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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite there is a wide range of antidepressants available, with various mechanisms of actions, the efficacy of current therapeutic options is yet satisfactory. Previous shreds of evidence have indicated that genetics, cognitive, neuroendocrine, as well as personality factors, are all intrinsically linked and contribute to the diversity of treatment outcomes. We, therefore, sought to investigate this hypothesis in this study. METHOD: Based on 610 samples treated with a selection of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), we compared the therapeutic effects of these four classes of drugs by survival analyses. Pharmacogenomic and survival analyses were carried out to explore the hereditary factors for curative effect and the accumulation of genetic factors was further discussed through pathway analysis and the global test. We built a machine learning-based prediction model that integrates genetic and non-genetic factors (including cognition, endocrinology, personality intelligence) to distinguish drug efficacy in single class drug situations. The values of the non-genetic makers after 6 weeks' treatment were collected to evaluate the efficacy of the model. RESULTS: Our results from the 6-week antidepressant therapeutic study indicated that SSRI and SNRI are better treatments than those of TCA and NaSSA in the Chinese population. Among all possible paired single-agent survival analyses, citalopram and venlafaxine were more effective than mirtazapine. Allele C carriers at rs6354 (SLC6A4) and allele G carriers at rs12150214 (SLC6A4) were significantly prone to poorer treatment response to fluoxetine. Besides, the combination of three loci (rs929377-rs6191-rs32897) located in HPA pathway was significantly associated with the treatment outcome of fluoxetine. In female MDD patients, the minor allele of rs6323 and rs1137070 on the MAOA gene likely lead to a worse response to venlafaxine. Furthermore, genetic variants linked to drug efficacy tended to concentrate on the neurotrophin pathway in depressed patients comorbid with anxiety. From multivariate models, more severe cognitive deficits, psychopathic personality and lower levels of operational intelligence, and higher levels of cortisol predicted worse response status with SSRI or SNRI after 6-week treatment. Notably, genetic factors in the multi-dimensional prediction model for both classes of drugs include loci in HTR2A and CRHBP genes. CONCLUSION: SSRI and SNRI are more suitable for the treatment of Chinese people with depression. SLC6A4 genetic variants, as well as HPA pathway, play an important role in the fluoxetine antidepressant therapeutic response while the polymorphism of MAOA gene involved in the pharmacological action of venlafaxine among female MDD patients. The presence of anxiety in MDD patients was related to the neurotrophin pathway. Genetic, cognitive, neuroendocrine, and personality intelligence factors combined have an ensemble impact on the medication effect of patients with major depression, leading to more precise and personalized medicine for specific groups of people.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical efficacy, feasibility, and safety of the preoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided coil localization (CL) approach for scapula-blocked lung nodules (SBLNs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 123 patients with LNs were treated via CT-guided CL and subsequent VATS-guided wedge resection from January 2015 to June 2020. Of these patients, 12 (9.8%) exhibited SBLNs and underwent CT-guided CL. Technical success of localization and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)-guided wedge resection, and localization-related complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The technical success rate of CT-guided CL was 100%. Each patient was placed with one coil. The mean duration of CT-guided CL was 14.7 ± 2.7 min. One patient (8.3%) developed asymptomatic pneumothorax, which has not impacted the subsequent VATS procedure. Successful VATS-guided wedge resection of these SBLNs was achieved in all patients, with no instances of conversion to thoracotomy. Additional lobectomy was performed in three patients. The mean duration of the VATS procedure and blood loss were 143.8 ± 95.5 min and 110.0 ± 82.0 ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The approach of CT-guided CL could be safely and easily utilized to facilitate high rates of success when conducting the VATS-guided wedge resection of SBLNs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191455

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Past suicide attempts (SA) are a major contributor to suicide. The prevalence of SA in pregnant and postpartum women varied significantly across studies. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence of SA and its mediating factors in this population. METHODS: Relevant articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Medline complete, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP database were systematically searched from inception to March 28, 2019. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed independently by three researchers. Studies were included if they reported data on SA prevalence or provided relevant data that enabled the calculation of SA prevalence. Data were extracted by two researchers and checked by one senior researcher. The random-effects model was used to analyze data by the CMA 2.0 and Stata 12.0, with the high degree of statistical heterogeneity present. The primary outcomes were prevalence of SA with 95% CI during pregnancy and during the first-year postpartum. RESULTS: Fourteen studies covering 6,406,245 pregnant and postpartum women were included. The pooled prevalence of SA was 680 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 0.10-4.69%) during pregnancy and 210 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 0.01-3.21%) during the first-year postpartum. Data source was significantly associated with prevalence of SA in the subgroup analysis (pregnancy, p < 0.001; the first-year postpartum, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SA is not high in pregnant and postpartum women. Due to the potential loss of life and negative impact of SA on health outcomes, however, careful screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented for this population.

