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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(42): 15016-15020, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390139

RESUMO

A highly diastereoselective copper-catalyzed multicomponent cyclization of exocyclic enol ethers/enamines with methylene malonate and aldehydes has been developed to furnish spiroheterocyclic tetrahydropyrans in high yields with greater than 95:5 d.r. This method is practical, in that 36 examples, including a range of aldehydes and exo-vinyl heterocycles, are presented. By applying the newly developed method, the total synthesis of (+)-broussonetine G and formal synthesis of (+)-broussonetine H were achieved in a concise way.

2.
Stem Cell Res ; 39: 101501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344652

RESUMO

GA binding protein (GABP) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that regulates the development of multiple cell types, including osteoblast, hematopoietic stem cells, B cells and T cells. However, so little is known about its biological function in the development of central nervous system. In this report, we show that GABP is highly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and down-regulated in neurons, and that GABPß1 is required for the proper proliferation of NSPCs. Knockdown of GABPα resulted in an elevated expression level of GABPß1, and GABPß1 down-regulation significantly decreased the proliferation of NSPCs, whereas GABPß2 knockdown did not result in any changes in the proliferation of NSPCs. We observed that there was nearly a 21-fold increase of the GABPß1S mRNA level in GABPß1L KO NSPCs compared to WT cells, and knocking down of GABPß1S in GABPß1L KO NSPCs could further reduce their proliferation potential. We also found that knockdown of GABPß1 promoted neuronal and astrocytic differentiation of NSPCs. Finally, we identified dozens of downstream target genes of GABPß1, which are closely associated with the cell proliferation and differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that both GABPß1L and GABPß1S play an essential role in regulating the proper proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(2): 413-423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177212

RESUMO

 We explored changes in clinical features and neuropathological mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction (OD) in 60 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test and a threshold discrimination identification (TDI) score. Based on the TDI score, we divided patients according to the presence or absence of OD (AD-OD and AD-NOD, respectively). Cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated by a series of rating scales. The volumes and cortical thickness of the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala were measured using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Neuropathological protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. The frequency of OD was 50%. TDI scores were lower in the AD-OD group than in the AD-NOD group (p < 0.001). Compared with the AD-NOD group, the AD-OD group showed greater cognitive function impairments (p < 0.001), and daily living activities were more severely compromised (p = 0.019). The AD-OD group had lower hippocampal and amygdala volumes (p = 0.025, p = 0.030, respectively) and a more pronounced reduction in cortical thickness (p = 0.010). The total tau level was lower in the AD-OD group than the AD-NOD group (p = 0.040). Lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and thinner AD-signature cortices were associated with lower TDI scores (OR = 0.826, p < 0.001; OR = 1.433, p = 0.008). Overall, in AD patients, the impairments in olfactory discrimination and identification seem to be more correlated with cognitive levels. OD in AD may be an indicator of pathological cognitive decline and structural changes.

5.
FASEB J ; 33(6): 6904-6918, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811956

RESUMO

Spaceflight leads to health risks including bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and disorders of almost all physiologic systems. However, the impacts of microgravity on blood lineage cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vivo are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed peripheral blood samples from 6 astronauts who had participated in spaceflight missions and found significant changes in several cell populations at different time points. These dynamic alterations of lineage cells and the role of HSCs were further studied in a mouse model, using hindlimb unloading (HU) to simulate microgravity. Large reductions in the frequency of NK cells, B cells, and erythrocyte precursors in the bone marrow of the HU mice were observed, together with an increased frequency of T cells, neutrophils, and HSCs. T cell levels recovered faster than those of B cells and erythrocyte precursors, whereas the recovery rates of NK cells and granulocytes were slow. In addition, competitive reconstitution experiments demonstrated the impaired function of HSCs, although these changes were reversible. Deep sequencing showed changes in the expression of regulatory molecules important for the differentiation of HSCs. This study provides the first determination of altered HSC function under simulated microgravity in vivo. The impairment of HSC function and differentiation provides an explanation for the immune disorders that occur under simulated microgravity. Thus, our findings demonstrated that spaceflight and simulated microgravity disrupt the homeostasis of immune system and cause dynamic alterations on both HSCs and lineage cells.-Cao, D., Song, J., Ling, S., Niu, S., Lu, L., Cui, Z., Li, Y., Hao, S., Zhong, G., Qi, Z., Sun, W., Yuan, X., Li, H., Zhao, D., Jin, X., Liu, C., Wu, X., Kan, G., Cao, H., Kang, Y., Yu, S., Li, Y. Hematopoietic stem cells and lineage cells undergo dynamic alterations under microgravity and recovery conditions.

