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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652969

RESUMO

Cytotoxic flavonoids of Murraya tetramera were investigated in this study. A novel flavonoid and twelve known flavonoids, including seven flavones (1-7), three flavanones (8-10), and three chalcones (11-13) were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Murraya tetramera. Chemical structures were elucidated by NMR combined with MS spectral analysis, and the new compound (6) was confirmed as 3',5'-dihydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone. Furthermore, all the isolated flavonoids were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against murine melanoma cells (B16), and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) by CCK-8 assay. Among them, compounds 7, 13, and 5 exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against B16 cell lines (IC50 = 3.87, 7.00 and 8.66 µg/mL, respectively). Compounds 5, 13, and 12 displayed potent cytotoxicities against MDA-MB-231 cell lines (IC50 = 3.80, 5.95 and 7.89 µg/mL, respectively). According to the correlation of the structure and activity analysis, 5-hydroxyl and 8-methoxyl substituents of the flavone, 8-methoxyl substituent of the flavanone, and 3',5'-methoxyl substituents of the chalcone could be critical factors of the high cytotoxicity. The results indicated that the active flavonoids have potential to be developed as leading compounds for treating cancers.

2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 67, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radial artery occlusion is a common complication after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention via the transradial access. In recent years, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention via the distal transradial access has gradually emerged, but recanalization of the occluded radial artery through the distal transradial access has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old female with arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus was admitted to the hospital due to chest pain for three hours. She was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. After admission, the patient successfully underwent emergency coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention through the right transradial access. Radial artery occlusion was found after the operation, and recanalization was successfully performed through the right distal transradial access before discharge. Immediately after the operation and one month later, vascular ultrasonography showed that the antegrade flow was normal. CONCLUSIONS: This report presents a case of radial artery occlusion after emergency coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in which recanalization was successfully performed through the right distal transradial access. This case demonstrates that recanalization of a radial artery occlusion via the distal transradial access is safe and feasible.

3.
Water Res ; 193: 116870, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545438

RESUMO

Research on decentralized wastewaters deserves special focus due to the potential abundance of emerging organic pollutants including pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which might pose serious threats to the local water bodies and even to human health. Constructed wetland (CW) is a common decentralized wastewater treatment technology, with a certain ability to eliminate PPCPs. Nonetheless, PPCPs removal in common CWs is frequently challenging, besides, the removal mechanism remains elusive. Based on our previous study, tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) is effective in nitrogen removal. Here, 3 TFCWs with different modifications (baffle, plants, both baffle and plants) were constructed to treat raw domestic sewage and specifically to evaluate the removal efficiencies and mechanism of PPCPs. 24 PPCPs including 7 antibiotics, 8 steroid hormones and 9 biocides were detected in the level of 1.10 ± 0.29 ng/L-799 ± 10.6 ng/L in the influents. Consequently, we found that modification with both baffle and plants significantly influenced the removal of PPCPs. Moreover, the highest removal rates of biocides (97.1 ± 0.29%), steroid hormones (99.8 ± 0.02%), and antibiotics (90.2 ± 1.60%) were achieved via both baffles and plants in TFCWs. Based on the mass balance analysis, microbial degradation dominated the removal of PPCPs with a percentage higher than 85.7%, followed by substrate adsorption (5.22 × 10-2-14.3%) and plant uptake (1.66 × 10-3-0.44%). Further, 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the presence of baffle and plants improve the removal efficiency of PPCPs by means of enhancing microbial diversity and changing dominant microorganisms. Moreover, Thaumarchaeota was potentially the key microorganism in the phylum level for PPCPs elimination by TFCWs through LEfSe (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) analysis. These findings provide new insights into the removal of PPCPs in CWs.

4.
Cell ; 184(4): 943-956.e18, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571432

RESUMO

Dopamine receptors, including D1- and D2-like receptors, are important therapeutic targets in a variety of neurological syndromes, as well as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Here, we present five cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) coupled to Gs heterotrimer in complex with three catechol-based agonists, a non-catechol agonist, and a positive allosteric modulator for endogenous dopamine. These structures revealed that a polar interaction network is essential for catecholamine-like agonist recognition, whereas specific motifs in the extended binding pocket were responsible for discriminating D1- from D2-like receptors. Moreover, allosteric binding at a distinct inner surface pocket improved the activity of DRD1 by stabilizing endogenous dopamine interaction at the orthosteric site. DRD1-Gs interface revealed key features that serve as determinants for G protein coupling. Together, our study provides a structural understanding of the ligand recognition, allosteric regulation, and G protein coupling mechanisms of DRD1.