4.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; : 108659, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144083

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming confers cancer cells plasticity and viability under harsh conditions. Such active alterations lead to cell metabolic dependency, which can be exploited as an attractive target in development of effective antitumor therapies. Similar to cancer cells, activated T cells also execute global metabolic reprogramming for their proliferation and effector functions when recruited to the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the high metabolic activity of rapidly proliferating cancer cells can compete for nutrients with immune cells in the TME, and consequently, suppressing their anti-tumor functions. Thus, therapeutic strategies could aim to restore T cell metabolism and anti-tumor responses in TME by targeting the metabolic dependence of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight current research progress on metabolic reprogramming and the interplay between cancer cells and immune cells. We also discuss potential therapeutic intervention strategies for targeting metabolic pathways to improve tumor immunotherapy efficacy.

6.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107766, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168395

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epithelial tight junctions of intestine were impaired in murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this work was to investigate the alteration of intestinal barrier in T2DM patients. METHODS: 90 patients with T2DM and 28 healthy controls were recruited. Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Zonulin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) were measured by ELISA, based on which a derived permeability risk score (PRS) was calculated. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the glycemic control (HbA1c < 7%, or HbA1c ≥ 7%), the amount of chronic diabetic complications, and the use of aspirin at the time. RESULTS: Serum LPS, Zonulin, and IFABP, and PRS of T2DM group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05 for all). Serum LPS and PRS was higher in T2DM patients with poor glycemic control (both p < 0.05). Patients with more chronic complications of diabetes had higher serum LPS and IFABP, and PRS (all p < 0.05). No differences were found in these serum markers between T2DM patients being treated with aspirin or not. CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal barrier function was impaired in T2DM patients. Poor glycemic control and more chronic complications of diabetes were associated with worse intestinal barrier function. Treatment with aspirin did not aggravate the impairment of intestinal barrier in T2DM patients.

7.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 394-397, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) toward Chinese psychiatric nurses and its association with quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A total of 2124 psychiatric nurses were consecutively recruited from 10 psychiatric hospitals distributed across 10 provinces of China; of them, 1,449 were included for analyses. Participants' socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of workplace SH in the past year, and QOL were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, 21.5% (n = 311) of participants reported SH, with 8.4% (n = 121) reporting once, 7.1% (n = 103) reporting twice and 6.0% (n = 87) reporting three times or more. Psychiatric nurses who experienced SH had lower QOL in physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that nurses with shorter clinical experience were more likely to experience SH. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace SH toward psychiatric nurses is common in mental health treatment settings in China. Considering its deleterious impact on nurses' well-being and care quality, effective staff training on the management of SH and a zero tolerance policy against SH should be developed for this population.

8.
Br J Radiol ; : 20200673, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate if CT-detected extramural venous invasion (ctEMVI) was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and survival outcomes in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 105 patients with pathologically proved gastric cancer who underwent pre-operative CT examinations and received radical gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy. Differences in CT characteristics between the LNM-positive and -negative groups were assessed by two observers. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. Progression-free survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Two observers reached good inter-reader agreements in ctEMVI and ctN status with κ values of 0.711 and 0.751, respectively. The frequency of ctEMVI-positive status was 58.1% (61/105) in patients with gastric cancer. The LNM-positive group showed higher possibility of ctEMVI-positive status (81.7% vs 26.7%, p<0.001), larger tumor volume (mean volume, 40.77 vs 22.09 mL, p<0.001), poor tumor margin (45.0% vs 26.7% , p = 0.054) and high enhancement on arterial phase (43.3% vs 26.7%, p = 0.023) and venous phase (60.0% vs 44.4%, p = 0.048), than LNM-negative group. In multivariate analysis, ctEMVI status and tumor volume were identified as independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis with odds ratio (OR) of 9.804 (95% CI, 3.076-31.246; p<0.001) and 1.030 (95% CI, 1.001-1.060; p = 0.044). CT-detected EMVI presented better diagnostic efficiency for lymph node metastasis than CT-defined N status, with sensitivity (81.7% vs 70.0%), specificity (73.3% vs 71.1%), accuracy (78.1% vs 70.5), PPV (80.3% vs 76.4%), and NPV (75.0% vs 64.0%), respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with positive ctEMVI findings has lower PFS rate than patients with negative ctEMVI findings (Log-rank test, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: CT-detected EMVI was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and progression free survival in patients with gastric cancer. Compared to CT-defined N status, ctEMVI provided superior diagnostic performance to predict pathologic Nstatus. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Our study proved that CT-detected EMVI is a promising imaging marker to predict lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis, which may contribute to the precise evaluation of gastric cancer before surgery.