6.
FASEB J ; 33(4): 5615-5625, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668923

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capacity for self-renewal to maintain the HSCs' pool and the ability for multilineage differentiation, which are responsible for sustained production of multiple blood lineages. The regulation of HSC development is controlled precisely by complex signal networks and hematopoietic microenvironment, which has been termed the HSCs' niche. The Wnt signaling pathway is one of a variety of signaling pathways that have been involved in HSC self-renewal and maintenance. Previous studies are indeterminant on the regulation of adult HSCs upon canonical Wnt signaling pathways because of the different experimental systems and models used. In this study, we generated the conditional knockout Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6) mice in adult hematopoiesis via Vav-Cre Loxp system. Inactivation of Lrp5 and -6 in a hematopoietic system diminished the pool of HSCs, but there were no obvious defects in mature immune cells. Lrp5 and -6 double deficiency HSCs showed intrinsic defects in self-renewal and differentiation due to reduced proliferation and increased quiescence of the cell cycle. Analysis of HSC gene expression suggested that the quiescence regulators were significantly up-regulated, such as Egr1, Cdkn1a, Nr4a1, Gata2, Junb and Btg2, and the positive cell cycle regulators were correspondingly down-regulated, such as Ccna2 and Ranbp1. Taken together, we investigated the roles of Lrp5 and -6 in HSCs by functional and bioinformatic assays, and we demonstrated that Lrp5 and -6 are required for the self-renewal and differentiation of adult HSCs. The canonical Wnt pathway may contribute to maintaining the HSC pool and regulate the differentiation of adult HSCs by controlling cell cycle gene regulatory module.-Liu, J., Cui, Z., Wang, F., Yao, Y., Yu, G., Liu, J., Cao, D., Niu, S., You, M., Sun, Z., Lian, D., Zhao, T., Kang, Y., Zhao, Y., Xue, H.-H., Yu, S. Lrp5 and Lrp6 are required for maintaining self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells.

7.
RNA Biol ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474472

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical mediators of various biological processes in the immune system. The current data showed that the lncRNA Malat1 is highly expressed in T cell subsets, but the function of Malat1 in T cell remains unclear. In this study, we detected the T cell development and both CD8+ and CD4+ T cell response to LCMV infection using Malat1-/- mice model. To our surprise, there were no significant defects in thymocytes at different developmental stages and the peripheral T cell pool with ablation of Malat1. During LCMV infection, Malat1-/- mice exhibited normal effector and memory CD8+ T cells as well as TFH cells differentiation. Our results indicated that Malat1 is not essential for T cell development and T cell-mediated antiviral response though it expresses at very high level in different T cell populations.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 66(2): 789-799, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: OD is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients. METHODS: We evaluated OD using the Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS), classified patients into AD with OD (AD-OD) and AD with no OD (AD-NOD) groups, and detected the levels of free radicals and inflammatory factors, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2 in serum from AD patients. RESULTS: It was shown that the scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Animal Fluency Test, Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Auditory Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall were all significantly lower and the score of overall activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL were significantly higher in AD-OD group than those in AD-NOD group. Compared with AD-NOD group, •OH level in serum was prominently elevated, and H2O2 level was dramatically declined in AD-OD group. In the correlation analysis, HRS score was significantly and positively correlated with the score of BNT, and negatively correlated with •OH level in serum. CONCLUSIONS: AD-OD patients suffered from severe cognitive impairment in the domain of language. Oxidative stress might be correlated with AD-OD featured by the drastically increased •OH level in serum.