5.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582931

RESUMO

Oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes greatly to the development of hypertension. The recombinant nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1) regulates the transcription of several genes related to mitochondrial respiratory chain function or antioxidant expression, and thus may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Here we show that in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats the transcription level of Nrf1 was elevated comparing to the normotensive controls. Knocking down of Nrf1 in the PVN of 2K1C rats can significantly reduce their blood pressure and level of plasma norepinephrine (NE). Analysis revealed significant reduction of superoxide production level in both whole cell and mitochondria, along with up-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu/Zn-SOD), NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), thioredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and glutathione synthesis rate-limiting enzyme (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and modifier subunit (Gclm)), and down-regulation of cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI c (Cox6c) transcription after Nrf1 knock-down. In addition, the reduced ATP production and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the PVN of 2K1C rats were reinstated with Nrf1 knock-down, together with restored expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), coiled-coil myosin-like BCL2-interacting protein (Beclin1), and Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), which are related to the mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, and autophagy. Together, the results indicate that the PVN Nrf1 is associated with the development of 2K1C-induced hypertension, and Nrf1 knock-down in the PVN can alleviate hypertension through intervention of mitochondrial function and restorement of the production-removal balance of superoxide.

6.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579599

RESUMO

S100 calcium binding protein A14 (S100A14) plays an important role in the progression of several types of cancer. However, its roles in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the functional roles of S100A14 in the progression and chemoresistance of PDAC. Gene expression microarray identified that S100A14 was significantly highly expressed in four pairs of human PDAC tumor compared with corresponding non-tumor tissues genes. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) showed that S100A14 was frequently overexpressed in PDAC cell lines and tissues. Moreover, expression level of S100A14 was positively correlated to advanced cancer stages. Further, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that PDAC patients with low S100A14 expression had longer overall survival in TCGA PDAC datasets. Transient overexpressing of S100A14 promoted cell proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation, cell migration and invasion in cell lines with low endogenous S100A14 levels, while transient silencing of S100A14 inhibited cell proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation, cell migration and invasion in cell lines with high endogenous S100A14 levels. Persistent knockdown of S100A14 by transducing shRNAs carrying lentivirus inhibited subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice, and sensitized the PDAC cells to gemcitabine treatment. Taken together, S100A14 exhibited oncogenic properties by promoting cell proliferation, transformation, migration and invasion, and enhanced in vivo tumor growth. More importantly, inhibition of S100A14 could effectively abrogate the cancerous properties of the PDAC cells. Our study indicated that S100A14 was a valuable target for the development of therapeutic strategy, as well as a diagnostic and prognosis biomarker for PDAC patients.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1012, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579935

RESUMO

Clarifying the relation between the whole and its parts is crucial for many problems in science. In quantum mechanics, this question manifests itself in the quantum marginal problem, which asks whether there is a global pure quantum state for some given marginals. This problem arises in many contexts, ranging from quantum chemistry to entanglement theory and quantum error correcting codes. In this paper, we prove a correspondence of the marginal problem to the separability problem. Based on this, we describe a sequence of semidefinite programs which can decide whether some given marginals are compatible with some pure global quantum state. As an application, we prove that the existence of multiparticle absolutely maximally entangled states for a given dimension is equivalent to the separability of an explicitly given two-party quantum state. Finally, we show that the existence of quantum codes with given parameters can also be interpreted as a marginal problem, hence, our complete hierarchy can also be used.

8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Villoglandular adenocarcinoma is a rare sub-type of cervical adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and evaluate the prognosis of patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma of the cervix. METHODS: Patient characteristics, procedure, pathology, and surgical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed in patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma between November 2006 and June 2019 from multiple centers in China. In order to explore the difference between villoglandular adenocarcinoma and routine adenocarcinoma, patients (FIGO 2009 stage IA1-IB2) who had complete data during the same time period were included. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma and 104 with standard adenocarcinoma were included. The median age of the patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma was 42 years (range 27-68). The most common 2009 FIGO stage was IB1 in 39 (65%) patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma. A total of 23 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery (two total hysterectomies, 21 radical hysterectomies) and the other 37 patients underwent laparotomy (three total hysterectomies, 34 radical hysterectomies). A total of 56 patients underwent lymphadenectomy and three (5.4%) had positive lymph nodes. Fifteen (25%) patients had one or both ovaries preserved. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. The median follow-up time for the entire group was 50.2 months (range 5.1-154.6). No deaths or recurrences occurred. Excluding six patients with FIGO 2009 stage II, the 5-year disease-free survival of the 47 patients with villoglandular adenocarcinoma with FIGO 2009 stage I for whom there was follow-up, was significantly higher than that of the 104 patients with standard cervical adenocarcinoma (100% vs 92.2%, log-rank p=0.039). However, the 5-year overall survival of the two groups did not differ (100% vs 95.7%, log-rank p=0.11). CONCLUSION: Villoglandular adenocarcinoma has a favorable prognosis. Further studies are needed to provide more details of treatment strategies and prognosis.

