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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 16, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to advancements in treatment, the survival of breast cancer (BC) patients has significantly improved. Improving the postoperative quality of life has become a widespread concern for patients and doctors. At present, the staged rehabilitation training program for postoperative BC patients has been recognized. However, there is not yet a consensus about the optimal time to initiate rehabilitation training. We designed this study to investigate the optimal intervention times for postoperative BC patients to begin different stages of rehabilitation. DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled trial. Female participants with BC who are scheduled to undergo mastectomy, including unilateral total breast or breast-conserving surgery plus axillary lymph node dissection, will be enrolled in this study. The intervention includes the following: 200 participants will be allocated using a 1:1:1:1 ratio to the A, B, C, and D groups, which have four different rehabilitation timelines for four phases of rehabilitation exercises. A therapist will evaluate the patient's overall health and then adjust the training intensity before initiating training. The assessments include upper limb mobility, grip, limb circumference, postoperative drainage volume (PDV), and pain. The training will last for 12 weeks, and patients will undergo follow-up twice within 6 weeks after discharge. Outcomes include the following: Constant-Murley Score (CMS) is the primary parameter. European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-BR23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23), SF-36, range of motion (ROM), strength, grip, circumference, PDV, and pain are the secondary parameters. All enrolled subjects will be assessed at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, and 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 weeks after the surgery. DISCUSSION: This is a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of different rehabilitation training timelines to prevent shoulder dysfunction among postoperative patients with BC. If the results are confirmed, this study will establish an optimal timeline for postoperative BC rehabilitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03658265 . Registered on September 2018.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393577

RESUMO

N,P-codoped porous carbon hollow nanosphere confining ultrafine molybdenum carbide nanoparticles are designed and prepared through a facile method. By virtue of the distinct composite and structure advantages, the resulting composite shows significantly enhanced electrocatalytic performance toward the hydrogen evolution reaction.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 8, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically, bromadiolone poisoning is characterized by severe bleeding complications in various organs and tissues. Bromadiolone-induced toxic encephalopathy is extremely rare. Here, we report a special case of bromadiolone-induced reversible toxic encephalopathy in a patient who had symmetrical lesions in the deep white matter. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old woman mainly presented with dizziness, fatigue, alalia and unsteady gait after the ingestion of bromadiolone. The laboratory examinations showed normal coagulation levels. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed apparent diffusion restriction in the bilateral deep white matter. The clinical manifestations and MRI alterations were reversible within one month of treatment with vitamin K. The neuropsychological assessment showed no neurodegenerative changes at the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: With the increased use of bromadiolone as a rodenticide, more cases of ingestion have been reported annually over the past several years. Bromadiolone-induced toxic encephalopathy has no special clinical manifestations and is potentially reversible with timely treatment. Because of the reversible restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, transient intramyelinic cytotoxic oedema is thought to be the cause rather than persistent ischaemia. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown and may be coagulant-independent. This clinical case extends the current knowledge about neurotoxicity in cases of bromadiolone poisoning and indicates that MRI is useful for the early detection of bromadiolone-induced toxic encephalopathy.

4.
FEBS J ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410203

RESUMO

The MAP kinase p38α is associated with numerous processes in eukaryotes and its elevated activity is a prominent feature of inflammatory diseases, allergies and aging. Since p38α is a nodal component of a complex signaling network, it is difficult to reveal exactly how p38α contributes to disparate outcomes. Identification of p38α-specific effects requires activation of p38α per se in vivo. We generated a transgenic mouse model that meets this requirement by allowing inducible and reversible expression of an intrinsically active p38α molecule (p38αD176A+F327S ). p38α 's activation across all murine tissues resulted in a significant loss of body weight and death of about 40% of the mice within 17 weeks of activation, although most tissues were unaffected. Flow cytometric analysis of the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid detected an accumulation of 'debris' within the airways, suggesting impaired clearance. It also revealed increased numbers of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the lung, pointing at suppression and resolution of inflammation. Blood count suggested that mice expressing p38αD176A+F327S suffer from hemolytic anemia. Flow cytometry of bone marrow revealed a reduced number of hematopoietic stem cells and abnormalities in the erythroid lineage. Unexpectedly, p38α's substrate MK2 was downregulated in mice expressing p38αD176A+F327S , suggesting that constitutive activity of p38α may impose pathological phenotypes by downregulating downstream components, perhaps via a feedback inhibition mechanism. In summary, this new mouse model shows that induced p38α activity per se is hazardous to mice vitality and welfare, although pathological parameters are apparent only in blood count, bone marrow and lungs.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413068