9.
Chemistry ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034923

RESUMO

Continuous-flow multi-step synthesis takes the advantages of microchannel flow chemistry and may transform the conventional multi-step organic synthesis by using integrated synthetic systems. To realize the goal, however, innovative chemical methods and techniques are urgently required to meet the significant remaining challenges. In the past years, by using green reactions, telescoped chemical design and/or novel in-line separation techniques, major and rapid advancement has been made in this direction. This minireview summarize the most recent reports (2017-) on continuous-flow synthesis of functional molecules. Particularly, several complex active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been prepared by the continuous-flow approach. Key technologies to the successes and remaining challenges are discussed. These results exemplified the feasibility of using modern continuous-flow chemistry for complex synthetic targets, and bode well for the future development of integrated, automated artificial synthetic systems.

10.
Ann Nucl Med ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the era of rituximab, the NCCNIPI is widely used in clinical practice as a tool for the prognosis and risk stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In recent years, FDG PET/CT has also shown unique prognostic value. We try to further confirm the prognostic role of metabolic parameters in the overall and subgroups patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 87 DLBCL patients who underwent baseline FDG PET/CT and followed the R-CHOP or R-CHOP-like strategy. The clinical parameters and PET-related metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: For all patients, the 2-year PFS rate was 65.5% and the 2-year OS rate was 66.7%. According to Cox multivariate analysis, a high NCCNIPI score (4-8 points) and an MTV greater than 64.1 cm3 (defined by ROC) were independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS. The patients were divided into low, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups by NCCNIPI score. The 2-year PFS rates in each group were 90.9%, 71.3%, 33.2% and 16.7%, and the 2-year OS rates were 100%, 81.6%, 48.4% and 16.7%. In the subsequent subgroup analysis by MTV, it could further stratified low-intermediate and high-intermediate NCCNIPI groups, the P value was 0.068 and 0.069 for PFS, 0.078 and 0.036 for OS. CONCLUSIONS: MTV, as a tumor metabolic volume parameter, and the NCCNIPI score were independent predictors of prognosis in general DLBCL patients. In the low-intermediate and high-intermediate NCCNIPI subgroup, we further confirm the risk stratification abilities of MTV, which could add the prognostic value of NCCNIPI.

11.
Health Phys ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086267

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to explore how to rapidly and easily identify depleted uranium (DU) samples under battlefield conditions and to study the factors that influence their measurement. The air-absorbed dose rate and surface contamination levels for DU samples of 2-330 g were measured using a patrol instrument and portable energy spectrometer. The results were analyzed in accordance with IAEA standards for judging radioactive substances. The energy spectra of 5-g quantities of DU samples were analyzed using a high-purity germanium gamma spectrometer, and the uranium content of 100 mg DU samples was determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to clarify the type and composition of the uranium. The same batches of DU samples were identified using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer. We added 0-5 g environmental soil powders at different proportions. After sealing, the spectra were collected with a detection distance of 1-5 cm for 10 min. The activities of U and U nuclides in the samples were detected with an NaI(TI) scintillation detector. The U and U mass abundances in samples were calculated from measured specific activities. The sample was determined to contain DU if the U to U ratio was below 0.00723. It is found that for detecting DU materials with a low activity, surface contamination level measurements are more effective than calculating the air-absorbed external irradiation dose rate. Hence, for low-activity samples suspected to be radioactive, a radiometer with a high sensitivity for surface contamination is recommended, and the optimal measurement distance is 1-3 cm. Under all detection conditions, U can be identified using a portable gamma spectrometer, whereas U can only be detected under certain conditions. If these nuclides can be detected simultaneously, a U to U ratio of below 0.00723 indicates the presence of DU. The main factors affecting this identification include the sample mass, sample purity, measurement distance, and measurement time. For the rapid identification of DU with a portable gamma-ray spectrometer, the mass of uranium in the sample must be more than 1 g, the measuring distance needs to be less than 1 cm, and the measuring time must be 1-10 min. It is feasible to use a portable gamma-ray spectrometer to rapidly identify the types and composition of nuclides in DU samples. The detection of U activity is a precondition for the identification of DU.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a major cause of premature death among physicians, but the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors (including suicidal ideation, SI and suicide attempt, SA) is inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians and its associated factors. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched from commencement date to August 14, 2018. Eligible studies on the prevalence of suicide-related behaviors among physicians were included. RESULTS: Thirty-five eligible studies with 70,368 physicians were included. The lifetime prevalence of SI was 17.4% (95% CI: 13.8%-21.8%), while the 1-year prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.1%-10.3%), 6-month prevalence was 11.9% (95% CI: 2.7%-39.2%), and 1-month prevalence was 8.6% (95% CI: 5.6%-13.0%). The lifetime prevalence of SA was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9%-3.7%), while the 1-year prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1%-0.8%). Subgroup analyses revealed that geographic region was significantly associated with lifetime and 1-year prevalence of SI, while sample size was significantly associated with 1-month prevalence of SI. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis found a relatively high prevalence of suicide-related behaviors, particularly lifetime SI, among physicians. Appropriate preventive and treatment measures should be implemented to reduce the risk of suicide-related behaviors in this population.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(41): 8491-8495, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063076

