31, 2014, a total of 3649 patients, covering 7 geographic regions and 21 institutions, participated in this series of studies. HER2-positive breast cancer was selected among the group and adopted into this study. In comparison, we summarized the demographics and clinical characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Results: A total of 918 patients diagnosed as HER2-positive breast cancer patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 46 years (ranging, 23 to 78) with a single-peak incidence. The proportions of stages II-IV at diagnosis and distance metastasis in viscera were more than half of the participants. In comparison, the prevalence of estrogen or progesterone receptor-positive expression and luminalB subtype was relatively lower than that of the United States. The receipt of chemotherapy was fairly higher, while the usage of targeted therapy was seriously insufficient. Tumor size was in significantly positive associations with the duration of targeted therapy (Kendall's correlation coefficient = 0.3, P < 0.0001), while no prohibitive variables among clinical characteristics were detected. Conclusion: Our study suggested that HER2-positive breast cancer patients were characterized as a younger trend, a lower prevalence of hormonal receptor (HR)-positive expression, and less accessible to anti-HER2 targeted therapy with insufficient duration over the past few years in China. Concerted efforts should be exerted for promising survival benefits in the future. The trial registration number is https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03047889.

17.
J Biol Chem ; : 101238, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563540

RESUMO

The D614G mutation in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 alters the fitness of the virus, leading to the dominant form observed in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the molecular basis of the mechanism by which this mutation enhances fitness is not clear. Here we demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy that the D614G mutation resulted in increased propensity of multiple receptor binding domains (RBDs) in an upward conformation poised for host receptor binding. Multiple substates within the one RBD-up or two RBD-up conformational space were determined. According to negative staining electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry, the most significant impact of the mutation lies in its ability to eliminate the unusual cold-induced unfolding characteristics, and to significantly increase the thermal stability under physiological pH. The D614G spike variant also exhibited exceptional long-term stability when stored at 37 ºC for up to two months. Our findings shed light on how the D614G mutation enhances the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 through a stabilizing mutation, and suggest an approach for better design of spike protein-based conjugates for vaccine development.

18.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(3): 100143, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557780

RESUMO

Robust evidence is needed for the hazardous effects of outdoor particulate matter (PM) on mortality and morbidity from all types of cancers. To summarize and meta-analyze the association between PM and cancer, published articles reporting associations between outdoor PM exposure and any type of cancer with individual outcome assessment that provided a risk estimate in cohort studies were identified via systematic searches. Of 3,256 records, 47 studies covering 13 cancer sites (30 for lung cancer, 12 for breast cancer, 11 for other cancers) were included in the quantitative evaluation. The pooled relative risks (RRs) for lung cancer incidence or mortality associated with every 10-µg/m3 PM2.5 or PM10 were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.23; I2 = 81%) or 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.45; I2 = 96%), respectively. Increased but non-significant risks were found for breast cancer. Other cancers were shown to be associated with PM exposure in some studies but not consistently and thus warrant further investigation.

19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1477-1487, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500152

RESUMO

A well-designed photocatalyst with excellent activity and selectivity is crucial for photocatalytic CO2 conversion and utilization. TiO2 is one of the most promising photocatalysts. However, its excessive surface oxidation potential and insufficient surface active sites inhibit its activity and photocatalytic CO2 reduction selectivity. In this work, highly dispersed Bi2Ti2O7 was introduced into defective TiO2 to adjust its oxidation potential and the generation of radicals, further inhibiting reverse reactions during the photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Moreover, an in situ topochemical reaction etching route was designed, which achieved defective surfaces, a contacted heterophase interface, and an efficient electron transfer path. The optimized heterophase photocatalyst exhibited 93.9% CH4 selectivity at a photocatalytic rate of 6.8 µmol·g-1·h-1, which was 7.9 times higher than that of P25. This work proposes a feasible approach to fabricating photocatalysts with well-designed band structures, highly dispersed heterophase interfaces, and sufficient surface active sites to effectively modulate the selectivity and activity of CO2 photoreduction by manipulating the reaction pathways.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576028

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and the leading cause of death in humans worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer cases and is often diagnosed at a late stage. Among patients with NSCLC, 50% die within 1 year after diagnosis. Even with clinical intervention, the 5-year survival rate is only approximately 20%. Therefore, the development of an advanced therapeutic strategy or novel agent is urgently required for treating NSCLC. Berberine exerts therapeutic activity toward NSCLC; therefore, its activity as an antitumor agent needs to be explored further. In this study, three terpenylated-bromide derivatives of berberrubine were synthesized and their anti-NSCLC activities were evaluated. Each derivative had higher anti-NSCLCs activity than berberrubine and berberine. Among them, 9-O-gernylberberrubine bromide (B4) and 9-O-farnesylberberrubine bromide (B5) showed greater growth inhibition, cell-cycle regulation, in vitro tumorigenesis suppression, and tumor migration reduction. In addition, some degree of apoptosis and autophagic flux blocking was noted in the cells under B4 and B5 treatments. Our study demonstrates that the berberrubine derivatives, B4 and B5, exhibit impressive anti-NSCLC activities and have potential for use as chemotherapeutic agents against NSCLC.


Assuntos
Berberina/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/síntese química , Berberina/química , Berberina/farmacologia , Brometos/química , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Terpenos/síntese química , Terpenos/farmacologia
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