9.
Addict Biol ; : e13025, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609013

RESUMO

Oxycodone is one of the most commonly used analgesics in the clinic. However, long-term use can contribute to drug dependence. Accumulating evidence of changes in DNA methylation after opioid relapse has provided insight into mechanisms underlying drug-associated memory. The neuropeptide oxytocin is reported to be a potential treatment for addiction. The present study sought to identify changes in global and synaptic gene methylation after cue-induced reinstatement of oxycodone conditioned place preference (CPP) and the effect of oxytocin. We analyzed hippocampal mRNA of synaptic genes and also synaptic density in response to oxycodone CPP. We determined the mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and ten-eleven translocations (Tets), observed global 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels, and measured DNA methylation status of four synaptic genes implicated in learning and memory (Arc, Dlg1, Dlg4, and Syn1). Both synaptic density and the transcription of 15 hippocampal synaptic genes significantly increased following cue-induced reinstatement of oxycodone CPP. Oxycodone relapse was also related to markedly decreased 5-mC levels and decreased transcription of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b; in contrast, 5-hmC levels and the transcription of Tet1 and Tet3 were increased. Oxycodone exposure induced DNA hypomethylation at the exons of the Arc, Dlg1, Dlg4, and Syn1 genes. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of oxytocin (2.5 µg/µl) specifically blocked oxycodone relapse, possibly by inhibition of Arc, Dlg1, Dlg4, and Syn1 hypomethylation in oxycodone-treated rats. Together, these data indicate the occurrence of epigenetic changes in the hippocampus following oxycodone relapse and the potential role of oxytocin in oxycodone addiction.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24799, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine (TCM+WM) has been widely used in the treatment of glomerulosclerosis, but the results are still controversial. This study will assess the clinical efficacy of TCM+WM for glomerulosclerosis and provide evidence-based medical data via meta-analysis. METHOD: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and multiple Chinese databases (Wan Fang, CNKI, and VIP) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared the effects of WM and TCM+WM. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis of selected studies, and appropriate tests were performed to determine the quality, heterogeneity and sensitivity of these studies. RESULTS: Sixteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the analysis. Compared with the placebo or WM-treated glomerulosclerosis patients, TCM+WM intervention significantly improved renal function indices including 24-hour urine protein quantity (24 h U-Pro), serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr). In addition, the serum albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol (CHOL) levels were also significantly improved (P < .05) in patients receiving the combination therapy. Finally, the combination of TCM+WM reduced the indices of glomerulosclerosis more effectively compared with WM alone. CONCLUSION: The combination of TCM+WM can significantly improve the renal function and prognosis of patients with glomerulosclerosis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(18): 2265-2268, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533357

RESUMO

Novel purine-based iridium complexes were designed for selective determination of ER viscosity. The Ir-PH possessed excellent ER targeting ability and could distinguish the viscosity changes under ER stress by fluorescence lifetime image microscopy (FLIM), which may accelerate the development of relative quantitative detection of microenvironment changes at the subcellular level.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1866(5): 158904, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) in atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets were used to divide differentially expressed lncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs. The expression of PCA3, miR-140-5p, RFX7 and ABCA1 were determined by qPCR or Western blot in ox-LDL-treated macrophages. Macrophage lipid accumulation s was evaluated using the Oil Red O staining and high-performance liquid chromatography. Target relationships among PCA3, miR-140-5p, RFX7, and ABCA1 promoter area were validated via dual-luciferase reporter gene assay or chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The apoE-/- mouse model in vivo was designed to evaluate the effect of PCA3 on the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and atherosclerosis. RESULTS: PCA3 was down-regulated in foam cells, whereas miR-140-5p was highly expressed. Overexpression of PCA3 promoted ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and reduced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Besides, RFX7 bound to the ABCA1 promoter and increased ABCA1 expression. Targeted relationships and interactions on the expression between miR-140-5p and PCA3 or RFX7 were elucidated. PCA3 up-regulated ABCA1 expression by binding to miR-140-5p to up-regulate RFX7 and ABCA1 expression in macrophages. PCA3 promoted RCT and impeded the progression of atherosclerosis by sponging miR-140-5p in apoE-/- mice. Meanwhile, miR-140-5p also inhibit ABCA1 expression via downregulation of RFX7 to impede RCT and aggravate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: lncRNA PCA3 promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux to inhibit atherosclerosis through sponging miR-140-5p and up-regulating RFX7.

