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1.
Opt Express ; 27(25): 36046-36058, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873391

RESUMO

Photon management plays a vital role in the power conversion efficiency of III-V semiconductor solar cells. However, the photon recycling characteristics of GaAs-based multi-quantum-well (MQW) solar cells employed different optical designs had yet been fully explored. In this work, we investigate the impact of the spectrally selective filter (SSF) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the photovoltaic characteristics of single-junction, strain-balanced In0.1Ga0.9As/ GaAs0.85P0.15 MQW solar cells. Specifically, the SSFs with cutoff wavelengths of 880, 910, and 940 nm are designed and implemented on MQW solar cells with and without the incorporation of a rear DBR. Photon confinement in the vertical direction is verified based on the characterizations of reflectance, electroluminescence, and external quantum efficiency. We show that the photon confinement reduces the saturation current density, up to 26 times and 3 times for the 880 nm SSF-MQW and SSF-MQW-DBR devices, respectively, compared to that of the 940 nm devices. Furthermore, by comparing the SSF-MQW-DBR solar cells under simulated one-sun and concentrated illumination conditions, the open-circuit voltage exhibits a maximal net increase for the 910 nm SSF due to tradeoff between the short-circuit and saturation current density. The proposed SSF design may offer a viable approach to boost the performance of GaAs-based MQW solar cells.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(33): 29901-29909, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353900

RESUMO

Kirigami graphene allows a two-dimensional material to transform into a three-dimensional structure, which constitutes an effective transparent electrode candidate for photovoltaic (PV) cells having a surface texture. The surface texture of an inverted pyramid was fabricated on a Si substrate using photolithography and wet etching, followed by metal-assisted chemical etching to obtain silicon nanowires on the surface of the inverted pyramid. Kirigami graphene with a cross-pattern array was prepared using photolithography and plasma etching on a copper foil. Then, kirigami graphene was transferred onto hybrid heterojunction PV cells with a poly(ethylene terephthalate)/silicone film. These cells consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the p-type semiconductor, Si(100) as the inorganic n-type semiconductor, and a silver comb electrode on top of PEDOT:PSS. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was greatly improved. This improvement was significantly higher than that achieved by the continuous graphene sheet without a pattern. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy results revealed that the greater improvement with kirigami graphene was due to the larger contact area between PEDOT:PSS and graphene. By using two-layer graphene having a kirigami pattern, the power conversion efficiency, under simulated AM1.5G illumination conditions, was significantly augmented by up to 9.8% (from 10.03 to 11.01%).

3.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12706, 2017 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983108

RESUMO

A p-a-SiC:H window layer was used in amorphous Si thin film solar cells to boost the conversion efficiency in an indoor lighting of 500 lx. The p-a-SiC:H window layer/p-a-Si:H buffer layer scheme moderates the abrupt band bending across the p/i interface for the enhancement of VOC, JSC and FF in the solar spectra of short wavelengths. The optimized thickness of i-a-Si:H absorber layer is 400 nm to achieve the conversion efficiency of ~9.58% in an AM1.5 G solar spectrum. However, the optimized thickness of the absorber layer can be changed from 400 to 600 nm in the indoor lighting of 500 lx, exhibiting the maximum output power of 25.56 µW/cm2. Furthermore, various durability tests with excellent performance were investigated, which are significantly beneficial to harvest the indoor lights for applications in the self-powered internet of thing (IoT).

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(40): 35279-35286, 2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891282

RESUMO

This study developed flexible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with warm white and neutral white light. A simple ultraviolet flip-chip sticking process was adopted for the pumping source and combined with polymer and quantum dot (QD) films technology to yield white light. The polymer-blended flexible LEDs exhibited higher luminous efficiency than the QD-blended flexible LEDs. Moreover, the polymer-blended LEDs achieved excellent color-rendering index (CRI) values (Ra = 96 and R9 = 96), with high reliability, demonstrating high suitability for special applications like accent, down, or retrofit lights in the future. In places such as a museum, kitchen, or surgery room, its high R9 and high CRI characteristics can provide high-quality services.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 27(42): 425401, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632684

