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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126899, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418838

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), a hazardous heavy metal, can lead to toxic effects on host physiology. Recently, specific mitochondria-localized miRNAs (mitomiRs) were shown to modulate mitochondrial function, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here, we identified mitomiR-1285 as an important molecule regulating mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in jejunal epithelial cells under Cu exposure. Mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy were the important mechanisms of Cu-induced pathological damage in jejunal epithelial cells, which were accompanied by significant increase of mitomiR-1285 in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of mitomiR-1285 significantly attenuated Cu-induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, ATP deficiency, mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation, and mitophagy. Subsequently, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IDH2 was a direct target of mitomiR-1285. RNA interference of IDH2 dramatically reversed the effect that mitomiR-1285 knockdown relieved mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy induced by Cu, and the opposite effect was shown by overexpression of IDH2. Therefore, our results suggested that mitomiR-1285 aggravated Cu-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy via suppressing IDH2 expression. These findings identified the important mechanistic connection between mitomiRs and mitochondrial metabolism under Cu exposure, providing a new insight into Cu toxicology.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Mitofagia , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais , Mitocôndrias , Mitofagia/genética , Suínos
2.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9642-9657, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664585

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace mineral, but its excessive intake can lead to potentially toxic effects on host physiology. The mammalian intestine harbors various microorganisms that are associated with intestinal barrier function and inflammation. In this study, the influences of Cu on barrier function, microbiota, and its metabolites were examined in the jejunum and colon of pigs. Here, we identified that the physical and chemical barrier functions were impaired both in the jejunum and colon, as evidenced by the decreased expression of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1, and JAM-1) and mucous secretion-related genes, positive rate of Muc2, and secretion of SIgA and SIgG. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were overexpressed in the jejunum and colon. Furthermore, Cu might increase the abundances of Mycoplasma, Actinobacillus and unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum, which significantly affected pentose and glucoronate interconversions, histidine metabolism, folate biosynthesis, porphyrin metabolism, and purine metabolism. Meanwhile, the abundances of Lactobacillus and Methanobrevibacter were remarkably decreased and Streptococcus, unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae, and unidentified_Muribaculaceae were significantly increased in the colon, with an evident impact on glycerophospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. These findings revealed that excess Cu had significant effects on the microbiota and metabolites in the jejunum and colon, which were involved in intestinal barrier dysfunction and inflammation.

3.
J Inorg Biochem ; 224: 111581, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419760

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is one of the ubiquitous environmental pollutants which have raised wide concerns about the potential toxic effects and public health threat. For deeply investigating the nephrotoxicity induced by Cu, the effects of Cu on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney were first to analyze by combining metabolomics and molecular biology techniques. In this study, broiler chicks were fed with different contents of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg Cu) for 49 d. The results of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscope showed that Cu could induce apoptosis in kidney, characterized by the increasing of TUNEL-positive cells and mitochondrial vacuolation. Additionally, a total of 62 differential metabolites were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways including riboflavin metabolism, glutathione metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism, which were closely to mitochondrial metabolism. Meanwhile, the decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased mitochondrial membrane permeability and the change of mRNA and protein expression levels associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial dynamics confirmed that Cu could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, our results demonstrated that Cu induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in kidney. Moreover, this study highlighted the metabolic characteristics of Cu to kidney, which suggested that mitochondrial metabolism could be considered as an important factor influencing toxicity.

4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112394, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091186

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are known as an environmental contaminant with cardiotoxicity properties. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest calcium reservoir in the cell, and its calcium homeostasis disorder plays a vital role in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether As and Sb induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) linked to calcium homeostasis disturbance. In this study, thirty-two adult mice were gavage-fed daily with As2O3 (4 mg/kg), SbCl3 (15 mg/kg) and co-treat with SbCl3 (15 mg/kg) and As2O3 (4 mg/kg) daily for 60 days. It was observed that As or/and Sb caused histopathological lesions and ER expansion of the heart. Meanwhile, the gene expression of ER Ca2+ release channels (RyR2 and IP3R) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) increased while the levels of mRNA and protein of ER Ca2+ uptake channel (SERCA2) downregulated significantly compared to the controls. Then, As or/and Sb induced ERS and triggered the ER apoptotic pathway by activating unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated genes ((PERK, ATF6, IRE1, XBP1, JNK, GRP78), and apoptosis-related genes (Caspase12, Caspase3, p53, CHOP). Above indicators in As + Sb group became more severe than that of As group and Sb group. Overall, our results proved that the cardiotoxicity caused by As or/and Sb might be concerning disturbing calcium homeostasis, which induced apoptosis through the ERS pathway.


