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1.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419157

RESUMO

Electrochemical analysis is an efficient way to study various materials. However, nanoparticles are challenging due to the difficulty in fabricating a uniform electrode containing nanoparticles. We developed novel approaches to incorporate nanoparticles as a working electrode (WE) in a three-electrode microfluidic electrochemical cell. Specifically, conductive epoxy was used as a medium for direct application of nanoparticles onto the electrode surface. Three approaches in this work were illustrated, including sequence stamping, mix stamping, and droplet stamping. Shadow masking was used to form the conductive structure in the WE surface on a thin silicon nitride (SiN) membrane. Two types of nanomaterials, namely cerium oxide (CeO2) and graphite, were chosen as representative nanoparticles. The as-fabricated electrodes with attached particles were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Electrochemical analysis was performed to verify the feasibility of these nanoparticles as electrodes. Nanomaterials can be quickly assessed for their electrochemical properties using these new electrode fabrication methods in a microfluidic cell, offering a passport for rapid nanomaterial electrochemical analysis in the future.

2.
Complement Ther Med ; 57: 102635, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the effects of resveratrol supplementation on liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have reported conflicting results. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize evidence of the effects of resveratrol supplementation on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in patients with NAFLD by performing a meta-analysis of RCTs. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were electronically explored from inception to August 2020 for all relevant studies. Random effect models were used to estimate liver enzymes changes between resveratrol supplementation and control groups by evaluating the weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Five trials with a total of 216 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that resveratrol supplementation did not result in significant changes in serum ALT (WMD= -2.48 IU/L; 95 % CI: -12.30, 7.34; P = 0.62), and AST (WMD = -2.90 IU/L; 95 % CI: -9.77, 3.98; P = 0.40) concentrations. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant reduction in serum ALT and AST concentrations in the participants with mean age <45 years, and studies with intervention dosage <1000 mg/day. In addition, ALT and AST levels were decreased significantly in studies with duration >12 weeks and participants with BMI < 30 kg/m2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results indicated that resveratrol supplementation did not affect liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD. More studies examining the effect of resveratrol supplementation on liver enzymes are needed in the future.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 324-329, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352051

RESUMO

Air-liquid interfacial processing of volatile organic compound photooxidation has been suggested as an important source of secondary organic aerosols. However, owing to the lack of techniques for studying the air-liquid interface, the detailed interfacial mechanism remains speculative. To obviate this, we enabled in situ synchrotron-based vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization mass spectrometry using the system for analysis at the liquid-vacuum interface microreactor to study glyoxal photooxidation at the air-liquid interface. Determination of reaction intermediates and new oxidation products, including polymers and oligomers, by mass spectral analysis and appearance energy measurements has been reported for the first time. Furthermore, an expanded reaction mechanism of photooxidation and free radical induced reactions as a source of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation is proposed. Single photon ionization can provide new insights into interfacial chemistry.

4.
J Biomed Opt ; 25(11)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200597

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Early detection of epithelial cancers and precancers/neoplasia in the presence of benign lesions is challenging due to the lack of robust in vivo imaging and biopsy guidance techniques. Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) has shown promise for optical biopsy through the detection of cellular and extracellular signatures of neoplasia. Although in vivo microscopy techniques continue to be developed, the surface area imaged in microscopy is limited by the field of view. FDA-approved widefield fluorescence (WF) imaging systems that capture autofluorescence signatures of neoplasia provide molecular information at large fields of view, which may complement the cytologic and architectural information provided by NLOM. AIM: A multimodal imaging approach with high-sensitivity WF and high-resolution NLOM was investigated to identify and distinguish image-based features of neoplasia from normal and benign lesions. APPROACH: In vivo label-free WF imaging and NLOM was performed in preclinical hamster models of oral neoplasia and inflammation. Analyses of WF imaging, NLOM imaging, and dual modality (WF combined with NLOM) were performed. RESULTS: WF imaging showed increased red-to-green autofluorescence ratio in neoplasia compared to inflammation and normal oral mucosa (p < 0.01). In vivo assessment of the mucosal tissue with NLOM revealed subsurface cytologic (nuclear pleomorphism) and architectural (remodeling of extracellular matrix) atypia in histologically confirmed neoplastic tissue, which were not observed in inflammation or normal mucosa. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of macroscopic and microscopic image-based features indicated improved performance (94% sensitivity and 97% specificity) of a multiscale approach over WF alone, even in the presence of benign lesions (inflammation), a common confounding factor in diagnostics. CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal imaging approach integrating strengths from WF and NLOM may be beneficial in identifying oral neoplasia. Our study could guide future studies on human oral neoplasia to further evaluate merits and limitations of multimodal workflows and inform the development of multiscale clinical imaging systems.

