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1.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2024941, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036076

RESUMO

The poor progress of immunotherapy on osteosarcoma patients requires deeper delineation of immune tolerance mechanisms in the osteosarcoma microenvironment and a new therapeutic strategy. Clearance of apoptotic cells by phagocytes, a process termed "efferocytosis," is ubiquitous in tumors and mediates the suppression of innate immune inflammatory response. Considering the massive infiltrated macrophages in osteosarcoma, efferocytosis probably serves as a potential target, but is rarely studied in osteosarcoma. Here, we verified M2 polarization and PD-L1 expression of macrophages following efferocytosis. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown were used to explore the underlying pathway. Moreover, tumor progression and immune landscape were evaluated following inhibition of efferocytosis in osteosarcoma model. Our study indicated that efferocytosis promoted PD-L1 expression and M2 polarization of macrophages. Ëfferocytosis was mediated by MerTK receptor in osteosarcoma and regulated the phenotypes of macrophages through the p38/STAT3 pathway. By establishing the murine osteosarcoma model, we emphasized that inhibition of MerTK suppressed tumor growth and enhanced the T cell cytotoxic function by increasing the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and decreasing their exhaustion. Our findings demonstrate that MerTK-mediated efferocytosis promotes osteosarcoma progression by enhancing M2 polarization of macrophages and PD-L1-induced immune tolerance, which were regulated through the p38/STAT3 pathway.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 414, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013540

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a critical problem during aging. Ultrasound signals backscattered from bone contain information associated with microstructures. This study proposed using entropy imaging to collect the information in bone microstructures as a possible solution for ultrasound bone tissue characterization. Bone phantoms with different pounds per cubic foot (PCF) were used for ultrasound scanning by using single-element transducers of 1 (nonfocused) and 3.5 MHz (nonfocused and focused). Clinical measurements were also performed on lumbar vertebrae (L3 spinal segment) in participants with different ages (n = 34) and postmenopausal women with low or moderate-to-high risk of osteoporosis (n = 50; identified using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Taiwan). The signals backscattered from the bone phantoms and subjects were acquired for ultrasound entropy imaging by using sliding window processing. The independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman correlation coefficient rs, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis. The results indicated that ultrasound entropy imaging revealed changes in bone microstructures. Using the 3.5-MHz focused ultrasound, small-window entropy imaging (side length: one pulse length of the transducer) was found to have high performance and sensitivity in detecting variation among the PCFs (rs = - 0.83; p < 0.05). Small-window entropy imaging also performed well in discriminating young and old participants (p < 0.05) and postmenopausal women with low versus moderate-to-high osteoporosis risk (the area under the ROC curve = 0.80; cut-off value = 2.65; accuracy = 86.00%; sensitivity = 71.43%; specificity = 88.37%). Ultrasound small-window entropy imaging has great potential in bone tissue characterization and osteoporosis assessment.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shenling Baizhu Powder (SBP), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulation, has been widely used in the adjuvant treatment of cancers, including breast cancer. This study aims to identify potential new targets for breast cancer treatment based on the network pharmacology of SBP.

Methods: By analyzing the relationship between herbs and target proteins, potential targets of multiple herbs in SBP were identified by network pharmacology analysis. Besides, by comparing the data of breast cancer tissue with normal tissue, upregulated genes in two breast cancer expression profiles were found. Thereafter, the expression level and prognosis of activator of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) ATPase activity 1 (AHSA1) were further analyzed in breast cancer by bioinformatics analysis, and the network module of AHSA1 binding protein was constructed. Furthermore, the effect of knocking down AHSA1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells was verified by MTT, clone formation assay, and transwell assay.

Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), AHSA1, and serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) were associated with multiple herbs in SBP. AHSA1 was remarkably upregulated in breast cancer tissues and positively correlated with poor overall survival and disease metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, knockdown of AHSA1 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but had no obvious effect on proliferation. In addition, among the proteins that bind to AHSAl, the network composed of proteasome, chaperonin, and heat shock proteins is closely connected, and these proteins are associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers.