Assuntos
Antimônio/toxicidade , Arsênio/toxicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimônio/metabolismo , Apoptose , Arsênio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxinas , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 218: 112284, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945902

RESUMO

Copper poses huge environmental and public health concerns due to its widespread and persistent use in the past several decades. Although it is well established that at higher levels copper causes nephrotoxicity, the exact mechanisms of its toxicity is not fully understood. Therefore, this experimental study for the first time investigates the potential molecular mechanisms including transcriptomics, metabolomics, serum biochemical, histopathological, cell apoptosis and autophagy in copper-induced renal toxicity in pigs. A total of 14 piglets were randomly assigned to two group (7 piglets per group) and treated with a standard diet (11 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed) and a high copper diet (250 mg CuSO4 per kg of feed). The results of serum biochemical tests and renal histopathology suggested that 250 mg/kg CuSO4 in the diet significantly increased serum creatinine (CREA) and induced renal tubular epithelial cell swelling. Results on transcriptomics and metabolomics showed alteration in 804 genes and 53 metabolites in kidneys of treated pigs, respectively. Combined analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics indicated that different genes and metabolism pathways in kidneys of treated pigs were involved in glycerophospholipids metabolism and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Furthermore, copper induced mitochondrial apoptosis characterized by increased bax, bak, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 expressions while decreased bcl-xl and bcl2/bax expression. Exposure to copper decreased the autophagic flux in terms of increased number of autophagosomes, beclin1 and LC3b/LC3a expression and p62 accumulation. These results indicated that the imbalance of glycosphingolipid metabolism, the impairment of autophagy and increase mitochondrial apoptosis play an important role in copper induced renal damage and are useful mechanisms to understand the mechanisms of copper nephrotoxicity.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112350, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022626

RESUMO

Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been known as common environmental pollution, and is deemed to a threat to global public health. Curcumin (Cur) is a phytoconstituent, which has been demonstrated to have antioxidant effects. In the current experiment, we investigated the efficacy of Cur against ATO-induced kidney injury and explored the potential molecular mechanisms that have not yet been fully elucidated in ducks. The results showed that treatment with Cur attenuated ATO-induced body weight loss, reduced the content of ATO in the kidney, and improved ATO-induced kidney pathological damage. Cur also remarkably alleviated the ascent of ATO-induced MDA level and activated the Nrf2 pathway. Using the TEM, we found Cur relieved mitochondrial swelling, autolysosomes generating and nuclear damage. Simultaneously, Cur was found that it not only significantly reduced autophagy-related mRNA and protein levels (mTOR, LC3-Ⅰ, LC3-Ⅱ, Atg-5, Beclin1, Pink1 and Parkin) and but also decreased apoptosis-related mRNA and protein expression levels (cleaved caspase-3, Cytc, p53 and Bax). Furthermore, through nontargeted metabolomics analysis, we observed that lipid metabolism balance was disordered by ATO exposure, while Cur administration alleviated the disturbance of lipid metabolism. These results showed ATO could induce autophagy and apoptosis by overproducing ROS in the kidney of ducks, and Cur might relieve excessive autophagy, apoptosis and disturbance of lipid metabolism by regulating oxidative stress. Collectively, our findings explicate the potential therapeutic value of Cur as a new strategy to a variety of disorders caused by ATO exposure.