RESUMO

A simple, eco-friendly, and efficient methodology for performing radical cyclizations of enynes/dienes with alcohols in water has been established. This methodology showed ease of scale up, and it was designed to use mild reaction conditions and no catalyst. It was also designed to employ K2S2O8 as a green oxidant and water as the solvent, conditions making this process clean and easy to operate, hence achieving the criteria of green chemistry.

14.
Angiogenesis ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011960

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. Increasing reports demonstrated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been crucially involved in the development of CVDs. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel cluster of small non-coding RNAs with strong uracil bias at the 5' end and 2'-O-methylation at the 3' end that are mainly present in the mammalian reproductive system and stem cells and serve as potential modulators of developmental and pathophysiological processes. Recently, piRNAs have been reported to be widely expressed in human tissues and can potentially regulate various diseases. Specifically, concomitant with the development of next-generation sequencing techniques, piRNAs have been found to be differentially expressed in CVDs, indicating their potential involvement in the occurrence and progression of heart diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved with piRNA function have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we present the current understanding of the piRNAs from the perspectives of biogenesis, characteristics, biological function, and regulatory mechanisms, and highlight their potential roles and underlying mechanisms in CVDs, which will provide new insights into the potential applications of piRNAs in the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies for heart diseases.

16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(10): 796-810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043645

RESUMO

Seed vigor is a key factor affecting seed quality. The mechanical drying process exerts a significant influence on rice seed vigor. The initial moisture content (IMC) and drying temperature are considered the main factors affecting rice seed vigor through mechanical drying. This study aimed to determine the optimum drying temperature for rice seeds according to the IMC, and elucidate the mechanisms mediating the effects of drying temperature and IMC on seed vigor. Rice seeds with three different IMCs (20%, 25%, and 30%) were dried to the target moisture content (14%) at four different drying temperatures. The results showed that the drying temperature and IMC had significant effects on the drying performance and vigor of the rice seeds. The upper limits of drying temperature for rice seeds with 20%, 25%, and 30% IMCs were 45, 42, and 38 °C, respectively. The drying rate and seed temperature increased significantly with increasing drying temperature. The drying temperature, drying rate, and seed temperature showed extremely significant negative correlations with germination energy (GE), germination rate, germination index (GI), and vigor index (VI). A high IMC and drying temperature probably induced a massive accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anions in the seeds, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increased the abscisic acid (ABA) content. In the early stage of seed germination, the IMC and drying temperature regulated seed germination through the metabolism of H2O2, gibberellin acid (GA), ABA, and α-amylase. These results indicate that the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes, GA, ABA, and α-amylase might be involved in the mediation of the effects of drying temperature on seed vigor. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the mechanical drying of rice seeds.