5.
Anal Chem ; 92(15): 10402-10411, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614167

RESUMO

Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has been considered as a novel and highly efficient strategy in both natural anaerobic environments and artificial microbial fuel cells. A syntrophic model consisting of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens was studied in this work. We conducted in vivo molecular mapping of the outer surface of the syntrophic community as the interface of nutrients and energy exchange. System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface combined with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was employed to capture the molecular distribution of syntrophic Geobacter communities in the living and hydrated state. Principal component analysis with selected peaks revealed that syntrophic Geobacter aggregates were well differentiated from other control samples, including syntrophic planktonic cells, pure cultured planktonic cells, and single population biofilms. Our in vivo imaging indicated that a unique molecular surface was formed. Specifically, aromatic amino acids, phosphatidylethanolamine components, and large water clusters were identified as key components that favored the DIET of syntrophic Geobacter aggregates. Moreover, the molecular changes in depths of the Geobacter aggregates were captured using dynamic depth profiling. Our findings shed new light on the interface components supporting electron transfer in syntrophic communities based on in vivo molecular imaging.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101761, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy food environments may be associated with higher risks of developing diet-related cancers, such as, colorectal cancer. We conducted an ecological analysis to evaluate the relationship between the local food environment and colorectal cancer incidence overall and separately for males and females. METHODS: Data from the Texas Cancer Registry was utilized to geocode individuals aged 40 years and older diagnosed with colorectal cancer from 2005 to 2015 to their residential 2010 census tract. Total number of establishments classified as Limited Service Restaurants for each census tract was retrieved from the 2005 Business Patterns Survey by using a crosswalk to map zip codes to census tract. Census tract unhealthy food availability was calculated by dividing the estimated number of Limited Service Restaurant establishments in each census tract by the census tract population and divided into quartiles. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between unhealthy food availability quartiles and colorectal cancer incidence. RESULTS: Adjusting for the census tract level sociodemographic characteristics, the incidence of colorectal cancer was slightly higher in unhealthy food availability quartile 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.03, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05), but not quartile 3 (IRR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05), and quartile 4 (highest availability, IRR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.99-1.05) compared to census tracts with lowest unhealthy food availability. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer incidence was not strongly associated with census tracts with higher unhealthy food availability. Future observational studies should be conducted to examine the influence of the built environment on colorectal cancer risk.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(26): 14449-14453, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582899

RESUMO

We present synchrotron-based mass spectrometry to probe products formed in a lithium sulphide electrolyte. In operando analysis was carried out at two different potentials in a vacuum compatible microfluidic electrochemical cell. Mass spectral observations show that the charged electrolyte formed sulphur clusters under dynamic conditions, demonstrating electrolyte electron shuttling.