Assuntos
Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Patos/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(10): 4647-4656, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660982

RESUMO

Type II diabetes is a prevalent disease; if left untreated, it could cause serious complications including liver and kidney damages. Hence, early diagnosis for these damages and effective treatment of diabetes are of high importance. Herein, a fluorophore-dapagliflozin dyad (DX-B-DA) has been developed as a theranostic system that can be triggered by intrahepatic/intrarenal reactive oxygen species (ROS) to concomitantly release a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye (DX) and a SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DA). In this dyad (DX-B-DA), the NIR fluorophore (DX) and the drug DA were covalently linked through a boronate ester bond which serves as the fluorescence quencher as well as the ROS-responsive moiety that can be cleaved by pathological levels of ROS in diabetics. The in vitro experiments indicate that, in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, the dyad is weakly emissive and keeps its drug moiety in an inactive state, while upon responding to hydrogen peroxide, the dyad simultaneously releases the NIR dye and the drug DA, suggesting that it can serve as an activatable probe for detecting and imaging diabetic liver/kidney damages as well as a prodrug for diabetes treatment upon being triggered by ROS. The dyad was then injected in mouse model of type II diabetes, and it is found that the dyad can not only offer visualized diagnosis for diabetes-induced liver/kidney damages but also exhibit high efficacy in treating type II diabetes and consequently ameliorating diabetic liver/kidney damages.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Corantes Fluorescentes , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos , Rim , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Camundongos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111968, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550083

RESUMO

Despite the fact that copper (Cu) is a vital micronutrient to maintain body function, high doses of Cu through environmental exposure damage various organs, especially the liver, which is the main metabolic organ. To investigate the influence of long-term Cu-induced toxicity on mitophagy and apoptosis in rat liver, 96 seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed TBCC for 24 weeks. The results revealed that exposure to high Cu concentrations could promote oxidative stress liver injury by increasing the hepatic function index (ALT, AST and ALP) and MDA content, while reducing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (T-SOD, GSH-Px and CAT) related to oxidative stress. Consistent with histopathological observations, proper dietary Cu (15-60 mg/kg) could improve antioxidant stress levels and induce a dose-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of mitophagy-related genes, whereas a high Cu concentration (120 mg/kg) could cause severe liver impairment and ultrastructural changes and a reduction in mitophagosomes, accompanied by downregulation of Atg5, Beclin1, Pink1, Parkin, NIX, P62 and LC3B. The expression of apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Bax/Bcl-2, Caspase3, Cytc and p53) and proteins (Caspase3 and p53) was upregulated with the addition of dietary Cu. The results demonstrated that an appropriate dose of TBCC could improve liver function by promoting mitophagy and Cu enzymes that play antioxidative roles, while the accumulation of excess Cu could induce liver lesions by enhancing apoptosis and inhibiting mitophagy pathways.


Assuntos
Cloretos/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/análise , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
9.
Environ Res ; 195: 110776, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516685

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the impact of occupation types on age at natural menopause. METHODS: This is a nation-wide cross-sectional study based on 17,948 female workers aged over 40, who come from different industries or organizations. A face-to-face standardized questionnaire was conducted in all participants with the help of occupational hygienists. Occupational titles were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (2008) (ISCO08). Cox regression model was used to assess the association between each independent occupation and menopausal timing. Models were adjusted for marriage, education, average annual family income, parity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Higher risks of earlier age at natural menopause was found among legislators and senior officials (ISCO Minor group:111, HR = 2.328, P < 0.001), among other health associated professionals (ISCO Minor group: 325, HR = 1.477, P = 0.003), the workers involved in mining and mineral processing (ISCO Minor group: 811, HR = 1.515, P = 0.048) and metal processing and finishing (ISCO Minor group: 812, HR = 1.722, P < 0.001). Reduced risks of earlier age at natural menopause, including: finance professionals (ISCO Minor group: 241, HR = 0.751, P = 0.021), manufacturing and construction supervisors (ISCO Minor group: 312, HR = 0.477, P = 0.002), administrative and specialized secretaries (ISCO Minor group: 334, HR = 0.788, P = 0.045), cleaners and helpers (ISCO Minor group: 911, HR = 0.633, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to address the influence of occupation types on reproductive aging, showing some specific occupations could be associated with age at natural menopause. Further investigations are necessary to clarify whether it is chance finding or a true association.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Ocupações , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Gravidez
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124888, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360697