17.
Br J Radiol ; : 20200203, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing normal-sized pelvic lymph nodes metastases in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: 102 patients with cervical cancer who underwent MRI and DWI scan were included. 137 lymph nodes were analyzed, including 44 metastatic lymph nodes(MLNs) and 93 non-metastatic lymph nodes(non-MLNs).The morphology and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of lymph nodes were measured including short-axis diameter (DS), long-axis diameter (DL), ratio of short to long-axis diameter (DR), fatty hilum, asymmetry, ADCmax, ADCmean and ADCmin. The Mann-Whitney U test, independent sample t test and Chi-square test were employed to compare the difference of all criteria between MLNs and non-MLNs. Logistic regression and decision tree were used to develop the combined diagnostic model. ROC analyses were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: The DS and DR of MLNs were significantly higher than those of non-MLNs (p < 0.05), the ADCmax, ADCmean and ADCmin of MLNs were significantly lower than those of non-MLNs (p < 0.05). Presence of fatty hilum and asymmetric lymph nodes between MLNs and non-MLNs were significantly different (p<0.05). Combined measurement of ADCmin, DS and DR had the highest AUC 0.937 with 90.9% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. The accuracy of decision tree was 88.3%. CONCLUSION: MRI with DWI had potential in diagnosing normal-sized pelvic lymph nodes metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The combined evaluation of DS, DR and ADCmin of lymph nodes and decision tree of the combined measure showed better diagnostic performances than sole criteria. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The short-axis diameter, ratio of short to long-axis diameter and ADCmin of lymph nodes have moderate value in the diagnosis of the metastases of the normal-sized lymph nodes for the patient with cervical cancer as the sole indices. The combined evaluation of DS, DR and ADCmin is much more valuable in the detection of metastatic lymph nodes.

18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 79: 259-265, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070908

RESUMO

Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly applied in language mapping. However, the application mode and task selection of nTMS are not standardized. The aim of this study was to assessed the necessity and validity of multitask nTMS language mapping by comparing results with extraoperative electrical cortical stimulation (eoECS). In this study, sixteen epilepsy surgery patients were examined by nTMS and eoECS language mapping, and the two results were compared. The mapping results were validated with pre- to postoperative language assessments. Compared with eoECS, nTMS showed the overall sensitivity of 82.4%, specificity of 95.1%, positive predictive value of 66.7%, and negative predictive value of 97.8%. Spontaneous speech was the most sensitive task in the frontal area, naming was the sensitive task in both frontal and temporal areas. The false responses were mainly located in the perisylvian region. Multitask nTMS helps to reduce missing language relevant cortex preoperatively. Selecting spontaneous speech and naming tasks in frontal area, comprehension and naming tasks in temporal and posterior language area would strike the balance between the validity and efficiency of the mapping procedure. These results manifested the necessity of applying multitask in nTMS language mapping. Our study highlighted the importance of the nTMS evaluation mode and task selection for epilepsy patients.

19.
Psychophysiology ; : e13700, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040366

RESUMO

Numerous investigators have tested contentions that angry faces capture early attention more completely than happy faces do in the context of other faces. However, syntheses of studies on early event-related potentials related to the anger superiority hypothesis have yet to be conducted, particularly in relation to the N200 posterior-contralateral (N2pc) component which provides a reliable electrophysiological index related to orienting of attention suitable for testing this hypothesis. Fifteen samples (N = 534) from 13 studies featuring the assessment of N2pc amplitudes during exposure to angry-neutral and/or happy-neutral facial expression arrays were included for meta-analysis. Moderating effects of study design features and sample characteristics on effect size variability were also assessed. N2pc amplitudes elicited by affectively valenced expressions (angry and happy) were significantly more pronounced than those elicited by neutral expressions. However, the mean effect size difference between angry and happy expressions was ns. N2pc effect sizes were moderated by sample age, number of trials, and nature of facial images used (schematic vs. real) with larger effect sizes observed when samples were comparatively younger, more task trials were presented and schematic face arrays were used. N2pc results did not support anger superiority hypothesis. Instead, attentional resources allocated to angry versus happy facial expressions were similar in early stages of processing. As such, possible adaptive advantages of biases in orienting toward both anger and happy expressions warrant consideration in revisions of related theory.

20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(10): e3000837, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017390

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) accumulation in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the molecular mechanism controlling microglial Aß phagocytosis is poorly understood. Here we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino 1 (Peli1) is induced in the microglia of AD-like five familial AD (5×FAD) mice, whose phagocytic efficiency for Aß was then impaired, and therefore Peli1 depletion suppressed the Aß deposition in the brains of 5×FAD mice. Mechanistic characterizations indicated that Peli1 directly targeted CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)ß, a major transcription factor responsible for the transcription of scavenger receptor CD36. Peli1 functioned as a direct E3 ubiquitin ligase of C/EBPß and mediated its ubiquitination-induced degradation. Consequently, loss of Peli1 increased the protein levels of C/EBPß and the expression of CD36 and thus, promoted the phagocytic ability in microglial cells. Together, our findings established Peli1 as a critical regulator of microglial phagocytosis and highlighted the therapeutic potential by targeting Peli1 for the treatment of microglia-mediated neurological diseases.

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