Conclusion: AHSA1 is positively correlated with breast cancer progression and might act as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.

4.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 7(1): 498-505, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977394

RESUMO

Bio-manufacturing via microbial cell factory requires large promoter library for fine-tuned metabolic engineering. Ogataea polymorpha, one of the methylotrophic yeasts, possesses advantages in broad substrate spectrum, thermal-tolerance, and capacity to achieve high-density fermentation. However, a limited number of available promoters hinders the engineering of O. polymorpha for bio-productions. Here, we systematically characterized native promoters in O. polymorpha by both GFP fluorescence and fatty alcohol biosynthesis. Ten constitutive promoters (P PDH , P PYK , P FBA , P PGM , P GLK , P TRI , P GPI , P ADH1 , P TEF1 and P GCW14 ) were obtained with the activity range of 13%-130% of the common promoter P GAP (the promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), among which P PDH and P GCW14 were further verified by biosynthesis of fatty alcohol. Furthermore, the inducible promoters, including ethanol-induced P ICL1 , rhamnose-induced P LRA3 and P LRA4 , and a bidirectional promoter (P Mal -P Per ) that is strongly induced by sucrose, further expanded the promoter toolbox in O. polymorpha. Finally, a series of hybrid promoters were constructed via engineering upstream activation sequence (UAS), which increased the activity of native promoter P LRA3 by 4.7-10.4 times without obvious leakage expression. Therefore, this study provided a group of constitutive, inducible, and hybrid promoters for metabolic engineering of O. polymorpha, and also a feasible strategy for rationally regulating the promoter strength.

6.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988594

RESUMO

Hyperplastic callus (HPC) is the most conspicuous features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V, of which accurate diagnosis and treatment are facing challenges. We investigate the clinical features, and impact factors of HPC in OI type V patients. In this retrospective single-center study, a total of 21 patients with type V OI confirmed by IFITM5 mutation were included. Radiological characteristics of bone were evaluated by X-rays, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography scan. Bone biopsy specimens were performed and stained by routine hematoxylin-eosin. The effects of bisphosphonates on HPC were investigated. Eleven patients (52.3%) had HPCs at 19 skeletal sites, 11 of which affected the femur. Three patients developed four (21.1%) HPCs after fractures, and 15 (78.9%) HPCs occurred in absence of bone fracture. The progress of HPCs was variable, of which most HPCs enlarged in the initial phase and remained stable, and only one HPC dwindled in size. One patient had a rapidly growing mass on the right humerus, and biopsy showed irregular trabeculae of woven bone and immature bone and cartilage in the loose and edematous collagenous network without signs of tumor. Bisphosphonates treatment had no significant effects on HPC of OI patients. HPC is the specific characteristic of OI type V patients, and its location, shape, size, and progression are variable, and the femur is the most frequently involved site. It is very important to make a diagnosis of HPC through detecting IFITM5 mutation and completing pathological diagnosis if necessary. The treatment of HPC is worth further exploration.