RESUMO

Copper (Cu), a transition metal with essential cellular functions, exerts toxic effects when present in excess by inducing oxidative stress. However, the Cu-induced crosstalk between mitophagy and apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, the mechanism of Cu-induced hepatotoxicity mediated by mitophagy and apoptosis was explored in vivo and in vitro. In in vivo experiments, chickens were fed a diet with various levels of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg) for 7 weeks, which led to ultrastructural damage, mitophagy, and apoptosis in liver tissue. In vitro experiments on primary chicken hepatocytes showed that Cu treatment for 24 h increased the numbers of mitophagosomes and upregulated PINK1, parkin, and p62 mRNA levels and parkin and p62 protein levels, inducing mitophagy. Moreover, treatment with 3- methyladenine (3-MA) aggravated Cu-induced S-phase arrest in cell cycle; increased the apoptotic rate; increased p53, Bak1, Bax, Cyt C, and Caspase3/cleaved-caspase3 mRNA and protein levels; and decreased Bcl2 mRNA and protein levels. However, rapamycin (Rapa) had the opposite effects on the above factors. In general, the results reveal that Cu exposure can cause mitophagy through the PINK1/Parkin pathway in chicken livers, and that mitophagy might attenuate Cu-induced mitochondrial apoptosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mitofagia , Animais , Apoptose , Cobre/toxicidade , Fígado , Mitocôndrias , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111366, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010598

RESUMO

To explore the effects of copper (Cu) on energy metabolism and AMPK-mTOR pathway-mediated autophagy in kidney, a total of 240 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomized into four equal groups and fed on the diets with different levels of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg/kg) for 49 d. Results showed that excess Cu could induce vacuolar degeneration and increase the number of autophagosomes in kidney, and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and mRNA levels of energy metabolism-related genes were decreased with the increasing dietary Cu level. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the positive expressions of Beclin1 and LC3-II were mainly located in cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and increased significantly with the increasing levels of Cu. The mRNA levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-I, LC3-II, Dynein and the protein levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-II/LC3-I and p-AMPKα1/AMPKα1 were markedly elevated in treated groups compared with control group (11 mg/kg Cu). However, the mRNA and protein levels of p62 and p-mTOR/mTOR were significantly decreased with the increasing levels of Cu. These results suggest that impaired energy metabolism induced by Cu may lead to autophagy via AMPK-mTOR pathway in kidney of broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110715, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450432

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace mineral due to its biological activity. Excessive Cu can induce inflammatory response in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Here, 240 broilers were used to study the effects of excessive Cu on oxidative stress and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in immune organs. Chickens were fed with diet containing different concentrations of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of Cu/kg dry matter). The experiment lasted for 49 days. Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) on day 49 were collected for histopathological observation and assessment of oxidative stress status. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. The results indicated that excess Cu could increase the number and area of splenic corpuscle as well as the ratio of cortex and medulla in thymus and BF. Furthermore, excessive Cu intake could decrease activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); but increase contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1, IL-1ß; up-regulate mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-1ß, IL-2, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB and protein levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, NF-κB, p-NF-κB in immune organs. In conclusion, excessive Cu could cause pathologic changes and induce oxidative stress with triggered NF-κB pathway, and might further regulate the inflammatory response in immune organs of chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Cobre/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/enzimologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Baço/enzimologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timo/enzimologia , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110158, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918257

