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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125454, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505413

RESUMO

The effects of the (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-gelatin biofilm treatment (EGT) on microbial composition and quality of tilapia fillets stored at low temperatures were evaluated. The changes in mechanical properties, microbial reproduction, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during fillets storage were determined. The results showed that EGT reduced the microbial count and the relative abundance of the fillets. And EGT delayed the rate of lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in fillets. Compared with the control group, EGT samples had lower K values (74% on 18 d) and biogenic amines (39 mg/kg for putrescine and 50 mg/kg for cadaverine on 21 d). According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of tilapia fillets was extended by 6 d in the EGT group. Therefore, EGT improved the quality of cryopreserved tilapia fillets and could be considered as a potential method for fish fillet preservation.

2.
Analyst ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789324

RESUMO

The rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on Earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, soil and a highly diverse microbial community (the rhizosphere microbiome). Understanding, predicting and controlling plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere will allow us to harness the plant microbiome as a means to increase or restore plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate the effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. To this end, it is imperative to develop new molecular approaches with high spatial resolution to capture interactions at the plant-microbe, microbe-microbe, and plant-plant interfaces. In this work, we designed an imaging sample holder that allows integrated surface imaging tools to map the same locations of a plant root-microbe interface with submicron lateral resolutions, providing novel in vivo analysis of root-microbe interactions. Specifically, confocal fluorescence microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the first time for the correlative imaging of the Brachypodium distachyon root and its interaction with Pseudomonas SW25, a typical plant growth-promoting soil bacterium. Imaging data suggest that the root surface is inhomogeneous and that the interaction between Pseudomonas and Brachypodium roots was confined to only a few spots along the sampled root segments and that the bacterial attachment spots were enriched in Na- and S-related and high-mass organic species. We conclude that the attachment of the Pseudomonas cells to the root surface is outcompeted by strong root-soil mineral interactions but facilitated by the formation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).

3.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) remains a critical and challenging problem in assisted reproductive technology mainly due to impaired decidualization. The endocytic and transcytotic activity in the endometrium are crucial for decidualization. The most representative endocytic gene is the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing 1 (EHD1), but whether EHD1-mediated endocytic function is responsible for embryo implantation during decidualization remains unclear. METHODS: A transcriptomic analysis was performed to evaluate the differentially expressed genes between the fertile control and RIF group. The expression and location of EHD1 in endometrial tissues were further examined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The transduction of an EHD1 recombinant adenovirus into human endometrial stromal cells was performed to investigate relevant decidualization marker genes. Additionally, a microarray analysis following the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of EHD1 was conducted to identify EHD1-related changes in HESCs, and the potential molecular mechanisms were further confirmed through immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation analyses. FINDINGS: An RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that EHD1 expression was significantly higher in the mid-secretory endometrium of the RIF group than in that of the fertile control group. The analysis of the menstrual cycle showed that expression of EHD1 increased in the mid-proliferative phase and showed a gradual decrease in the mid-secretory and decidual phases. Furthermore, EHD1 overexpression impaired decidualization by suppressing the expression of prolactin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and the formation of the cytoskeleton. The mechanistic analysis revealed the EHD1 regulated LRP5/6 protein function through the endocytic pathway, and subsequently suppressed the Wnt4/ß-catenin pathway during decidualization. In addition, a Wnt4 agonist improved an impaired decidualization process. INTERPRETATION: Regulation of the EHD1-Wnt4 pathway might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for improving endometrial receptivity in RIF women.