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate homogeneously distributed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN quantum disks (QDs), with an average diameter below 10 nm and a high density of 2.1 × 10(11) cm(-2), embedded in 20 nm tall nanopillars. The scalable top-down fabrication process involves the use of self-assembled ferritin bio-templates as the etch mask, spin coated on top of a strained In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN single quantum well (SQW) structure, followed by a neutral beam etch (NBE) method. The small dimensions of the iron cores inside ferritin and nearly damage-free process enabled by the NBE jointly contribute to the observation of photoluminescence (PL) from strain-relaxed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN QDs at 6 K. The large blueshift of the peak wavelength by over 70 nm manifests a strong reduction of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) within the QD structure, which also agrees well with the theoretical prediction using a 3D Schrödinger equation solver. The current results hence pave the way towards the realization of large-scale III-N quantum structures using the combination of bio-templates and NBE, which is vital for the development of next-generation lighting and communication devices.

6.
Opt Express ; 24(10): A832-45, 2016 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409956

RESUMO

In this work, we present the result of nickel (Ni)-based metamaterial perfect absorbers (MPA) with ultra-broadband close-to-one absorbance. The experimental broadband characteristic is significantly improved over the past effort on metamaterial perfect absorbers. An in-depth physical picture and quantitative analysis is presented to reveal the physical origin of its ultrabroadband nature. The key constituent is the cancellation of the reflected wave using ultra-thin, moderate-extinction metallic films. The ultra-thin metal thickness can reduce the reflection as the optical field penetrates through the metallic films. This leads to minimal reflection at each ultra-thin metal layer, and light is penetrating into the Ni/SiO2 stacking. More intuitively, when the layer thickness is much smaller than the photon wavelength, the layer is essentially invisible to the photons. This results in absorption in the metal thin-film through penetration while there is minimal reflection by the metal film. More importantly, the experimental evidence for omni-directionality and polarization-insensitivity are established for the proposed design. Detailed measurement is conducted. Due to the ultrathin metal layers and the satisfactory tolerance in dielectric thickness, the broadband absorption has minimal degradation at oblique incidence. Such a wide angle, polarization-insensitive, ultra-broadband MPA can be very promising in the future, and the optical physics using sub-skin-depth metal film can also facilitate miniaturized high-performance nano-photonic devices.

7.
Opt Express ; 24(2): A414-23, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832593

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate blade-coated organic interlayers at the rear surface of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics based on two small molecules: Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq(3)) and 1,3-bis(2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl) benzene (OXD-7). In particular, soluble Alq(3) resulting in a uniform thin film with a root-mean-square roughness < 0.2nm is demonstrated for the first time. Both devices with the Alq(3) and OXD-7 interlayers show notable enhancement in the open-circuit voltage and fill-factor, leading to a net efficiency increase by over 2% from the reference, up to 11.8% and 12.5% respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics confirm the role of the small-molecule interlayers resembling a thin interfacial oxide layer for the Al-Si Schottky barrier to enhance the built-in potential and facilitate charge transport. Moreover, the Alq(3) interlayer in optimized devices exhibits isolated phases with a large surface roughness, in contrast to the OXD-7 which forms a continuous uniform thin film. The distinct morphological differences between the two interlayers further suggest different enhancement mechanisms and hence offer versatile functionalities to the advent of hybrid organic-silicon photovoltaics.

8.
Nanoscale ; 8(10): 5478-87, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26899775

RESUMO

To improve the omnidirectional light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we present a dandelion-like structure composed of ZnO hemispherical shells and nanorods. Uniformly distributed hemispherical shells effectively suppress the reflection over the broadband region at incident angles up to 60°, greatly improving the optical absorption of the DSSCs. In addition, modulating the length of the ZnO nanorods controls the omnidirectional characteristics of DSSCs. This phenomenon is attributed to the degree of periodicity of the ZnO dandelion-like structures. Cells with shorter rods exhibit a high degree of periodicity, thus the conversion efficiencies of the cells show specific angle-independent features. On the other hand, the cells with longer lengths reveal angle-dependent photovoltaic performance. Along with the simulation, the cells with dandelion-like ZnO structures can couple incident photons efficiently to achieve excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting performances experimentally, and the DSSCs enhanced the conversion efficiency by 48% at large incident angles. All these findings not only provide further insight into the light-trapping mechanism in these complex three-dimensional nanostructures but also offer efficient omnidirectional and broadband nanostructured photovoltaics for advanced applications.