8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(3): 262-6, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect on postpartum pelvic girdle pain treated with the combined therapy of pelvic-sacral tendon-regulation needling technique of acupuncture and manipulative reduction and the simple manipulative therapy. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with postpartum pelvic girdle pain were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the control group, the manipulative reduction was simply adopted. In the observation group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, the pelvic-sacral tendon-regulation needling technique of acupuncture was applied at Mingmen (GV 4), Dachangshu (BL 25), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Ciliao (BL 32), Zhongliao (BL 33), Huantiao (GB 30) and Yanglingquan (GB 34). In either group, the treatment was given once every two days, three times a week and 3 treatments taken as one course. Totally, 3 courses of treatment were required. The clinical therapeutic effect was compared in the patients between the two groups. The changes in the scores of the pain visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), as well as the pelvic floor distress inventory-short form 20 (PFDI-20), the pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and the sex life index (the frequency of intercourse and orgasm) were recorded in the patients of the two groups before and after treatment. RESULTS: The total effective rate was 95.0% (38/40) in the observation group, higher than 77.5% (31/40) in the control group (P<0.01). After treatment, the scores of VAS, ODI, PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7 were lower than those before treatment respectively in the patients of the two groups (P<0.01). JOA score and the sex life index were increased after treatment as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (P<0.01). The difference value of each of the above indexes in the observation group was higher than the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The combined therapy of pelvic-sacral tendon-regulation needling technique of acupuncture and manipulative reduction effectively alleviates pain and improves the muscle strength of pelvic floor muscle fibers in the patients with postpartum pelvic girdle pain. Its therapeutic effect is better than that of the simple manipulative therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dor da Cintura Pélvica/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Humanos , Pelve , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Sacro , Tendões , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(21): 11771-11782, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227050

RESUMO

Bilge water from ships is regarded as a major pollutant in the marine environment. Bilge water exists in a stable oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion form. However, little is known about the O/W liquid-liquid (l-l) interface. Traditional bulk characterization approaches are not capable of capturing the chemical changes at the O/W l-l interface. Although surfactants are deemed essential in droplet formation, their roles in bilge water stabilization have not been fully revealed. We have utilized novel in situ chemical imaging tools including in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to study the evolving O/W interface using a NAVY bilge model for the first time. The droplet size distribution (DSD) does not change significantly without the addition of X-100 surfactants under static or rocking conditions. Both the oil components and the water clusters are shown to evolve over time at the O/W droplet interface by in situ liquid SIMS imaging. Of particular interest to droplet stabilization, the contribution of surfactants to the aged bilge droplets becomes more significant as the droplet size increases. The higher mass surfactant component does not appear on the droplet surface immediately while many lower mass surfactants are solvated inside the droplet. We have provided the first three-dimensional images of the evolving O/W interface and demonstrated that in situ surface chemical mapping is powerful enough to reveal the complex and dynamic l-l interface in the liquid state. Our observational insights suggest that surfactants are important in mediating droplet growth and facilitating effective separation of bilge water emulsion.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3695, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111945

RESUMO

In situ molecular imaging of protein films adsorbed on a solid surface in water was realized by using a vacuum compatible microfluidic interface and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Amino acid fragments from such hydrated protein films are observed and identified in the positive ion mode and the results are in agreement with reported works on dry protein films. Moreover, water clusters from the hydrated protein films have been observed and identified in both the positive and negative ion mode for a series protein films. Thus, the detailed composition of amino acids and water molecules in the hydrated protein films can be characterized, and the protein water microstructures can be revealed by the distinct three-dimensional spatial distribution reconstructed from in situ liquid ToF-SIMS molecular imaging. Furthermore, spectral principal component analysis of amino acid fragment peaks and water cluster peaks provides unique insights into the water cluster distribution, hydrophilicity, and hydrophobicity of hydrated adsorbed protein films in water.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Imagem Molecular , Proteínas/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 207, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention and adherence is a critical challenge facing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs. There is an urgent need for evidence-based, cost-effective, and scalable interventions to improve maternal adherence and retention that can be feasibly implemented in overburdened health systems. Brief video-based interventions are a promising but underutilized approach to this crisis. We describe a trial protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and implementation of a standardized educational video-based intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women that seeks to optimize their ART retention and adherence by providing a VITAL Start (Video intervention to Inspire Treatment Adherence for Life) before committing to lifelong ART. METHODS: This study is a multisite parallel group, randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of a brief facility-based video intervention to optimize retention and adherence to ART among pregnant women living with HIV in Malawi. A total of 892 pregnant women living with HIV and not yet on ART will be randomized to standard-of-care pre-ART counseling or VITAL Start. The primary outcome is a composite of retention and adherence (viral load < 1000 copies/ml) 12 months after starting ART. Secondary outcomes include assessments of behavioral adherence (self-reported adherence, pharmacy refill, and tenofovir diphosphate concentration), psychosocial impact, and resource utilization. We will also examine the implementation of VITAL Start via surveys and qualitative interviews with patients, partners, and health care workers and conduct cost-effectiveness analyses. DISCUSSION: This is a robust evaluation of an innovative facility-based video intervention for pregnant women living with HIV, with the potential to improve maternal and infant outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03654898. Registered on 31 August 2018.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Recursos Audiovisuais , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autorrelato , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(4): 5090-5098, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891475