4.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1482-1490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474709

RESUMO

Zhengganxifeng decoction (ZGXFD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, from "Medical Zhong parameter West recorded" by Xichun Zhang, which has been applied to the treatment of clinical essential hypertension. Besides its effect in blood pressure reduction, ZGXFD is also known to be a radical therapy with little or no side effects. Compared with western medicines, Chinese medicinal formulas have the advantage of simultaneously attacking multiple targets. However, such a property brings trouble to the pharmacological studies of Chinese medicines. This study investigated the composition of gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with ZGXFD. ZGXFD was shown to cause similar effects in the treatment group as benazepril: both were able to reduce in SHR the microbial diversity, Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and coccus to bacillus (C/B) ratio. Meanwhile, ZGXFD can maintain the integrity of intestinal mechanistic barrier and elevate the percentage of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA). By investigating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) system, we found that ZGXFD can decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) in lungs, which in turn causes a increase in AngI produces angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) and decrease in AngII. ZGXFD regulate blood pressure in SHR via RAS.

5.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545184

RESUMO

Bilgewater is a regulated shipboard produced waste stream that often contains oil-in-water emulsion. Fundamental knowledge of emulsion surface changes is required for improved wastewater treatment; however, limited information is currently available. We have reported the first surface characterization of synthetic bilgewater emulsions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) coupled with optical microscopy. A Navy standard bilgewater solution consisting of a hydrocarbon and detergent mixture is used as the synthetic bilgewater emulsion model. Both fresh and aged emulsion samples are analyzed to determine their droplet size distributions (DSDs) and surface chemical composition. Our results show that fresh emulsions are largely mono-modal with hydrocarbon fragments as the main surface composition. Aged emulsions are also mono-modal with slightly larger size. Both SIMS spectral comparison and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) show that some surfactant components appear on the fresh emulsion surface while larger molecular weight components appear at the aged bilge droplet surface. Our results indicate that the oil-water interface evolves after emulsion droplet formation. More importantly, surface evolution not only changes the bilgewater DSD, but also alters the surface chemical composition and reactivity.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222638, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550281

RESUMO

CONTEXT: High rates of burnout have been reported in low and medium income countries and can detrimentally impact healthcare delivery. Understanding factors associated with burnout amongst health care workers providing HIV care may help develop interventions to prevent/treat burnout. OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand factors associated with burnout amongst health care workers providing HIV care in Malawi. METHODS: This was a sub-study of a larger cross-sectional study measuring burnout prevalence amongst a convenience sample of healthcare workers providing HIV care in 89 health facilities in eight districts in Malawi. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anonymously administered surveys included questions about sociodemographics, work characteristics (work load, supervisor support, team interactions), depression, life stressors, assessment of type D personality, and career satisfaction. We performed univariable and multivariable regression analyses to explore associations between variables and burnout. RESULTS: We received 535 responses (response rate 99%). Factors associated with higher rates of burnout on multivariable regression analyses included individual level factors: male gender (OR 1.75 [CI 1.17, 2.63]; p = 0.007), marital status (widowed or divorced) (OR 3.24 [CI 1.32, 7.98]; p = 0.011), depression (OR 3.32 [CI 1.21, 9.10]; p = 0.020), type D personality type (OR 2.77 [CI 1.50, 5.12]; p = 0.001) as well as work related factors: working at a health center vs. a rural hospital (OR 2.02 [CI 1.19, 3.40]; p = 0.009); lack of a very supportive supervisor (OR 2.38 [CI 1.32, 4.29]; p = 0.004), dissatisfaction with work/team interaction (OR 1.76 [CI 1.17, 2.66]; p = 0.007), and career dissatisfaction (OR 0.76 [CI 0.60, 0.96]; p = 0.020). CONCLUSION: This study identified several individual level vulnerabilities as well as work related modifiable factors. Improving the supervisory capacity of health facility managers and creating conditions for improved team dynamics may help reduce burnout amongst healthcare workers proving HIV care in Malawi.