7.
J Nephrol ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34988939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the continual improvements in dialysis treatments, mortality in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) remains high. Many mortality prediction models are available, but most of them are not precise enough to be used in the clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate two prediction models for 3-month and 1-year patient mortality after dialysis initiation in our population. METHODS: Using population-based data of insurance claims in Taiwan, we included more than 210,000 patients who initiated dialysis between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2015. We developed two prognostic models, which included 9 and 11 variables, respectively (including age, sex, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer disease, malignancy, moderate to severe liver disease, and first dialysis in intensive care unit). RESULTS: The models showed adequate discrimination (C-statistics were 0.80 and 0.82 for 3-month and 1-year mortality, respectively) and good calibration. In both our models, the first dialysis in the intensive care unit and moderate-to-severe liver disease were the strongest risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: The prediction models developed in our population had good predictive ability for short-term mortality in patients initiating dialysis in Taiwan and could help in decision-making regarding dialysis initiation, at least in our setting, supporting a patient-centered approach to care.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic drug reaction (SDR) is a major safety concern with weekly rifapentine-based treatment (3HP) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Identifying SDR predictors and at-risk subjects before treatment can improve cost-effectiveness of the LTBI program. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 187 cases receiving 3HP (44 SDRs and 143 non-SDRs). A pilot cohort (8 SDRs and 12 non-SDRs) was selected for generating whole-blood transcriptomic data. Through the incorporation of the hierarchical system biology model and therapy-biomarker pathway approach, candidate genes were selected and evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Then, interpretable machine learning models presenting as SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values were applied for SDR risk prediction. Finally, an independent cohort was used to evaluate the performance of these predictive models. RESULTS: Based on the whole-blood transcriptomic profile of the pilot cohort and the RT-qPCR results of 2 SDR and 3 non-SDR samples in training cohort, six genes were selected. According to SHAP values for model construction and validation, a 3-gene model for SDR risk prediction achieved a sensitivity and specificity of 0.972 and 0.947, respectively, under a universal cutoff value for the joint of the training (28 SDRs and 104 non-SDRs) and testing (8 SDRs and 27 non-SDRs) cohorts. It also worked well across different subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction model for 3HP-related SDR serves as a guide for establishing a safe and personalized regimen to foster the implementation of the LTBI program. Additionally, it provides a potential translational value for future studies on drug-related hypersensitivity.

9.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 485-495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070170

RESUMO

Resistance to the last-line polymyxins is emerging in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and phage therapy is a promising alternative. However, phage monotherapy often rapidly causes resistance and few studies have examined antibiotic-phage combinations against K. pneumoniae. Here, we investigated the combination of polymyxin B with a novel phage pK8 against an mcr-1-carrying polymyxin-resistant clinical isolate Kp II-503 (polymyxin B MIC, 8 mg/L). The phage genome was sequenced and bacterial metabolomes were analysed at 4 and 24 h following the treatment with polymyxin B (16 mg/L), phage pK8 (102 PFU/mL) and their combination. Minimal metabolic changes across 24 h were observed with polymyxin B alone; whereas a significant inhibition of the citrate cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism occurred with the phage-polymyxin combination at both 4 and 24 h, but with phage alone only at 4 h. The development of resistance to phage alone was associated with enhanced membrane lipid and decreased amino acid biosynthesis in Kp II-503. Notably, cAMP, cGMP and cCMP were significantly enriched (3.1-6.6 log2fold) by phage alone and the combination only at 4 h. This is the first systems pharmacology study to investigate the enhanced bacterial killing by polymyxin-phage combination and provides important mechanistic information on phage killing, resistance and antibiotic-phage combination in K. pneumoniae.

10.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223211066727, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070251

RESUMO

Background: Aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA) has been linked to insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus has been associated with increased arterial stiffness and worse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the impact of diabetes on baseline and post-treatment arterial stiffness in patients with PA is unknown. Methods: This study prospectively enrolled 1071 PA patients, of whom 177 had diabetes and 894 did not. Clinical, biochemical, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) data were analyzed at baseline and 1 year after PA-specific treatment. After propensity score matching of age, sex, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension duration, and number of antihypertensive medications, 144 patients with diabetes and 320 without diabetes were included for further analysis. Results: After propensity score matching, the baseline characteristics were balanced between the diabetes and nondiabetes groups except for fasting glucose, HbA1c, and lipid profiles. The patients with diabetes had significantly worse baseline baPWV compared with those without diabetes. After multivariable linear regression, the presence of diabetes mellitus remained a significant predictor of worse baseline mean baPWV (ß: 46.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.9-89.7, p = 0.037). After 1 year of PA-specific treatment, only the nondiabetes group had significant recovery of mean baPWV (1661.8 ± 332.3 to 1565.0 ± 329.2 cm/s, p < 0.001; Δ = -96.8 ± 254.6 cm/s). In contrast, the diabetes group had less improvement (1771.2 ± 353.8 cm/s to 1742.0 ± 377.2 cm/s, p = 0.259; Δ = -29.2 ± 263.2 cm/s) even though the systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly improved in both groups. Conclusion: The presence of diabetes mellitus in PA patients was associated with worse baseline and less post-treatment recovery of arterial stiffness.