13.
Food Funct ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554990

RESUMO

Plant-based polyphenols are increasingly being explored as functional ingredients in emulsified food systems. In this study, the effects of sesamol on the physical and chemical stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by either phospholipids (sunflower) or proteins (whey or pea) were investigated. In the absence of sesamol, the protein-based emulsions displayed better physical stability than the phospholipid-based ones, which was related to their smaller particle diameter and higher particle charge. For the phospholipid-based emulsions, sesamol addition did not improve their physical stability, but it did inhibit lipid oxidation. In particular, it decreased the formation of secondary oxidation products, with a 65% reduction in TBAR formation compared to the control after 8 days of storage. For the protein-based emulsions, sesamol addition reduced particle aggregation and inhibited lipid oxidation, reducing the secondary oxidation products by around 85% after 19 days of storage. The inhibitory efficiency of sesamol in the pea protein-based emulsions was comparable to that in the whey protein-based ones. The effects of sesamol on the physical and chemical stability of the emulsions were related to its partitioning between the oil, water, and interfacial layers. This study suggests that adding sesamol to plant-based emulsions may improve their physical and chemical stability, thereby extending their shelf life.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3253, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547384

RESUMO

Tenofovir and entecavir are currently designated as the preferred oral antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B. However, only less than 40% of patients can achieve HBeAg seroconversion. We aim at investigating the role of intestinal microbiome in HBeAg seroconversion induced by oral antiviral therapy and describe multi-omics characteristics of HBeAg seroconversion associated intestinal flora. In this study, we prospectively collected fecal samples at baseline from the patients with HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B who would have oral antiviral therapy. 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolomics were performed. We identified HBeAg seroconversion-related microbial signature and constructed prediction model for HBeAg seroconversion. Thirty-seven of these subjects achieved HBeAg seroconversion within 156 weeks after the initiation of oral antiviral therapy, while 41 subjects remained HBeAg positive even after over 156 weeks of therapy. A computational statistical and machine learning approach allowed us to identify a microbial signature for HBeAg seroconversion. Using random forest method, we further constructed a classifier based on the microbial signature, with area under curve being 0.749 for the test set. Patients who achieved HBeAg seroconversion tended to have lower abundance of certain fecal metabolites such as essential amino acids, and several dipeptides. By analyzing the fecal microbiota from the patients with and without HBeAg seroconversion, we showed intestinal microbiome play a critical role in HBeAg seroconversion induced by oral antiviral therapy. We also identified intestinal microbial signature that is associated with HBeAg seroconversion after oral antiviral therapy.

15.
Phytochemistry ; 184: 112675, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548770

RESUMO

Seven undescribed tirucallane-type triterpenoids, kumunorquassins A‒E and kumuquassins K and L, along with nine known analogues, have been isolated from the leaves of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The absolute configuration of cornusalterin J was unequivocally determined by X-ray diffraction based on its p-bromobenzoate derivative. A brief approach was presented in our study, which could rapidly and conveniently determine the relative and absolute configurations of OCH3-23 of kumuquassin L and cornusalterins J, H and G depending on the chemical shift differences (Δδ) of C-24 and C-25 and the chemical shifts of C-23, H-23 and H-24. In addition, the cytotoxicities of these compounds against two human tumour cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were evaluated.

16.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 77(2): 170-181, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538532

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of the chronic administration of astaxanthin, which is extracted from the shell of crabs and shrimps, into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups and treated with bilateral PVN infusion of astaxanthin or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) through osmotic minipumps (Alzet Osmotic Pumps, Model 2004, 0.25 µL/h) for 4 weeks. Spontaneously hypertensive rats had higher mean arterial pressure and plasma level of norepinephrine and proinflammatory cytokine; higher PVN levels of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, IL-1ß, IL-6, ACE, and AT1-R; and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, ACE2, and Mas receptors than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Our data showed that chronic administration of astaxanthin into PVN attenuated the overexpression of reactive oxygen species, NOX2, NOX4, inflammatory cytokines, and components of RAS within the PVN and suppressed hypertension. The present results revealed that astaxanthin played a role in the brain. Our findings demonstrated that astaxanthin had protective effect on hypertension by improving the balance between inflammatory cytokines and components of RAS.