RESUMO

Transmembrane integrin receptors represent a major composition of cell- extracellular matrix (ECM) communications that mediate cellular biological activities including proliferation and differentiation. Stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have rapidly emerged as promising therapies for various diseases. Dynamic links exist between extracellular and intracellular environments that profoundly influence the cellular activities via integrin receptors, such as cell morphology transformation and differentiation. Interpreting the roles of integrin receptors in the regulation of MSC differentiation may potentially lead to amplified therapeutic effect. In this review, we summarize, for the first time, the potential mechanisms by which integrins promote MSC multilineage differentiation including integrin downstream signaling cascades and the interactions between integrin and ion channels, the cytoskeleton and nuclear mechanoresponses. Furthermore, we focus on the current state and future prospects of the application of integrins to promote cell differentiation.

6.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 11, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer bone metastasis has become one of the most common complications; however, it may cause cancer recurrence and bone nonunion, as well as local bone defects. METHODS: Herein, In vitro, we verified the effect of bioscaffold materials on cell proliferation and apoptosis through a CCK8 trial, staining of live/dead cells, and flow cytometry. We used immunofluorescence technology and flow cytometry to verify whether bioscaffold materials regulate macrophage polarization, and we used ALP staining, alizarin red staining and PCR to verify whether bioscaffold material promotes bone regeneration. In vivo, we once again studied the effect of bioscaffold materials on tumors by measuring tumor volume in mice, Tunel staining, and caspase-3 immunofluorescence. We also constructed a mouse skull ultimate defect model to verify the effect on bone regeneration. RESULTS: Graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles, hydrated CePO4 nanorods and bioactive chitosan (CS) are combined to form a bioactive multifunctional CePO4/CS/GO scaffold, with characteristics such as photothermal therapy to kill tumors, macrophage polarization to promote blood vessel formation, and induction of bone formation. CePO4/CS/GO scaffold activates the caspase-3 proteasein local tumor cells, thereby lysing the DNA between nucleosomes and causing apoptosis. On the one hand, the as-released Ce3+ ions promote M2 polarization of macrophages, which secretes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Arginase-1 (Arg-1), which promotes angiogenesis. On the other hand, the as-released Ce3+ ions also activated the BMP-2/Smad signaling pathway which facilitated bone tissue regeneration. CONCLUSION: The multifunctional CePO4/CS/GO scaffolds may become a promising platform for therapy of breast cancer bone metastases.

7.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using network pharmacology to explore the mechanism of the 'invigorating qi and promoting blood circulation' drug pair Ginseng-Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: The chemical constituents of ginseng and Danshen drug pair were identified by searching the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), and the potential targets of the pair were identified. The pharmacodynamics of the pair was analyzed using network pharmacology. The targets of IHD were identified by database screening. Using protein-protein interaction network, the interaction targets of Ginseng-Danshen on IHD were constructed. A "constituent-target-disease" interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape software, Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and biological pathway enrichment analysis were carried out, and the mechanism of improving myocardial ischemia by the Ginseng-Danshen drug pair was investigated. RESULTS: Seventeen active constituents and 53 targets were identified from ginseng, 53 active constituents and 61 targets were identified from Danshen, and 32 protein targets were shared by ginseng and Danshen. Twenty GO terms were analyzed, including cytokine receptor binding, cytokine activity, heme binding, and antioxidant activity. Sixty Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways were analyzed, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine-threonine kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, interleukin 17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, and the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-the receptor for AGE (RAGE) signaling pathway in diabetic complications. CONCLUSION: The specific mechanism of Ginseng-Danshen drug pair in treating IHD may be associated with improving the changes of metabolites inbody, inhibiting the production of peroxides, removing the endogenous oxygen free radicals, regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, reducing myocardial cell apoptosis and promoting vascular regeneration.