11.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 4, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sepsis, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) has been shown to be low-expressed. The current study examined the relationship between serum VDBP level and liver injury in sepsis patients, as well as in a mouse model for sepsis and in cultured liver epithelial cell line exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: The human study included 78 sepsis patients and 50 healthy volunteers. Sepsis patients were categorized into sepsis survivor group (n = 43) and sepsis non-survivor group (n = 35) based on 28-day mortality for data analysis. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Serum samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 to determine the levels of VDBP, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3], interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Potential protective effects of VDBP overexpression against LPS-induced liver damage were examined in cultured THLE2 cells. RESULTS: Serum levels of VDBP, 25(OH)D3, and 1,25(OH)2D3 were significantly lower in sepsis patients vs. the healthy control (P < 0.001), as well as in the sepsis non-survivor group vs. the sepsis survivor group (P < 0.001, P = 0.0338, or P = 0.0013, respectively). Lower serum VDBP level was associated with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (r = - 0.2565, P = 0.0234) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (r = - 0.3522, P = 0.0016), but lower serum albumin (ALB, r = 0.4628, P < 0.001) and total protein (TP, r = 0.263, P = 0.02). In CLP mice, there was a 5-day period of serum VDBP reduction, followed by return towards the baseline on day 7. VDBP was also decreased in LPS-treated THLE2 cells (P < 0.001). VDBP overexpression reduced LPS-induced THLE2 damage. Reduced damage was associated with decreased oxidative stress and inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: VDBP may be protective against sepsis-induced liver injury.

12.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059722

RESUMO

The organization of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) connectome has been studied using graph theory using single neuroimaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) or structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although these modalities measure distinct pathological processes that occur in different stages in AD, there is evidence that they are not independent from each other. Therefore, to capture their interaction, in this study we integrated amyloid PET and gray matter MRI data into a multiplex connectome and assessed the changes across different AD stages. We included 135 cognitively normal (CN) individuals without amyloid-ß pathology (Aß-) in addition to 67 CN, 179 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 132 patients with AD dementia who all had Aß pathology (Aß+) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We found widespread changes in the overlapping connectivity strength and the overlapping connections across Aß-positive groups. Moreover, there was a reorganization of the multiplex communities in MCI Aß + patients and changes in multiplex brain hubs in both MCI Aß + and AD Aß + groups. These findings offer a new insight into the interplay between amyloid-ß pathology and brain atrophy over the course of AD that moves beyond traditional graph theory analyses based on single brain networks.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062014

RESUMO

Topological phases in two-dimensional (2D) systems have been attracting tremendous attention since the discovery of graphene. Since the experimental probing could proceed in the whole phonon spectrum, intensive research effort has been devoted to the topological quantum phases in phononic systems. Via first-principles calculations, we predict that a family of 2D hexagonal materials, XH (X=Si, Ge, Sn), hosts ideal linear (LNP) and quadratic phononic nodal points (QNP). Specifically, the LNPs appear at the two inequivalent valleys, akin to the 2D Dirac point in graphene, connecting by an edge arc. The QNP is pinned at the Γ point, two edge states emerge from their projections. Remarkably, both LNPs and QNP enjoy an emergent chiral symmetry, we then show that they feature nontrivial topological charges. As a consequence, our work discusses the nodal points in the phonon spectrum of 2D materials and provides ideal candidates to study the topology for bosonic systems.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(1): 35, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013144