RESUMO

The abundance of novel metal-organic framework (MOF) materials continues to increase as more applications are discovered for these highly porous, well-ordered crystalline structures. The simplicity of constituents allows for the design of new MOFs with virtue of functionality and pore topology toward target adsorbates. However, the fundamental understanding of how these frameworks evolve during nucleation and growth is mostly limited to speculation from simulation studies. In this effort, we utilize a unique vacuum compatible system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) microfluidic interface to analyze the formation and evolution of the benchmark MOF-74 framework using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Principal component analysis of the SIMS mass spectra, together with ex situ electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and porosimetry, provides new insights into the structural growth, metal-oxide cluster formation, and aging process of Zn-MOF-74. Samples collected over a range of synthesis times and analyzed closely with in situ ToF-SIMS, transmission electron microscopy, and gas adsorption studies verify the developing pore structure during the aging process.

13.
Food Chem ; 305: 125454, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505413

RESUMO

The effects of the (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-gelatin biofilm treatment (EGT) on microbial composition and quality of tilapia fillets stored at low temperatures were evaluated. The changes in mechanical properties, microbial reproduction, as well as lipid and protein oxidation during fillets storage were determined. The results showed that EGT reduced the microbial count and the relative abundance of the fillets. And EGT delayed the rate of lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in fillets. Compared with the control group, EGT samples had lower K values (74% on 18 d) and biogenic amines (39 mg/kg for putrescine and 50 mg/kg for cadaverine on 21 d). According to sensory evaluation, the shelf life of tilapia fillets was extended by 6 d in the EGT group. Therefore, EGT improved the quality of cryopreserved tilapia fillets and could be considered as a potential method for fish fillet preservation.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gelatina/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/química , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura
14.
Analyst ; 145(2): 393-401, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789324

RESUMO

The rhizosphere is arguably the most complex microbial habitat on Earth, comprising an integrated network of plant roots, soil and a highly diverse microbial community (the rhizosphere microbiome). Understanding, predicting and controlling plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere will allow us to harness the plant microbiome as a means to increase or restore plant ecosystem productivity, improve plant responses to a wide range of environmental perturbations, and mitigate the effects of climate change by designing ecosystems for long-term soil carbon storage. To this end, it is imperative to develop new molecular approaches with high spatial resolution to capture interactions at the plant-microbe, microbe-microbe, and plant-plant interfaces. In this work, we designed an imaging sample holder that allows integrated surface imaging tools to map the same locations of a plant root-microbe interface with submicron lateral resolutions, providing novel in vivo analysis of root-microbe interactions. Specifically, confocal fluorescence microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the first time for the correlative imaging of the Brachypodium distachyon root and its interaction with Pseudomonas SW25, a typical plant growth-promoting soil bacterium. Imaging data suggest that the root surface is inhomogeneous and that the interaction between Pseudomonas and Brachypodium roots was confined to only a few spots along the sampled root segments and that the bacterial attachment spots were enriched in Na- and S-related and high-mass organic species. We conclude that the attachment of the Pseudomonas cells to the root surface is outcompeted by strong root-soil mineral interactions but facilitated by the formation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).