7.
Biointerphases ; 14(5): 051004, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554406

RESUMO

In situ liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a powerful technique to study surface characterization of living biofilms in hydrated conditions. However, ToF-SIMS data analysis is still a great challenge in complicated bacterial biofilms, because many interference peaks from the medium may result in inaccurate interpretation. In this study, two syntrophic Geobacter populations are investigated using in situ liquid ToF-SIMS to reveal the biofilm surface changes between them due to direct interspecies electron transfer. By comparing spectral principal component analysis (PCA) results of all peaks and selected peaks, the authors find that spectral peak overlay is an effective strategy to reduce the matrix effect in handling complex ToF-SIMS data. Additionally, the spectral PCA results of high intensity and high resolution data obtained from liquid ToF-SIMS are compared. Selected peaks, amino acid peaks, and water cluster peaks spectral PCA produce nice separation among samples in both high intensity and high resolution data sets. However, the high resolution data show better separation between coculture planktonic and coculture aggregates, confirming that the higher mass accuracy is useful in the analysis of microbial samples. In conclusion, the results show that peak selection is critical for acquiring effective microbial information and interpretation of syntrophic Geobacter using spectral data from in situ liquid ToF-SIMS.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11239-11242, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469377

RESUMO

This experimental and theoretical study investigates how dynamic solvation environments in switchable ionic liquids regulate the composition of nanoparticulate green rust. A custom microfluidic device enables in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate characterization of the solvent structure and speciation of reaction intermediates of air-sensitive nanoparticles growing in solution.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3140-3151, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410618

RESUMO

We developed and piloted a video-based intervention targeting HIV-positive pregnant women to optimize antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention and adherence by providing a VITAL Start (Video-intervention to Inspire Treatment Adherence for Life) before ART. VITAL Start (VS) was grounded in behavior-determinant models and developed through an iterative multi-stakeholder process. Of 306 pregnant women eligible for ART, 160 were randomized to standard of care (SOC), 146 to VS and followed for one-month. Of those assigned to VS, 100% completed video-viewing; 96.5% reported they would recommend VS. Of 11 health workers interviewed, 82% preferred VS over SOC; 91% found VS more time-efficient. Compared to SOC, VS group had greater change in HIV/ART knowledge (p < 0.01), trend towards being more likely to start ART (p = 0.07), and better self-reported adherence (p = 0.02). There were no significant group differences in 1-month retention and pharmacy pill count. VITAL Start was highly acceptable, feasible, with promising benefits to ART adherence.

10.
Environ Int ; 131: 104995, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326822

RESUMO

The mineral-organo composites control the speciation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils and sediments by surface adsorption and precipitation. The dynamic changes of soil mineral, organic matter and their associations under redox, aging and microbial activities further complicate the fate of heavy metals. Over the past decades, the wide application of advanced instrumental techniques and modelling has largely extended our understanding on heavy metal behavior within mineral-organo assemblages. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of recent progress on heavy metal immobilization by mineral-humic and mineral-microbial composites, with a special focus on the interfacial reaction mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption. The impacts of redox and aging conditions on heavy metal speciations and associations with mineral-organo complexes are discussed. The modelling of heavy metals adsorption and desorption onto synthetic mineral-organo composites and natural soils and sediments are also critically reviewed. Future challenges and prospects in the mineral-organo interface are outlined. More in-depth investigations are warranted, especially on the function and contribution of microorganisms in the immobilization of heavy metals at the complex mineral-organo interface. It has become imperative to use the state-of-the-art methodologies to characterize the interface and develop in situ analytical techniques in future studies.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10236-10245, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361474

RESUMO

The effect of photochemical reaction time on glyoxal and hydrogen peroxide at the air-liquid (a-l) interface is investigated using in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) enabled by a system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) microreactor. Carboxylic acids are formed mainly by reaction with hydroxyl radicals in the initial reactions. Oligomers, cluster ions, and water clusters formed due to longer photochemistry. Our results provide direct molecular evidence that water clusters are associated with proton transfer and the formation of oligomers and cluster ions at the a-l interface. The oligomer formation is facilitated by water cluster and cluster ion formation over time. Formation of higher m/z oligomers and cluster ions indicates the possibility of highly oxygenated organic components formation at the a-l interface. Furthermore, new chemical reaction pathways, such as surface organic cluster, hydration shell, and water cluster formation, are proposed based on SIMS spectral observations, and the existing understanding of glyoxal photochemistry is expanded. Our in situ findings verify that the a-l interfacial reactions are important pathways for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation.