9.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2202, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319646

RESUMO

Nano-antibodies possess great potential in many applications. However, they are naturally derived from heavy chain-only antibodies (HcAbs), which lack light chains and the CH1 domain, and are only found in camelids and sharks. In this study, we investigated whether the precise genetic removal of the CH1 exon of the γ1 gene enabled the production of a functional heavy chain-only IgG1 in mice. IgG1 heavy chain dimers lacking associated light chains were detected in the sera of the genetically modified mice. However, the genetic modification led to decreased expression of IgG1 but increased expression of other IgG subclasses. The genetically modified mice showed a weaker immune response to specific antigens compared with wild type mice. Using a phage-display approach, antigen-specific, single domain VH antibodies could be screened from the mice but exhibited much weaker antigen binding affinity than the conventional monoclonal antibodies. Although the strategy was only partially successful, this study confirms the feasibility of producing desirable nano-bodies with appropriate genetic modifications in mice.

10.
Cell Res ; 28(10): 981-995, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143796

RESUMO

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates class switching by binding to a small fraction of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to diversify the antibody repertoire. The precise mechanism for highly selective AID targeting in the genome has remained elusive. Here, we report an RNA-binding protein, ROD1 (also known as PTBP3), that is both required and sufficient to define AID-binding sites genome-wide in activated B cells. ROD1 interacts with AID via an ultraconserved loop, which proves to be critical for the recruitment of AID to ssDNA using bi-directionally transcribed nascent RNAs as stepping stones. Strikingly, AID-specific mutations identified in human patients with hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2) completely disrupt the AID interacting surface with ROD1, thereby abolishing the recruitment of AID to immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Together, our results suggest that bi-directionally transcribed RNA traps the RNA-binding protein ROD1, which serves as a guiding system for AID to load onto specific genomic loci to induce DNA rearrangement during immune responses.

11.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2211-2226, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045946

RESUMO

Tle/Groucho proteins are transcriptional corepressors interacting with Tcf/Lef and Runx transcription factors, but their physiological roles in T cell development remain unknown. Conditional targeting of Tle1, Tle3 and Tle4 revealed gene dose-dependent requirements for Tle proteins in CD8+ lineage cells. Upon ablating all three Tle proteins, generation of CD8+ T cells was greatly diminished, largely owing to redirection of MHC-I-selected thymocytes to CD4+ lineage; the remaining CD8-positive T cells showed aberrant up-regulation of CD4+ lineage-associated genes including Cd4, Thpok, St8sia6, and Foxp3 Mechanistically, Tle3 bound to Runx-occupied Thpok silencer, in post-selection double-positive thymocytes to prevent excessive ThPOK induction and in mature CD8+ T cells to silence Thpok expression. Tle3 also bound to Tcf1-occupied sites in a few CD4+ lineage-associated genes, including Cd4 silencer and St8sia6 introns, to repress their expression in mature CD8+ T cells. These findings indicate that Tle corepressors are differentially partitioned to Runx and Tcf/Lef complexes to instruct CD8+ lineage choice and cooperatively establish CD8+ T cell identity, respectively.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(4)2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621131

RESUMO

Predictive maintenance plays an important role in modern Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) and data-driven methods have been a worthwhile direction for Prognostics Health Management (PHM). However, two main challenges have significant influences on the traditional fault diagnostic models: one is that extracting hand-crafted features from multi-dimensional sensors with internal dependencies depends too much on expertise knowledge; the other is that imbalance pervasively exists among faulty and normal samples. As deep learning models have proved to be good methods for automatic feature extraction, the objective of this paper is to study an optimized deep learning model for imbalanced fault diagnosis for CPSs. Thus, this paper proposes a weighted Long Recurrent Convolutional LSTM model with sampling policy (wLRCL-D) to deal with these challenges. The model consists of 2-layer CNNs, 2-layer inner LSTMs and 2-Layer outer LSTMs, with under-sampling policy and weighted cost-sensitive loss function. Experiments are conducted on PHM 2015 challenge datasets, and the results show that wLRCL-D outperforms other baseline methods.