RESUMO

As a multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib is commonly used to treat patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), however, acquired resistance to sorafenib is a major obstacle to the effectiveness of this treatment. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying sorafenib resistance as well as approaches devised to increase the sensitivity of HCC to sorafenib. We demonstrated that miR-124-3p.1 downregulation is associated with early recurrence in HCC patients who underwent curative surgery and sorafenib resistance in HCC cell lines. Regarding the mechanism of this phenomenon, we identified FOXO3a, an important cellular stress transcriptional factor, as the key factor in the function of miR-124-3p.1 in HCC. We showed that miR-124-3p.1 binds directly to AKT2 and SIRT1 to reduce the levels of these proteins. Furthermore, we showed that AKT2 and SIRT1 phosphorylate and deacetylate FOXO3a. We also found that miR-124-3p.1 maintains the dephosphorylation and acetylation of FOXO3a, leading to the nuclear location of FOXO3a and enhanced sorafenib-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of miR-124-3p.1 mimics and sorafenib significantly enhanced the curative efficacy of sorafenib in a nude mouse HCC xenograft model. Collectively, our data reveal that miR-124-3p.1 represents a predictive indicator of early recurrence and sorafenib sensitivity in HCC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-124-3p.1 enhances the curative efficacy of sorafenib through dual effects on FOXO3a. Thus, the miR-124-3p.1-FOXO3a axis is implicated as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024995

RESUMO

Racemic praziquantel (PZQ) is the standard treatment for schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections (opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis). The development of an optimal pediatric formulation and dose selection would benefit from a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model. A popPK model was developed for R-PZQ, the active enantiomer of PZQ, in 664 subjects, 493 African children (2-15 years) infected with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, and 171 Lao adults (15-78 years) infected with Opisthorchis viverrini. Racemate tablets were administered as single doses of 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg in children and 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg in 129 adults, and as 3 × 25 mg/kg apart in 42 adults. Samples collected by the dried-blood-spot technique were assayed by LC-MS/MS. A two-compartment disposition model, with allometric scaling and dual first-order and transit absorption, was developed using Phoenix™ software. Inversely parallel functions of age described the apparent oral bioavailability (BA) and clearance maturation in children and ageing in adults. BA decreased slightly in children with dose increase, and by 35% in adults with multiple dosing. Crushing tablets for preschool-aged children increased the first-order absorption rate by 64%. The mean transit absorption time was 70% higher in children. A popPK model for R-PZQ integrated African children over 2 years of age with schistosomiasis and Lao adults with opisthorchiasis, and should be useful to support dose optimization in children. In vitro hepatic and intestinal metabolism data would help refining and validating the model in younger children as well as in target ethnic pediatric and adult groups.

16.
Demography ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019967

RESUMO

We investigate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on gender disparities in three employment outcomes: labor force participation, full-time employment, and unemployment. Using data from the monthly Current Population Survey, in this research note we test individual fixed-effects models to examine the employment status of women relative to that of men in the nine months following the onset of the epidemic in March of 2020. We also test separate models to examine differences between women and men based on the presence of young children. Because the economic effects of the epidemic coincided with the summer months, when women's employment often declines, we account for seasonality in women's employment status. After doing so, we find that women's full-time employment did not decline significantly relative to that of men during the months following the beginning of the epidemic. Gender gaps in unemployment and labor force participation did increase, however, in the early and later months of the year, respectively. Our findings regarding women's labor force participation and employment have implications for our understanding of the long-term effects of the health crisis on other demographic outcomes.