Assuntos
Glioxal , Radical Hidroxila , Aerossóis , Fotoquímica , Água
12.
J Vis Exp ; (147)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107461

RESUMO

Corrosion developed at the paint and aluminum (Al) metal-paint interface of an aluminum alloy is analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), illustrating that SIMS is a suitable technique to study the chemical distribution at a metal-paint interface. The painted Al alloy coupons are immersed in a salt solution or exposed to air only. SIMS provides chemical mapping and 2D molecular imaging of the interface, allowing direct visualization of the morphology of the corrosion products formed at the metal-paint interface and mapping of the chemical after corrosion occurs. The experimental procedure of this method is presented to provide technical details to facilitate similar research and highlight pitfalls that may be encountered during such experiments.

13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(5): 3451-3463, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809937

RESUMO

Abnormal metabolism of tumour cells is closely related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer, during which the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is of great significance. Metastatic breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide; however, the molecular mechanism underlying breast cancer metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the overexpression of Nrf2 promoted proliferation and migration of breast cancers cells. Inhibition of Nrf2 and overexpression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) reduced the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and transketolase of pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpression of Nrf2 and knockdown of Keap1 had opposite effects. Our results further showed that the overexpression of Nrf2 promoted the expression of G6PD and Hypoxia-inducing factor 1α (HIF-1α) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression of Nrf2 up-regulated the expression of Notch1 via G6PD/HIF-1α pathway. Notch signalling pathway affected the proliferation of breast cancer by affecting its downstream gene HES-1, and regulated the migration of breast cancer cells by affecting the expression of EMT pathway. The results suggest that Nrf2 is a potential molecular target for the treatment of breast cancer and targeting Notch1 signalling pathway may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of Nrf2-driven breast cancer metastasis.

14.
Analyst ; 144(8): 2498-2503, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735206

RESUMO

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild-type and a hyper-adhesive mutant CP2-1-S1 are used as model organisms and Cr(vi) is selected as a toxic chemical to study biofilm and toxic chemical interactions. Biofilms are cultured in a microfluidic device for in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. This approach is viable for studying biofilms' responses to antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicromato de Potássio/toxicidade , Shewanella/fisiologia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Shewanella/classificação , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos
15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516768

RESUMO

The mechanism responsible for widening the electrochemical stability window of methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS)-containing electrolytes compared to conventional carbonate electrolytes is suggested based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that MMDS has a stronger reduction ability and higher affinity for the electrode surface than solvents, and these behaviors provide an important condition for priority decomposition of the additive. The addition of MMDS could reduce the probability of finding solvent-ion complexes at the electrolyte-electrode interface, which is especially beneficial for the stability of the solvent electrochemical window. This knowledge of the local electrolyte composition and structure at the surface plays a significant role in advancing our understanding of the relationships between interface structure and battery cycling performance, and expanding the operating windows of electrochemical devices.

16.
Urol Oncol ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Length of hospital stay for patients following radical cystectomy is an important determinant for improved quality of care. We sought to develop and validate a predictive model for length of hospital stay following radical cystectomy. METHODS: Patients aged 66 to 90 years diagnosed with clinical stage T2-4a muscle-invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy were included from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2011 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data. Linear regression analyses were used to develop and validate a predictive model for length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 2,448 patients met inclusion criteria. After random assignment, 1,224 patients were included in the discovery cohort and 1,224 patients included in the validation cohort. The cohorts were well balanced with no significant difference in any of the preoperative variables. A best model was developed using marital status, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) region, clinical stage, Charlson comorbidity index, logarithm of hospital cystectomy volume, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a backward selection to predict the length of stay. There was robust internal validation (sum square error (SSE): 258.1 vs. predicted sum of squares (PRESS): 264.0 at SLS = 0.10), consistent with the external validation (average square error (ASE): discovery (0.248) vs. validation (0.258)) cohort. The strength of the model in predicting length of stay for the entire cohort was (R2 = 0.048). CONCLUSION: In this large population-based study, we developed and validated a model to predict length of hospital stay following radical cystectomy. Identification of at-risk patients for prolonged hospital stay may aid in targeted interventions to reduce length of stay, improve quality of care, and decrease healthcare costs.