9.
Nanoscale ; 8(2): 1192-9, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666367

RESUMO

Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is the so-called "green gap". In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boost the light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimate the view angle of LEDs from 131.5° to 114.0°. This could be because of the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs point the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

10.
Opt Express ; 23(24): A1434-41, 2015 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698792

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQWs) solar cells with gradually decreasing indium composition in quantum wells (GQWs) toward p-GaN as absorber. The GQW can improve the fill factor from 42% to 62% and enhance the short current density from 0.8 mA/cm2 to 0.92 mA/cm2, as compares to the typical MQW solar cells. As a result, the PCE is boosted from 0.63% to 1.11% under AM1.5G illumination. Based on simulation and experimental results, the enhanced PCE can be attributed to the improved carrier collection in GQW caused by the reduction of potential barriers and piezoelectric polarization induced fields near the p-GaN layer. The presented concept paves a way toward highly efficient InGaN-based solar cells and other GaN-related MQW devices.

11.
Opt Express ; 23(25): 32504-15, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26699040

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots which can emit red, green, and blue colors are incorporated with a micro-LED array to demonstrate a feasible choice for future display technology. The pitch of the micro-LED array is 40 µm, which is sufficient for high-resolution screen applications. The method that was used to spray the quantum dots in such tight space is called Aerosol Jet technology which uses atomizer and gas flow control to obtain uniform and controlled narrow spots. The ultra-violet LEDs are used in the array to excite the red, green and blue quantum dots on the top surface. To increase the utilization of the UV photons, a layer of distributed Bragg reflector was laid down on the device to reflect most of the leaked UV photons back to the quantum dot layers. With this mechanism, the enhanced luminous flux is 194% (blue), 173% (green) and 183% (red) more than that of the samples without the reflector. The luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) was measured under various currents and a value of 165 lm/Watt was recorded.

12.
Opt Express ; 23(11): 14344-50, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26072798

RESUMO

The photodesorption kinetics of graphene with various UV laser power is studied by conductance response. Analytical expressions of the power-dependent photodesorption kinetics of graphene in ambience are derived. The photodesorption time constant τd, steady current, and magnitude of modulation current, can be expressed as functions of the adsorption time constant τa, desorption cross section σ, and photon flux density. Under illumination the steady occupation ratio of adsorbed O2 on graphene is equal to τd/τa. It is suggested that the photodesorption of O2 on graphene is attributed the injection of photogenerated hot electrons and is restricted by the density of antibonding states of O2.

13.
Opt Express ; 23(7): A204-10, 2015 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968786

RESUMO

The hybrid white light-emitting didoes (LED) with polyfluoren (PFO) polymer and quantum dot (QD) was investigated using dispensing method at the different correlated color temperature (CCT) for cool and warm color temperature. This result indicates that the hybrid white LED device has the higher luminous efficiency than the convention one, which could be attributed to the increased utilization rate of the UV light. Furthermore, the CIE 1931 coordinate of high quality white hybrid LED with different CCT range from 3000K to 9000K is demonstrated. Consequently, the angular-dependent CCT and the thermal issue of the hybrid white LED device were also analyzed in this study.

14.
Opt Express ; 23(3): A106-17, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836236

RESUMO

Metallic back reflectors has been used for thin-film and wafer-based solar cells for very long time. Nonetheless, the metallic mirrors might not be the best choices for photovoltaics. In this work, we show that solar cells with all-dielectric reflectors can surpass the best-configured metal-backed devices. Theoretical and experimental results all show that superior large-angle light scattering capability can be achieved by the diffuse medium reflectors, and the solar cell J-V enhancement is higher for solar cells using all-dielectric reflectors. Specifically, the measured diffused scattering efficiency (D.S.E.) of a diffuse medium reflector is >0.8 for the light trapping spectral range (600nm-1000nm), and the measured reflectance of a diffuse medium can be as high as silver if the geometry of embedded titanium oxide(TiO(2)) nanoparticles is optimized. Moreover, the diffuse medium reflectors have the additional advantage of room-temperature processing, low cost, and very high throughput. We believe that using all-dielectric solar cell reflectors is a way to approach the thermodynamic conversion limit by completely excluding metallic dissipation.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(1): 232-40, 2015 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25485556