Assuntos
Brachypodium/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Brachypodium/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 343-354, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) remains a critical and challenging problem in assisted reproductive technology mainly due to impaired decidualization. The endocytic and transcytotic activity in the endometrium are crucial for decidualization. The most representative endocytic gene is the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing 1 (EHD1), but whether EHD1-mediated endocytic function is responsible for embryo implantation during decidualization remains unclear. METHODS: A transcriptomic analysis was performed to evaluate the differentially expressed genes between the fertile control and RIF group. The expression and location of EHD1 in endometrial tissues were further examined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The transduction of an EHD1 recombinant adenovirus into human endometrial stromal cells was performed to investigate relevant decidualization marker genes. Additionally, a microarray analysis following the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of EHD1 was conducted to identify EHD1-related changes in HESCs, and the potential molecular mechanisms were further confirmed through immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation analyses. FINDINGS: An RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that EHD1 expression was significantly higher in the mid-secretory endometrium of the RIF group than in that of the fertile control group. The analysis of the menstrual cycle showed that expression of EHD1 increased in the mid-proliferative phase and showed a gradual decrease in the mid-secretory and decidual phases. Furthermore, EHD1 overexpression impaired decidualization by suppressing the expression of prolactin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and the formation of the cytoskeleton. The mechanistic analysis revealed the EHD1 regulated LRP5/6 protein function through the endocytic pathway, and subsequently suppressed the Wnt4/ß-catenin pathway during decidualization. In addition, a Wnt4 agonist improved an impaired decidualization process. INTERPRETATION: Regulation of the EHD1-Wnt4 pathway might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for improving endometrial receptivity in RIF women.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/genética , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Decídua/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteína Wnt4/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , 8-Bromo Monofosfato de Adenosina Cíclica/farmacologia , Aborto Habitual/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Decídua/patologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Proteína-6 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(9): 1482-1490, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474709

RESUMO

Zhengganxifeng decoction (ZGXFD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula, from "Medical Zhong parameter West recorded" by Xichun Zhang, which has been applied to the treatment of clinical essential hypertension. Besides its effect in blood pressure reduction, ZGXFD is also known to be a radical therapy with little or no side effects. Compared with western medicines, Chinese medicinal formulas have the advantage of simultaneously attacking multiple targets. However, such a property brings trouble to the pharmacological studies of Chinese medicines. This study investigated the composition of gut microbiota in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with ZGXFD. ZGXFD was shown to cause similar effects in the treatment group as benazepril: both were able to reduce in SHR the microbial diversity, Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and coccus to bacillus (C/B) ratio. Meanwhile, ZGXFD can maintain the integrity of intestinal mechanistic barrier and elevate the percentage of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA). By investigating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) system, we found that ZGXFD can decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) in lungs, which in turn causes a increase in AngI produces angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) and decrease in AngII. ZGXFD regulate blood pressure in SHR via RAS.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
17.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545184

RESUMO

Bilgewater is a regulated shipboard produced waste stream that often contains oil-in-water emulsion. Fundamental knowledge of emulsion surface changes is required for improved wastewater treatment; however, limited information is currently available. We have reported the first surface characterization of synthetic bilgewater emulsions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) coupled with optical microscopy. A Navy standard bilgewater solution consisting of a hydrocarbon and detergent mixture is used as the synthetic bilgewater emulsion model. Both fresh and aged emulsion samples are analyzed to determine their droplet size distributions (DSDs) and surface chemical composition. Our results show that fresh emulsions are largely mono-modal with hydrocarbon fragments as the main surface composition. Aged emulsions are also mono-modal with slightly larger size. Both SIMS spectral comparison and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) show that some surfactant components appear on the fresh emulsion surface while larger molecular weight components appear at the aged bilge droplet surface. Our results indicate that the oil-water interface evolves after emulsion droplet formation. More importantly, surface evolution not only changes the bilgewater DSD, but also alters the surface chemical composition and reactivity.