8.
Neural Comput ; 33(1): 174-193, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080166

RESUMO

Backpropagation (BP) is the cornerstone of today's deep learning algorithms, but it is inefficient partially because of backward locking, which means updating the weights of one layer locks the weight updates in the other layers. Consequently, it is challenging to apply parallel computing or a pipeline structure to update the weights in different layers simultaneously. In this letter, we introduce a novel learning structure, associated learning (AL), that modularizes the network into smaller components, each of which has a local objective. Because the objectives are mutually independent, AL can learn the parameters in different layers independently and simultaneously, so it is feasible to apply a pipeline structure to improve the training throughput. Specifically, this pipeline structure improves the complexity of the training time from O(nℓ), which is the time complexity when using BP and stochastic gradient descent (SGD) for training, to O(n+ℓ), where n is the number of training instances and ℓ is the number of hidden layers. Surprisingly, even though most of the parameters in AL do not directly interact with the target variable, training deep models by this method yields accuracies comparable to those from models trained using typical BP methods, in which all parameters are used to predict the target variable. Consequently, because of the scalability and the predictive power demonstrated in the experiments, AL deserves further study to determine the better hyperparameter settings, such as activation function selection, learning rate scheduling, and weight initialization, to accumulate experience, as we have done over the years with the typical BP method. In addition, perhaps our design can also inspire new network designs for deep learning. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/SamYWK/Associated_Learning.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110996, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227712

RESUMO

RRM2, the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, is identified as a tumor promotor and therapeutic target. It is common to see the overexpression of RRM2 in chemo-resistant cancer cells and patients. RRM2 mediates the resistance of many chemotherapeutic drugs and could become the predictor for chemosensitivity and prognosis. Therefore, inhibition of RRM2 may be an effective means to enhance the anticancer activity of chemotherapy. This review tries to discuss the mechanisms of RRM2 overexpression and the role of RRM2 in resistance to chemotherapy. Additionally, we compile the studies on small interfering RNA targets RRM2, RRM2 inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, and other ways that could overcome the resistance of chemotherapy or exert synergistic anticancer activity with chemotherapy through the expression inhibition or the enzyme inactivation of RRM2.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(1): 140-150, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The phase 2 POPLAR and phase 3 OAK studies of the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy atezolizumab in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC revealed significant improvements in survival versus docetaxel (p = 0.04 and 0.0003, respectively). Longer follow-up permits evaluation of continued benefit of atezolizumab. This study reports the final overall survival (OS) and safety findings from both trials. METHODS: POPLAR randomized 287 patients (atezolizumab, 144; docetaxel, 143) and OAK randomized 1225 patients (atezolizumab, 613; docetaxel, 612). The patients received atezolizumab (1200 mg fixed dose) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2) every 3 weeks. Efficacy and safety outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: A longer OS was observed in patients receiving atezolizumab versus docetaxel in POPLAR (median OS = 12.6 mo versus 9.7 mo; hazard ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.00) and OAK (median OS = 13.3 versus 9.8 mo; hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68-0.89). The 4-year OS rates in POPLAR were 14.8% (8.7-20.8) and 8.1% (3.2-13.0) and those in OAK were 15.5% (12.4-18.7) and 8.7% (6.2-11.3) for atezolizumab and docetaxel, respectively. Atezolizumab had improved OS benefit compared with docetaxel across all PD-L1 expression and histology groups. Most 4-year survivors in the docetaxel arms received subsequent immunotherapy (POPLAR, 50%; OAK, 65%). Of the 4-year survivors, most had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 and nonsquamous histological classification and approximately half were responders (POPLAR: atezolizumab, seven of 15; docetaxel, three of four; OAK: atezolizumab, 24 of 43; docetaxel, 11 of 26). Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 27% and 16% of atezolizumab 4-year survivors in POPLAR and OAK, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up suggests a consistent survival benefit with atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated NSCLC regardless of PD-L1 expression, histology, or subsequent immunotherapy. Atezolizumab had no new safety signals, and the safety profile was similar to that in previous studies.

11.
Surg Endosc ; 35(1): 471-475, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnia is a suturless repair for inguinal hernias in girls. It is performed under laparoscopy by grabbing the sac, inverting it into the peritoneal cavity, and cauterizing. The aim of this study is to report our experience with single-site laparoscopic burnia (BURNIA) and compare them with open repair (OPEN). METHODS: With IRB approval, pediatric female patients younger than 18 years of age who underwent inguinal hernia repair between January 2015 and December 2017 were enrolled. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups, BURNIA and OPEN. RESULTS: 198 patients were included. In BURNIA, 49 patients underwent bilateral repairs, and 50 patients underwent 51 unilateral repairs (one patient had metachronous contralateral hernia). In OPEN, 27 patients underwent bilateral repairs, and 72 patients underwent 77 unilateral repairs (five patients had metachronous contralateral hernias). The mean age of BURNIA was similar to OPEN for bilateral repairs (49.1 ± 36.6 vs. 43.7 ± 26.4 months, p = 0.46), but significantly older for unilateral repairs (54.6 ± 29.8 vs. 29.0 ± 31.4, p < 0.01). The mean operation time of BUNIA was similar to OPEN for bilateral repairs (24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 22.4 ± 8.6 min, p = 0.35), but significantly longer for unilateral repairs (19.2 ± 7.0 vs, 13.6 ± 8.8 min, p < 0.01). The mean follow-up duration of BURNIA was significantly shorter than OPEN for bilateral and unilateral repairs, respectively (32.5 ± 8.8 vs. 45.4 ± 4.8 months, p < 0.01) (30.2 ± 8.8 vs. 39.1 ± 9.6 months, p < 0.01). No conversion was required in BURNIA. There were no complications and no recurrence in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Single-site laparoscopic burnia is technically feasible, and as safe and effective as open inguinal hernia repair.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 2108-2118, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865680