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for most organisms. However, excessive Cu can be highly toxic. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying Cu toxicity in the kidneys of rats after treatment with CuCl2 (15 [control], 30, 60, or 120 mg/kg in the diet) for 180 days. Histological and ultrastructural changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes were measured. The results showed that Cu exposure led to significant accumulation of copper in kidneys and disorganized kidney morphology. The activities of total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidneys decreased significantly, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased. Furthermore, excessive Cu markedly upregulated the expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related genes (LC3A, LC3B, ATG-5, Beclin-1, Caspase3, CytC, P53, Bax), but downregulated the expression of P62, mTOR and BCL-2. Moreover, the LC3B/LC3A, ATG-5, Beclin-1, P53, Caspase3 proteins were up-regulated while P62 was down-regulated in the kidney tissues of the treatment groups. Overall, these findings provide strong evidence that excess Cu can trigger autophagy and apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by inducing oxidative stress in rat kidneys.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109710, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563750

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to discuss the effects of copper (Cu)-induced toxicity on oxidative stress and autophagy in hypothalamus of broilers. In this study, 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups and the contents of dietary Cu in 4 groups were 11 mg/kg (control group), 110 mg/kg (group I), 220 mg/kg (group II), and 330 mg/kg (group III). The experiment lasted for 49 days and the hypothalamus tissues were collected for histological observation and detection of Cu content. Additionally, the indicators related to oxidative stress in hypothalamus were determined. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of autophagy-related genes and the protein expression levels of Beclin1, LC3-II/LC3-I, and p62 in hypothalamus were measured. Results showed that the treated groups were observed vacuolar degeneration in hypothalamus compared to control group, and the Cu content in hypothalamus was increased with the increase of dietary Cu. Furthermore, the activities of SOD, CAT, T-AOC were increased in group I and group II and then decreased in group III, and the content of MDA and the mRNA levels of Nrf2, HO-1, SOD-1, CAT, GCLC, GCLM, and GST in treated groups were elevated compared to control group. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of Beclin1, Atg5, LC3-I, LC3-II and the protein expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3-II/LC3-I up-regulated significantly with the increasing levels of Cu. However, the mRNA expression levels of p62 and mTOR and the protein expression level of p62 down-regulated remarkably. Taken together, our present study evidenced that excessive intake of Cu could induce oxidative stress and autophagy in hypothalamus of broilers.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Dieta , Exposição Dietética/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 95: 49-55, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The regularity of menstrual cycles is one of the important indicators of female reproductive health. However, the current evidence on the association of occupational exposures and menstrual disorders is scarce. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to elucidate the relationship between occupational hazards and menstrual characteristics in female nurses and non-nurse health care workers in China. DESIGN: We conducted a national cross-sectional study on the reproductive health of female nurses in China. SETTINGS: A total of 1, 300 medical institutions in 15 provincial administrative regions in China participated in the study. PARTICIPANTS: There were 8, 904 nurses and 3, 977 non-nurse health care workers who were selected using simple random sampling method. METHODS: All participants were administered a face-to-face standardized questionnaire, including personal socio-demographic information, occupational activities, and self-reported menstrual characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that 41% of nurses experienced menstrual disorders. We found handling disinfectants was the most significant risk factor for menstrual disorders (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.39-1.68), followed by abnormal workload (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.19-1.39), and occupation as a nurse (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40). Noise, prolonged standing or frequent heavy lifting, night work, anti-cancer drug exposure, and overtime work were moderately associated with the occurrence of menstrual disorder (OR > 1). CONCLUSIONS: This national-wide cross-sectional study has revealed the significant association between menstrual disorders and occupational hazards among female nurses in China.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 174: 110-119, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822667