13.
BMC Neurol ; 18(1): 9, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial ultrasound is a useful tool for providing the evidences for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the relationship between hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra (SN) and clinical symptoms of PD patients remains unknown, and the role of dysfunction of iron metabolism on the pathogenesis of SN hyper echogenicity is unclear. METHODS: PD patients was detected by transcranial sonography and divided into with no hyper echogenicity (PDSN-) group and with hyper echogenicity (PDSN+) group. Motor symptoms (MS) and non-motor symptoms (NMS) were evaluated, and the levels of iron and related proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected for PD patients. Data comparison between the two groups and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: PDSN+ group was significantly older, and had significantly older age of onset, more advanced Hohen-Yahr stage, higher SCOPA-AUT score and lower MoCA score than PDSN- group (P < 0.05). Compared with PDSN- group, the levels of transferrin and light-ferritin in serum and iron level in CSF were significantly elevated (P < 0.05), but ferroportin level in CSF was significantly decreased in PDSN+ group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PD patients with hyper echogenicity in SN are older, at more advanced disease stage, have severer motor symptoms, and non-motor symptoms of cognitive impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Hyper echogenicity of SN in PD patients is related to dysfunction of iron metabolism, involving increased iron transport from peripheral system to central nervous system, reduction of intracellular iron release and excessive iron deposition in brain.


Assuntos
Ferro/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 567, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330419

RESUMO

Constipation is one of the most frequent non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) and it may be ignored by PD patients, leading to this problem not to be reported in time. The relationships between constipation and demographic variables, motor symptoms and other non-motor symptoms of PD are still unknown. PD patients were evaluated by diagnostic criteria of functional constipation in Rome III and divided into PD with constipation (PD-C) and PD with no constipation (PD-NC) groups. PD patients were assessed by rating scales of motor symptoms and other non-motor symptoms, activity of daily living and quality of life. The frequency of constipation in PD patients was 61.4%, and 24.5% of PD patients had constipation before the onset of motor symptoms. PD-C group had older age and age of onset, longer disease duration, more advanced disease stage, and more severe motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms, including worse cognition and emotion, poorer sleep quality, severer autonomic symptoms, fatigue and apathy. Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that the age, H-Y stage, depression, anxiety and autonomic dysfunction increased the risk of constipation in PD patients. Constipation exerted serious impact on the activity of daily living and quality of life in PD patients.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 55(1): 619-632, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27975175

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of microglial NOX2 activation in minimally toxic dose of LPS and Syn-elicited synergistic dopaminergic neurodegeneration. NOX2+/+ and NOX2-/- mice and multiple primary cultures were treated with LPS and/or Syn in vivo and in vitro. Neuronal function and morphology were evaluated by uptake of related neurotransmitter and immunostaining with specific antibody. Levels of superoxide, intracellular reactive oxygen species, mRNA and protein of relevant molecules, and dopamine were detected. LPS and Syn synergistically induce selective and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Microglia are functionally and morphologically activated, contributing to synergistic dopaminergic neurotoxicity elicited by LPS and Syn. NOX2-/- mice are more resistant to synergistic neurotoxicity than NOX2+/+mice in vivo and in vitro, and NOX2 inhibitor protects against synergistic neurotoxicity through decreasing microglial superoxide production, illustrating a critical role of microglial NOX2. Microglial NOX2 is activated by LPS and Syn as mRNA and protein levels of NOX2 subunits P47and gp91 are enhanced. Molecules relevant to microglial NOX2 activation include PKC-σ, P38, ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-КBP50 as their mRNA and protein levels are elevated after treatment with LPS and Syn. Combination of exogenous and endogenous environmental factors with minimally toxic dose synergistically propagates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through activating microglial NOX2 and relevant signaling molecules, casting a new light for PD pathogenesis.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14973, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097764

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with multiple factors, including iron, which is demonstrated to deposit excessively in PD brains. We detected iron deposition by susceptibility weighted image (SWI) and measured the levels of iron metabolism-related proteins and inflammatory factors in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of PD patients and control subjects. Clinical symptoms of PD were evaluated by series of rating scales. Relationships among above factors were analyzed. Results showed that corrected phase (CP) value of substantia nigra (SN) was significantly decreased in PD group compared to control group, hence, SN was the main region with excessive iron deposition. In PD group, ferritin was significantly elevated in CSF and reduced in serum compared to control group, and levels of ferritin in CSF and serum were both significantly and positively correlated with CP value of SN, thus, abnormal iron metabolism in central and peripheral systems was associated with iron deposition. CP value of SN in PD group was significantly and negatively correlated with interleukin-1ß level in CSF, so interleukin-1ß might be a neuroinflammatory factor produced by excessive iron in SN. Iron deposition in SN was significantly correlated with motor symptoms and part of non-motor symptoms of PD.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10547, 2017 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874701