RESUMO

Seven heavy metals including Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, and As were examined in seventeen marine nekton species from the outer Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China Sea. On the wet weight basis, the metal concentration ranges were 0.016-0.157 µg/g for Hg, 0.18-14.3 µg/g for Cu, 0.26-1.48 µg/g for Pb, 0.021-0.873 µg/g for Cd, 1.35-57.15 µg/g for Zn, 0.15-0.53 µg/g for Cr, and 0.42-7.83 µg/g for As, respectively. The levels of tested metals except for Pb in crustaceans were found to be higher than those in fish and cephalopods, suggesting that the diet and habitat played important roles on heavy metal accumulation ability of marine organism. Except for Cd in Champsodon capensis, Calappa lophos, and Portunus argentatus, all the left metal concentrations of investigated nekton species were below their permissible upper limits, indicating that consumption of examined marine nekton should be considered as safe for human health. The values of single target hazard quotient (THQ) and total THQ were all less than 1 and also suggested that there was no health risk for consumption. Even so, the local people should control their daily intake of crustacean foods from the outer PRE, since there might be potential As and Cd cumulative risks.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Circulation ; 143(1): 65-77, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent discoveries have indicated that, in the developing heart, sinus venosus and endocardium provide major sources of endothelium for coronary vessel growth that supports the expanding myocardium. Here we set out to study the origin of the coronary vessels that develop in response to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) in the heart and the effect of VEGF-B on recovery from myocardial infarction. METHODS: We used mice and rats expressing a VEGF-B transgene, VEGF-B-gene-deleted mice and rats, apelin-CreERT, and natriuretic peptide receptor 3-CreERT recombinase-mediated genetic cell lineage tracing and viral vector-mediated VEGF-B gene transfer in adult mice. Left anterior descending coronary vessel ligation was performed, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-mediated proliferating cell cycle labeling; flow cytometry; histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods; single-cell RNA sequencing and subsequent bioinformatic analysis; microcomputed tomography; and fluorescent- and tracer-mediated vascular perfusion imaging analyses were used to study the development and function of the VEGF-B-induced vessels in the heart. RESULTS: We show that cardiomyocyte overexpression of VEGF-B in mice and rats during development promotes the growth of novel vessels that originate directly from the cardiac ventricles and maintain connection with the coronary vessels in subendocardial myocardium. In adult mice, endothelial proliferation induced by VEGF-B gene transfer was located predominantly in the subendocardial coronary vessels. Furthermore, VEGF-B gene transduction before or concomitantly with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery promoted endocardium-derived vessel development into the myocardium and improved cardiac tissue remodeling and cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS: The myocardial VEGF-B transgene promotes the formation of endocardium-derived coronary vessels during development, endothelial proliferation in subendocardial myocardium in adult mice, and structural and functional rescue of cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction. VEGF-B could provide a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac neovascularization after coronary occlusion to rescue the most vulnerable myocardial tissue.

14.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(2): e37-e41, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925548

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Aberrant toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is central to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) pathogenesis. ß2 integrins regulate TLR signaling, and integrin ß2 (ITGB2) deficiency causes TLR hyperresponsiveness. To test the hypothesis that ITGB2 genetic variants modulate NEC susceptibility, we sequenced the exonic ITGB2 locus to compare the prevalence of deleterious variants among 221 preterm infants with and without NEC. ITGB2 variants were not associated with NEC in our entire cohort (NEC [9/56] versus controls [16/165], P = 0.19) or in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW, controls [7.9%] versus NEC [18.2%]; P = 0.11) but were increased compared to the populace (4.5%, gnomad.broadinstitute.org). Combined annotation-dependent depletion -predicted deleterious ITGB2 variants increased proportionately with increasing NEC severity in ELBW infants (controls [6.7%] versus medical NEC [16.7%] versus surgical NEC [19%] (P = 0.03). Although ITGB2 variants were not associated with NEC in our preterm cohort, subgroup analysis showed a trend towards enrichment with NEC severity in ELBW infants.