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on hepatocyte pyroptosis and the relationship between pyroptosis and apoptosis in the mechanisms of Cu toxicity. Primary chicken hepatocytes were cultured in different concentrations of Cu sulfate (CuSO4) (0, 10, 50, and 100 µM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1 mM), and Z-YVAD-fluoromethylketone (Z-YVAD-FMK) (10 µM) for 24 h, and the combination of Cu and NAC or Z-YVAD-FMK for 24 h. Cellular morphology and function, cell viability, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis rate, mRNA expression of pyroptosis-related and apoptosis-related genes, and Caspase-1, Caspase-3 proteins expression were determined. These results indicated that Cu markedly induced the mRNA expression of pyroptosis-related genes (Caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-18, and NLRP3) and Caspase-1 protein expression. Furthermore, contents of Caspase-1, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in the supernatant fluid of culture hepatocytes were significantly increased in hepatocytes. NAC relieved excess Cu-caused the changes of above genes and proteins. Additionally, Z-YVAD-FMK, caspase-1 inhibitor, which attenuated Cu-induced the increased lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. Furthermore, treatment with Cu and Z-YVAD-FMK could down-regulate the mRNA levels of Caspase-3, Bak1, Bax, and CytC and Caspase-3 protein expression, up-regulate the mRNA expression of Bcl2, increase the MMP and reduce cell apoptosis compared to treatment with Cu in hepatocytes. Collectively, these finding evidenced that excess Cu induced pyroptosis by generating ROS in hepatocytes, and the inhibition of Caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis might attenuate Cu-induced apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 1/fisiologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroptose , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Galinhas , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo
17.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 54: 310-316, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389602

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of excessive copper (Cu)-induced cytotoxicity on oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis in chicken hepatocytes. Chicken hepatocytes were cultured in medium in the absence and presence of copper sulfate (CuSO4) (10, 50, 100 µM), in N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) (1 mM), and the combination of CuSO4 and NAC for 24 h. Morphologic observation and function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant indices, nitric oxide (NO) content, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptosis-related mRNA and protein levels were determined. These results indicated that excessive Cu could induce release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); increase levels of ROS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and NO; decrease glutathione (GSH) content and MMP; upregulated Bak1, Bax, CytC, and Caspase3 mRNA and protein expression, inhibited Bcl2 mRNA and protein expression, and induced cell apoptosis in a dose effect. The Cu-caused changes of all above factors were alleviated by treatment with NAC. These results suggested that excessive Cu could induce oxidative stress and apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in chicken hepatocytes.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
18.
Chemosphere ; 204: 36-43, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649662

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element that is required for the catalysis of several cellular enzymes. Excessive Cu could induce hepatotoxicity in humans and multiple animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of autophagy machinery on Cu-induced hepatotoxicity. Chicken hepatocytes were cultured in medium in the absence and presence of Cu sulfate (CuSO4) (0, 10, 50, and 100 µM) for 0, 6, 12, and 24 h, and in the combination of CuSO4 and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (1 mM), rapamycin (10 nM), and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) for 24 h. Results showed that Cu could markedly increase the number of autophagosomes and LC3 puncta, induce autophagy-related genes (Beclin1, ATG5, LC3Ⅰ, LC3Ⅱ, mTOR, and Dynein) mRNA expression and proteins (BECN1, LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ) expression. NAC could relieve Cu-induced the changes of above genes and proteins. Additionally, rapamycin attenuated Cu-induced the increased lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, and SOD-1 mRNA expression as well as the decreased cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), HO-1 mRNA expression, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP). But 3-MA had the opposite effects on above factors. Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that Cu could induce autophagy by generating excessive ROS in hepatocytes, and autophagy might attenuate Cu-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of malignant tumors in nurses and its influencing factors and to provide a reference for protecting the health of nurses. METHODS: Cluster sampling was used to randomly survey 1204 married nurses working in one tumor hospital and two tertiary general hospital in Beijing, China, from June to August in 2014. Using the homemade health questionnaire and medical examination reports, the prevalence of malignant tumors in nurses was analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of malignant tumors in nurses was 18.3‰, and the prevalence of malignant tumors in the tumor hospital was the highest, reaching 40.1‰. The prevalence of malignant tumors varied significantly between nurses in different hospitals (P<0.05) and in different departments (P<0.05). The malignant tumors in nurses mainly included breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cervical cancer. The mean age of nurses suffering from malignant tumors was 41 years, and the mean length of service was 20 years. The hospital and department where nurses worked, as well as their age and length of service, were significantly associated with malignant tumors (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cervical cancer is high in nurses surveyed, particularly those working in the tumor hospital. Further in-depth analysis of the reasons is needed to take preventive interventions for protecting the health of nurses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pequim , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 341291, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24719856

RESUMO

The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Abelmoschus/química , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Hepatócitos/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Sementes/química
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