RESUMO

Relationships among clinical characteristics, iron metabolism and neurotransmitters in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains unclear. We divided 218 patients into PD with and with no RLS (PD-RLS and PD-NRLS) groups by RLS-rating scale (RLS-RS) score. Motor and non-motor symptoms were rated by related scales. Iron and related proteins, and neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were measured. PD-RLS frequency was 40.37%. PD-RLS group had longer duration, higher stage and scores of motor symptoms, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, fatigue and apathy, and increased transferrin and decreased iron, ferritin, dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in CSF. In CSF of PD-RLS group, RLS-RS score was positively correlated with transferrin level and negatively correlated with iron and ferritin levels; RLS-RS score was negatively correlated with DA and 5-HT levels; transferrin level was negatively correlated with DA and 5-HT levels, and ferritin level was positively correlated with DA level. In serum, PD-RLS group had decreased iron and transferrin levels, which were negatively correlated with RLS-RS score. PD-RLS was common and severer in motor and some non-motor symptoms. Iron deficiency induced by its metabolism dysfunctions in peripheral and central systems might cause PD-RLS through decreasing brain DA and 5-HT.

18.
Cell Stem Cell ; 21(3): 359-373.e5, 2017 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844837

RESUMO

Effective treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) largely depends on the eradication of CML leukemic stem cells (LSCs). We recently showed that CML LSCs depend on Tcf1 and Lef1 factors for self-renewal. Using a connectivity map, we identified prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a small molecule that partly elicited the gene expression changes in LSCs caused by Tcf1/Lef1 deficiency. Although it has little impact on normal hematopoiesis, we found that PGE1 treatment impaired the persistence and activity of LSCs in a pre-clinical murine CML model and a xenograft model of transplanted CML patient CD34+ stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, PGE1 acted on the EP4 receptor and repressed Fosb and Fos AP-1 factors in a ß-catenin-independent manner. Misoprostol, an FDA-approved EP4 agonist, conferred similar protection against CML. These findings suggest that activation of this PGE1-EP4 pathway specifically targets CML LSCs and that the combination of PGE1/misoprostol with conventional tyrosine-kinase inhibitors could provide effective therapy for CML.


Assuntos
Alprostadil/farmacologia , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Misoprostol/farmacologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 5291486, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612025

RESUMO

In order to study the thallus changes on microscopic morphology and mechanical properties of Candida albicans antagonized by Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin, the adhesion ability and Young's modulus of thalli and hypha of Candida albicans were measured by the relative measurement method using atomic force microscope's (AFM) tapping model. The results showed that the average adhesion ability and Young's modulus of thalli were 7.35 ± 0.77 nN and 7.33 ± 1.29 Mpa, respectively; the average adhesion ability and Young's modulus of hypha were 9.82 ± 0.39 nN and 4.04 ± 0.76 Mpa, respectively. After being antagonized by Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin, the adhesion ability was decreased along with the increasing of deformation in reaction region and Young's modulus followed the same changes. It could be concluded that the adhesion ability of hypha was greater than thalli, Young's modulus of hypha was less than thalli, and adhesion ability and Young's modulus of Candida albicans were decreased significantly after being antagonized by Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Candida albicans/química , Módulo de Elasticidade , Hifas/química , Streptococcus sanguis/química , Bacteriocinas/química , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Hifas/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44872, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332604

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is identified as tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) phenotypes. The relationships between motor phenotypes and cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms relating pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are unknown. We evaluated the motor symptoms and cognitive function by scales, and detected the levels of pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in CSF. TD group and PIGD group had significantly higher levels of total tau, tau phosphorylated at the position of threonine 181(P-tau181t), threonine 231, serine 396, serine 199 and lower ß amyloid (Aß)1-42 level in CSF than those in control group; PIGD group had significantly higher P-tau181t level and lower Aß1-42 level than those in TD group. In PD group, PIGD severity was negatively correlated with MoCA score and Aß1-42 level in CSF, and positively correlated with Hoehn-Yahr stage and P-tau181t level in CSF. In PIGD group, PIGD severity was negatively correlated with homovanillic acid (HVA) level in CSF, and HVA level was positively correlated with Aß1-42 level in CSF. PIGD was significantly correlated with cognitive impairment, which underlying mechanism might be involved in Aß1-42 aggregation in brain and relevant neurochemical disturbance featured by the depletion of HVA in CSF.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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