15.
Surg Endosc ; 35(1): 159-164, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventral hernia repair is typically performed via a transabdominal approach and the peritoneal cavity is opened and explored. Totally extraperitoneal ventral hernia repair (TEVHR) facilitates dissection of the hernia sac without entering the peritoneal cavity. This study evaluates our experience of TEVHR, addressing technique, decision-making, and outcomes. METHODS: This is an IRB-approved retrospective review of open TEVHR performed between January 2012 and December 2016. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, operative details, postoperative outcomes, hospital readmissions, and reoperations. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-six patients underwent TEVHR (84 males, 82 females) with a mean BMI range of 30-39. Eighty-six percent of patients underwent repair for primary or first-time recurrent hernia, and 89% CDC wound class I. Median hernia defect size was 135 cm2. Hernia repair techniques included Rives-Stoppa (34%) or transversus abdominis release (57%). Median operative time was 175 min, median blood loss 100 mL, and median length of stay 4 days. There were no unplanned bowel resections or enterotomies. Four cases required intraperitoneal entry to explant prior mesh. Wound complication rate was 27%: 9% seroma drainage, 18% superficial surgical site infection (SSI), and 2% deep space SSI. Five patients (3%) required reoperation for wound or mesh complications. Over the study, four patients were hospitalized for postoperative small bowel obstruction and managed non-operatively. Of the 166 patients, 96%, 54%, and 44% were seen at 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. Recurrences were observed in 2% of patients at 12-month follow-up. One patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula 28 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: TEVHR is a safe alternative to traditional transabdominal approaches to ventral hernia repair. The extraperitoneal dissection facilitates hernia repair, avoiding peritoneal entry and adhesiolysis, resulting in decreased operative times. In our study, there was low risk for postoperative bowel obstruction and enterotomy. Future prospective studies with long-term follow-up are required to draw definitive conclusions.

16.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 119: 111435, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321582

RESUMO

Bio-absorbable Zn alloys have been attractive replacements for the traditionally permanent implants due to their reasonable mechanical strength and elongation, degradation rate, and biocompatibility. The hybridization addition of Mg and Ag elements could greatly improve the mechanical properties and antibacterial ability of Zn, respectively. In the present paper, in vivo biocompatibility for the Zn-0.05Mg-(0, 0.5, 1 wt%) Ag implants in New Zealand rabbit was qualitatively evaluated during the implantation periods of 4, 12, and 24 weeks. The blood serum biochemical parameters and in vivo integrity of the implants in the live rabbits were monitored by using clinical chemistry analyzing and X-ray radiographic imaging techniques during the implantation process, respectively. There is no great difference in the serum biochemical indicator between the implanted rabbits and the control group. Especially the levels of serum Zn and serum Mg normalize after implantation of 24 weeks. The interfacial adherence between the implants and newly formed bones, and the histopathological morphology of heart, liver, and kidney were observed morphologically under the microscope. The new bones formed and grew surrounding the implants after 12 weeks' post-operation, which were well joined with the original cortical bones after post-implantation of 24 weeks. The heart, liver and kidney were not negatively influenced as evidenced from the serum biochemical indicators and morphologies of the tissues. Zn-0.05Mg-(0, 0.5, 1 wt%) Ag alloys are proved to be in vivo biocompatible and potential candidates for the biodegradable medical implants.