17.
Neurology ; 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial metabolites that promote the disease process in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD), but fecal levels of SCFAs in PD patients are reduced. Simultaneous assessments of fecal and plasma SCFA levels, and their inter-relationships with the PD disease process are scarce. We aimed to compare fecal and plasma levels of different SCFAs subtypes in PD patients and healthy controls to delineate their interrelations and link to gut microbiota changes and clinical severity of PD. METHODS: A cohort of 96 PD patients and 85 controls were recruited from National Taiwan University Hospital. Fecal and plasma concentrations of SCFAs were measured using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Gut microbiota was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Body mass index and medical co-morbidities were evaluated, and dietary information was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. To assess motor and cognitive impairment, we used the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). RESULTS: Compared with controls, PD patients had lower fecal but higher plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. After adjustment for age, sex, disease duration, and anti-PD medication dosage, MDS-UPDRS part III motor scores correlated with reduced fecal levels of acetate (ρ = -0.37, p = 0.012), propionate (ρ = -0.32, p = 0.036), and butyrate (ρ = -0.40, p = 0.004) and with increased plasma propionate concentrations (ρ = 0.26, p = 0.042) in PD patients. MMSE scores negatively correlated with plasma levels of butyrate (ρ = -0.09, p = 0.027) and valerate (ρ = -0.032, p = 0.033) after adjustment for confounders. SCFAs-producing gut bacteria correlated positively with fecal levels of SCFAs in healthy controls but revealed no association in patients with PD. In the PD patient group, the abundance of pro-inflammatory microbes, such as Clostridiales bacterium NK3B98 and Ruminococcus sp. AM07-15, significantly correlated with decreased fecal levels and increased plasma levels of SCFAs, especially propionic acid. DISCUSSION: Reductions in fecal SCFAs but increased plasma SCFAs were observed in PD patients and corelated to specific gut microbiota changes and the clinical severity of PD. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that gut metabolite SCFAs distinguish between PD patients and controls, and are associated with disease severity in patients with PD.

19.
Biomedicines ; 10(1)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052801

RESUMO

The limited accuracy of cerebral infarct detection on CT images caused by the low contrast of CT hinders the desirable application of CT as a first-line diagnostic modality for screening of cerebral infarct. This research was aimed at utilizing convolutional neural network to enhance the accuracy of automated cerebral infarct detection on CT images. The CT images underwent a series of preprocessing steps mainly to enhance the contrast inside the parenchyma, adjust the orientation, spatially normalize the images to the CT template, and create a t-score map for each patient. The input format of the convolutional neural network was the t-score matrix of a 16 × 16-pixel patch. Non-infarcted and infarcted patches were selected from the t-score maps, on which data augmentation was conducted to generate more patches for training and testing the proposed convolutional neural network. The convolutional neural network attained a 93.9% patch-wise detection accuracy in the test set. The proposed method offers prompt and accurate cerebral infarct detection on CT images. It renders a frontline detection modality of ischemic stroke on an emergent or regular basis.

20.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(1): 124-128, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether epidural anesthesia and analgesia (EA) improves long-term outcomes after pancreatic cancer surgery remains controversial. We conducted this retrospective cohort study to investigate the influence of EA on cancer recurrence and overall survival after surgery for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We conducted an electronic medical chart review of patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent curative resection at our hospital from 2008 to 2017 and were followed up until December 2019. Patient demographics, anesthetic and surgical characteristics, and pathologic features were also collected. The effects of EA on postoperative cancer recurrence and overall survival were evaluated using proportional hazards regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores to balance unequal distributions of observed covariates. For sensitivity analysis, multivariable regression modeling and quintile-stratified propensity adjustments were also used. RESULTS: Among the 252 included patients, the median follow-up period was 15.9 months (interquartile range 6.8-28.2 months), and 88 (35%) received EA after pancreatic cancer surgery. EA was not associated with greater cancer recurrence (IPTW adjusted HR: 0.98; 95% CI, 0.78%-1.24%; p = 0.87) or all-cause mortality (IPTW adjusted HR: 1.02; 95% CI, 0.82%-1.27%; p = 0.85) after pancreatic cancer resection. In sensitivity analysis, both the multivariable and stratified Cox regression analyses failed to demonstrate significant effects of EA on cancer recurrence and survival after surgery. CONCLUSION: There were no significant associations between EA and cancer recurrence and overall survival after curative surgery for pancreatic cancer. Prospective studies should be considered to elucidate the relationship between EA and cancer outcomes after pancreatic cancer surgery.

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