Assuntos
Emulsões/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Óleos/análise , Tensoativos/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Análise de Componente Principal , Navios
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222638, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550281

RESUMO

CONTEXT: High rates of burnout have been reported in low and medium income countries and can detrimentally impact healthcare delivery. Understanding factors associated with burnout amongst health care workers providing HIV care may help develop interventions to prevent/treat burnout. OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand factors associated with burnout amongst health care workers providing HIV care in Malawi. METHODS: This was a sub-study of a larger cross-sectional study measuring burnout prevalence amongst a convenience sample of healthcare workers providing HIV care in 89 health facilities in eight districts in Malawi. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Anonymously administered surveys included questions about sociodemographics, work characteristics (work load, supervisor support, team interactions), depression, life stressors, assessment of type D personality, and career satisfaction. We performed univariable and multivariable regression analyses to explore associations between variables and burnout. RESULTS: We received 535 responses (response rate 99%). Factors associated with higher rates of burnout on multivariable regression analyses included individual level factors: male gender (OR 1.75 [CI 1.17, 2.63]; p = 0.007), marital status (widowed or divorced) (OR 3.24 [CI 1.32, 7.98]; p = 0.011), depression (OR 3.32 [CI 1.21, 9.10]; p = 0.020), type D personality type (OR 2.77 [CI 1.50, 5.12]; p = 0.001) as well as work related factors: working at a health center vs. a rural hospital (OR 2.02 [CI 1.19, 3.40]; p = 0.009); lack of a very supportive supervisor (OR 2.38 [CI 1.32, 4.29]; p = 0.004), dissatisfaction with work/team interaction (OR 1.76 [CI 1.17, 2.66]; p = 0.007), and career dissatisfaction (OR 0.76 [CI 0.60, 0.96]; p = 0.020). CONCLUSION: This study identified several individual level vulnerabilities as well as work related modifiable factors. Improving the supervisory capacity of health facility managers and creating conditions for improved team dynamics may help reduce burnout amongst healthcare workers proving HIV care in Malawi.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Civil , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Personalidade Tipo D
19.
Biointerphases ; 14(5): 051004, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554406

RESUMO

In situ liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a powerful technique to study surface characterization of living biofilms in hydrated conditions. However, ToF-SIMS data analysis is still a great challenge in complicated bacterial biofilms, because many interference peaks from the medium may result in inaccurate interpretation. In this study, two syntrophic Geobacter populations are investigated using in situ liquid ToF-SIMS to reveal the biofilm surface changes between them due to direct interspecies electron transfer. By comparing spectral principal component analysis (PCA) results of all peaks and selected peaks, the authors find that spectral peak overlay is an effective strategy to reduce the matrix effect in handling complex ToF-SIMS data. Additionally, the spectral PCA results of high intensity and high resolution data obtained from liquid ToF-SIMS are compared. Selected peaks, amino acid peaks, and water cluster peaks spectral PCA produce nice separation among samples in both high intensity and high resolution data sets. However, the high resolution data show better separation between coculture planktonic and coculture aggregates, confirming that the higher mass accuracy is useful in the analysis of microbial samples. In conclusion, the results show that peak selection is critical for acquiring effective microbial information and interpretation of syntrophic Geobacter using spectral data from in situ liquid ToF-SIMS.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geobacter/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3140-3151, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410618

RESUMO

We developed and piloted a video-based intervention targeting HIV-positive pregnant women to optimize antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention and adherence by providing a VITAL Start (Video-intervention to Inspire Treatment Adherence for Life) before ART. VITAL Start (VS) was grounded in behavior-determinant models and developed through an iterative multi-stakeholder process. Of 306 pregnant women eligible for ART, 160 were randomized to standard of care (SOC), 146 to VS and followed for one-month. Of those assigned to VS, 100% completed video-viewing; 96.5% reported they would recommend VS. Of 11 health workers interviewed, 82% preferred VS over SOC; 91% found VS more time-efficient. Compared to SOC, VS group had greater change in HIV/ART knowledge (p < 0.01), trend towards being more likely to start ART (p = 0.07), and better self-reported adherence (p = 0.02). There were no significant group differences in 1-month retention and pharmacy pill count. VITAL Start was highly acceptable, feasible, with promising benefits to ART adherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Autorrelato , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Gravação em Vídeo
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