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate sputtered amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with a record high effective field-effect mobility of 174 cm(2)/V s by incorporating silver nanowire (AgNW) arrays to channel electron transport. Compared to the reference counterpart without nanowires, the over 5-fold enhancement in the effective field-effect mobility exhibits clear dependence on the orientation as well as the surface coverage ratio of silver nanowires. Detailed material and device analyses reveal that during the room-temperature IGZO sputtering indium and oxygen diffuse into the nanowire matrix while the nanowire morphology and good contact between IGZO and nanowires are maintained. The unchanged morphology and good interfacial contact lead to high mobility and air-ambient-stable characteristics up to 3 months. Neither hysteresis nor degraded bias stress reliability is observed. The proposed AgNW-mediated a-IGZO TFTs are promising for development of large-scale, flexible, transparent electronics.

16.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 5: A1334-42, 2014 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25322188

RESUMO

In this study, the design and fabrication schemes of back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells with periodic via-holes etching and Bragg mirror processes are presented. Compared to typical front-side illuminated solar cells, the improvements of open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) from 1.88 to 1.94 V and short-circuit current density (J(sc)) from 0.84 to 1.02 mA/cm(2) are observed. Most significantly, the back-side illuminated InGaN/GaN solar cells exhibit an extremely high fill factor up to 85.5%, leading to a conversion efficiency of 1.69% from 0.66% of typical front-side illuminated solar cells under air mass 1.5 global illuminations. Moreover, the effects of bottom Bragg mirrors on the photovoltaic characteristics of back-side illuminated solar cells are studied by an advanced simulation program. The results show that the J(sc) could further be improved with a factor of 10% from the original back-side illuminated solar cell by the structure optimization of bottom Bragg mirrors.

17.
Opt Lett ; 39(8): 2511-3, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979031

RESUMO

Indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers were employed as transparent electrodes in a liquid-crystal terahertz phase shifter. Transmittance of the device was as high as ∼75%. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz is achieved in a ∼500 µm-thick cell. The driving voltage required for the device operating as a quarter-wave plate was as low as 17.68 V (rms), an improvement of nearly an order of magnitude over previous work.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Compostos de Estanho/química , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Cristais Líquidos , Dispositivos Ópticos , Fenômenos Ópticos
18.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5734, 2014 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25034623

RESUMO

This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current.

19.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 2: A295-300, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922238

RESUMO

Biomimetic nanostructures have shown to enhance the optical absorption of Ga0.5In0.5P/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells due to excellent antireflective (AR) properties that, however, are highly dependent on their geometric dimensions. In practice, it is challenging to control fabrication conditions which produce nanostructures in ideal periodic arrangements and with tapered side-wall profiles, leading to sacrificed AR properties and solar cell performance. In this work, we introduce compound biomimetic nanostructures created by depositing a layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on top of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures for triple junction solar cells. The device exhibits photogenerated current and power conversion efficiency that are enhanced by ~8.9% and ~6.4%, respectively, after deposition due to their improved antireflection characteristics. We further investigate and verify the optical properties of compound structures via a rigorous coupled wave analysis model. The additional SiO2 layer not only improves the geometric profile, but also serves as a double-layer dielectric coating. It is concluded that the compound biomimetic nanostructures exhibit superior AR properties that are relatively insensitive to fabrication constraints. Therefore, the compound approach can be widely adopted for versatile optoelectronic devices and applications.

20.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 2: A396-401, 2014 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24922249

RESUMO

We have demonstrated a gallium nitride (GaN)-based green light-emitting diode (LED) with graphene/indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent contact. The ohmic characteristic of the p-GaN and graphene/ITO contact could be preformed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 min. The specific contact resistance of p-GaN/graphene/ITO (3.72E-3 Ω·cm²) is one order less than that of p-GaN/ITO. In addition, the 20-mA forward voltage of LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent (3.05 V) is 0.09 V lower than that of ITO LEDs (3.14 V). Besides, We have got an output power enhancement of 11% on LEDs with graphene/ITO transparent contact.

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