17.
Cell Rep ; 25(7): 1982-1993.e4, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428362

RESUMO

Synthetically engineered DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) are an in vivo platform for evaluation and delivery of human mAb to control against infectious disease. Here, we engineer DMAbs encoding potent anti-Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mAbs isolated from Ebola virus disease survivors. We demonstrate the development of a human IgG1 DMAb platform for in vivo EBOV-GP mAb delivery and evaluation in a mouse model. Using this approach, we show that DMAb-11 and DMAb-34 exhibit functional and molecular profiles comparable to recombinant mAb, have a wide window of expression, and provide rapid protection against lethal mouse-adapted EBOV challenge. The DMAb platform represents a simple, rapid, and reproducible approach for evaluating the activity of mAb during clinical development. DMAbs have the potential to be a mAb delivery system, which may be advantageous for protection against highly pathogenic infectious diseases, like EBOV, in resource-limited and other challenging settings.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362561

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. HACE1 function as a tumor-suppressor gene and is downregulated in several kinds of cancers. However, the distribution and clinical significance of HACE1 in CRC is still not clarified. In this study, we found that the HACE1 expression is greatly downregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines. Moreover, the HACE1 expression was significantly associated with inhibition of CRC cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion. HACE1 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition in CRC cells. Furthermore, we found that HACE1 altered the protein expression of the Hippo pathway by downregulation of YAP1. HACE1 suppresses the invasive ability of CRC cells by negatively regulating the YAP1 pathway. Our data indicates that HACE1 directly targets YAP1 and induces downregulation of YAP1, thereby increasing the activity of the Hippo pathway. In summary, these findings demonstrated that HACE1-YAP1 axis had an important part in the CRC development and progression.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(30): 30567-30574, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173385

RESUMO

Multi-level porous amorphous-activated carbon with excellent adsorption performance was prepared by a ZnCl2-assisted pyrolysis of waste polyester textiles. Experimental parameters were optimized by using orthogonal design. Result of orthogonal design revealed that pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time were the dominant individual factors. Samples prepared at the optimal condition were systematically characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) porosity analyzer, FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Iodine (I2), methylene blue (MB) and phenol (PhOH) were selected as target dyes to measure the adsorption performance. Experimental results showed that porous-activated carbon with multi-level pores could be obtained by optimizing experimental parameters. The specific surface area and total pore volume were calculated to be 846.37 m2 g-1 and 0.726 cm3 g-1, respectively. Benefit from its multi-level rich porosity, the optimized sample possessed attractive adsorption performance toward different types of dyes. The corresponding adsorption capacity toward I2, MB, and PhOH were calculated to be 980.48, 384.00, and 300.62 mg g-1, respectively.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(19): 5765-5771, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205679

RESUMO

Mass transfer coefficients of CO2 are anomalously high in water-lean solvents as compared to aqueous amines. Such phenomena are intrinsic to the molecular and nanoscale structure of concentrated organic CO2 capture solvents. To decipher the connections, we performed in situ liquid time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectroscopy on a representative water-lean solvent, 1-((1,3-Dimethylimidazolidin-2-ylidene)amino)propan-2-ol (IPADM-2-BOL). Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) chemical mapping of the solvent revealed that IPADM-2-BOL exhibited a heterogeneous molecular structure with regions of CO2-free solvent coexisting with clusters of zwitterionic carbonate ions. Chemical mapping were consistent with molecular dynamic simulation results, indicating CO2 diffusing through pockets and channels of unreacted solvent. The observed mesoscopic structure promotes and enhances the diffusion and reactivity of CO2, likely prevalent in other water-lean solvents. This finding suggests that if the size, shape and orientation of the domains can be controlled, more efficient CO2 capture solvents could be developed to enhance mass-transfer and uptake kinetics.

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