18.
Pancreas ; 50(2): 227-234, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of gemcitabine sensitivity is needed to improve the therapeutic effects of this drug in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: PANC-1 cells were transfected with small hairpin RNA against PVT1 or microRNA (miR)-143 mimics or inhibitor. The gemcitabine sensitivity of pancreatic cancer was evaluated. Autophagosomes were analyzed with an immunofluorescence assay. Cell viability and proliferation were examined with MTT assays. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to analyze the expression of PVT1, miR-143, HIF-1α, VMP1, LC3I/II, p62, and Beclin-1. The interactions of PVT1/miR-143 and miR-143/HIF-1α were assessed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: PVT1 was upregulated while miR-143 was downregulated in pancreatic cancer. Both PVT1 knockdown and miR-143 overexpression suppressed autophagy and improved gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic cancer. PVT1 directly sponged miR-143 to regulate HIF-1α expression. MiR-143 inhibitor reversed the effect of PVT1 knockdown on autophagy and gemcitabine sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: PVT1 knockdown inhibited autophagy and improved gemcitabine sensitivity via the miR-143/HIF-1α/VMP1 axis in pancreatic cancer. Our investigation elucidated a novel regulatory mechanism of gemcitabine sensitivity and may contribute to improve the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy drugs on pancreatic cancer.

19.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 38, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608037

RESUMO

The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a crucial role in integrating peripheral information regarding visceral functions. Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2) inhibitory neurons are abundant in the NTS, and are known to form local and short-range projections within the NTS and nearby hindbrain areas. Here we performed whole-brain mapping of outputs from GAD2 neurons in the NTS using cell-type specific viral labeling together with ultrahigh-speed 3D imaging at 1-µm resolution. In addition to well-known targets of NTS GAD2 neurons including the principle sensory nucleus of the trigeminal (PSV), spinal nucleus of the trigeminal (SPV), and other short-range targets within the hindbrain, the high sensitivity of our system helps reveal previously unknown long-range projections that target forebrain regions, including the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) involved in stress and fear responses, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) involved in energy balance and stress-related neuroendocrine responses. The long-range projections were further verified by retrograde labeling of NTS GAD2 neurons with cholera toxin B (CTB) injections in the BST and PVH, and by Cre-dependent retrograde tracing with rAAV2-retro injections in the two regions of GAD2-Cre mice. Finally, we performed complete morphological reconstruction of several sparsely labeled neurons projecting to the forebrain and midbrain. These results provide new insights about how NTS might participate in physiological and emotional modulation.

20.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618519

RESUMO

Chromosome 7 plays an important role in lung tumorigenesis. Chromosome 7 copy number changes might be an early event of lung cancer tumorigenesis. Here we investigate whether chromosome 7p copy number gain is a detectable genetic event with plasma cell-free DNA for early lung cancer detection. Eighteen surgical eligible lung cancer patients and eighteen non-cancer controls were recruited. Peripheral blood was collected before surgery. Cell-free DNA was profiled with low coverage whole-genome sequencing. Chromosome 7 copy number gains were defined as chr7 normalized coverage ≥ 1.0005 and P value < 0.05. Plasma cell-free DNA chr7 copy gains were then compared to pathological examinations on surgical tissues. 83.3% of patients were confirmed as malignancy post-operation, 12 patients with adenocarcinoma and 3 with squamous-carcinoma. The other 16.7% were benign lesions. Cell-free DNA was successfully extracted from pre-surgical plasma samples, with a concentration range from 0.18 to 0.49 ng/µl. Chromosome 7 short arm copy gains were found in 66.7% (10/15) patients, including 66.7% (4/6) T1aN0M0 and 50.0% (1/2) Tis patients, otherwise, chr7p gain was found in 0% (0/3) benign lesions. The specificity was further examined in 18 volunteers who undergoing routine body examinations. Meanwhile, positive carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19-fragment (CYFRA21-1) were only found in 1/18 (5.7%) and 4/18 (22.2%), respectively. Taking together, Ultrasensitive- Chromosomal Aneuploidy Detector (UCAD) chr7p or UCAD chr7p and tumor biomarker positivity can predict 12/15 (80%, 95% CI: 49.0-94.3%) early lung cancers. Further analyses showed that chr7p copy number gains tend to be enriched in normal EGFR/KRAS patients (Fisher's test, P value = 0.077). Chromosome 7p copy gains is a useful peripheral blood tumor biomarker from lung cancer detection.

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