17.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The evolution and clinical significance of abnormal liver chemistries and the impact of hepatitis B infection on outcome in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. This study aimed to explore these issues. METHODS: This large retrospective cohort study included 2073 patients with COVID-19 having definite outcomes in Wuhan, China. Longitudinal liver function tests were conducted and determined their associated factors and death risk by multivariate regression analyses. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. The characteristics of liver abnormalities and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 with and without hepatitis B were compared after 1:3 propensity score matching. RESULTS: Of the 2073 patients, 1282 (61.8%) had abnormal liver chemistries during hospitalization, and 297 (14.3%) had a liver injury. The mean levels of AST and D-Bil increased early after symptom onset in deceased patients and showed disparity compared with that in discharged patients throughout the clinical course of the disease. Abnormal admission AST (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.39, 95%CI: 1.04-1.86, P=0.027) and D-Bil (adjusted HR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.22-2.26, P=0.001) levels were independent risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis and showed sufficient discriminatory power and good consistency between the prediction and the observation. HBV infection in patients did not increase the risk of COVID-19-associated poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal AST and D-Bil levels at admission were independent predictors of COVID-19 mortality. Therefore, monitoring liver chemistries, especially AST and D-Bil levels, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, is necessary.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356102

RESUMO

Non-fullerene organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have displayed the highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) among OPVs. Herein, we describe a two-donor (PM6, TPD-3F)/one-acceptor (Y6) ternary blend having an optimized blend morphology that leads to improved OPV performance. Because TPD-3F has a HOMO energy level deeper than that of PM6, the value of VOC of the corresponding ternary device increased. Good miscibility between PM6 and TPD-3F, in conjunction with device optimization through the use of 1-chloronaphthalene as an additive, provided an optimized ternary blend morphology for efficient exciton dissociation and carrier transport and, therefore, larger PCE. Compared with the preoptimized PM6:Y6 binary device, the ternary device functioned with improvements in its short-circuit current density, value of VOC, and fill factor. As a result, the device PCE improved from 15.5 ± 0.19 to 16.6 ± 0.25% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) irradiation. The champion cell exhibited a PCE of 17.0%-a value that is one of the highest for a ternary OPV. Furthermore, such devices exhibited outstanding shelf lifetimes, with long-term stability in air (25 °C, 40% humidity) without encapsulation; the performance remained high (at 15.4%) after storage for 820 h.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356208

RESUMO

Insect resistance to insecticides is an increasingly serious problem, and the resistant mechanisms are complicated. The resistance research based on the chemosensory pathway is one of the hot problems at present, but the specific binding mechanism of chemosensory genes and insecticides remains elusive. The binding mechanism of AlepGOBP2 (belong to insect chemosensory gene) with two insecticides was investigated by computational and experimental approaches. Our calculation results indicated that four key residues (Phe12, Ile52, Ile94, and Phe118) could steadily interact with these two insecticides and be assigned as hotspot sites responsible for their binding affinities. The significant alkyl-π and hydrophobic interactions involved by these four hotspot residues were found to be the driving forces for their binding affinities, especially for two residues (Phe12 and Ile94) that significantly contribute to the binding of chlorpyrifos, which were also validated by our binding assay results. Furthermore, we also found that the AlepGOBP2-chlorpyrifos/phoxim complexes can be more efficiently converged in the residue-specific force field-(RSFF2C) and its higher accuracy and repeatability in protein dynamics simulation, per-residue free energy decomposition, and computational alanine scanning calculations have also been achieved in this paper. These findings provided useful insights for efficient and reliable calculation of the binding mechanism of relevant AlepGOBPs with other insecticides, facilitating to develop new and efficient insecticides targeting the key sites of AlepGOBP2.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21647, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303768

RESUMO

The hemorrhagic and the ischemic types of stroke have similar symptoms in the early stage, but their treatments are completely different. The timely and effective discrimination of the two types of stroke can considerable improve the patients' prognosis. In this paper, a 16-channel and noncontact microwave-based stroke detection system was proposed and demonstrated for the potential differentiation of the hemorrhagic and the ischemic stroke. In animal experiments, 10 rabbits were divided into two groups. One group consisted of five cerebral hemorrhage models, and the other group consisted of five cerebral ischemia models. The two groups were monitored by the system to obtain the Euclidean distance transform value of microwave scattering parameters caused by pathological changes in the brain. The support vector machine was used to identify the type and the severity of the stroke. Based on the experiment, a discrimination accuracy of 96% between hemorrhage and ischemia stroke was achieved. Furthermore, the potential of monitoring the progress of intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia was evaluated. The discrimination of different degrees of intracerebral hemorrhage achieved 86.7% accuracy, and the discrimination of different severities of ischemia achieved 94% accuracy. Compared with that with multiple channels, the discrimination accuracy of the stroke severity with a single channel was only 50% for the intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemia stroke. The study showed that the microwave-based stroke detection system can effectively distinguish between the cerebral hemorrhage and the cerebral ischemia models. This system is very promising for the prehospital identification of the stroke type due to its low cost, noninvasiveness, and ease of operation.

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