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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124790, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521927

RESUMO

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) play a significant role in human health. Identification of the precursor of DBPs, which constitutes dissolved organic matter (DOM), can help optimize the processes in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). This is very important for obtaining more safe water. In this context, a one-year study was performed in a DWTP. Fluorescence spectra of DOM were quantified for determining DOM composition and properties, and the corresponding DBPs formation was analyzed. Hydrophobic neutral and acidic compounds were found to be the two predominant substances forming DBPs, which also were dominant in the DOM. Coagulation and sedimentation were not effective in DOM elimination. Besides, sand filtration caused organic compounds to increase by 14.8% on average, especially 28.59% for aromatic protein II and 18.7% for soluble microbial product-like compounds, which was due to metabolism by microorganisms present in the filter. Carbonaceous DBPs were elevated from 34.8 µg/L in source water to 42.5 µg/L in effluent, along with organic compounds increasing in filtration, and nitrogenous DBPs were under detection in winter. All DBPs appeared at a high level in summer. Accordingly, enhanced coagulation process and measures that can avoid the release of organic compounds during filtration have been suggested. As the source water was rarely affected by human activities in the study area and owing to the wide use of traditional treatment process, the data of this research can be regarded as environmental background values and the results are considered as a significant reference.

2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125363, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472383

RESUMO

Present in many plant foods, biogenic phenolic compounds are important bioactive phytonutrients with high anti-oxidant activity and thereby are praised for their health-promoting properties. However, current food nutrient improvement by high phenolic content in staples is limited by the shortage of genetic resources rich in phenolic compounds. To resolve this obstacle, we developed a non-destructive massive analytical approach to screen wheat phenolic mutants. In grains, multiple mutant lines showed significantly higher contents of flavonoids or cell wall-bound phenolic esters. Moreover, five mutants showed higher anti-oxidant potentials in wall-bound phenolic compounds ranging from 15% to 20%, with the maximal close to natural black wheat. In contrast to black wheat, two mutants accumulated higher phenolic compounds in the endosperm. lrf4 was mapped by BSR to a concentrated genomic region in the short arm of chromosome 1A. The present work represents an efficient high-throughput strategy to increase wheat anti-oxidant potential through traditional mutagenesis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo
3.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 32047-32057, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684424

RESUMO

The gamma effect of phase-measuring profilometry systems yields nonlinear errors, which will substantially reduce the 3D shape measurement accuracy. Here, a robust and flexible gamma correction method based on the probability distribution function (PDF) of the wrapped phase is presented. First, a series of PDF curves are generated from the simulated wrapped phase distributions with different gamma values. Second, an experimental PDF curve will be produced after obtaining the wrapped phase from the captured three-step phase-shift fringe images. Then, a correlation procedure will be used to find the most similar PDF curve from the simulated PDF curves, and the gamma value of the matched PDF curve is that of the current system. Note that the gamma value detected by this method will be smaller than the true value due to the defocusing effect of the projection system with a large aperture. Therefore, an improved PDF-based algorithm, which projects two sets of three-step phase-shifting sinusoidal fringe patterns with different pre-coded gamma values and produces two PDF curves, is also added. Then after one more correlation procedure, a more accurate systematic gamma value could be calculated. It does not need large-step phase-shift images and 2×3 fringe images are quite enough. The experimental results show that the technique is very fast, easy to use and quite accurate.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718168

RESUMO

The active lone pair electron effect and highly flexible coordination geometry of Pb2+ prevented the rational construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) but promoted excellent fluorescence tuning. The regulation on organic and alkali templates facilitated the assemblies of three new Pb-MOFs: [Pb2(pia)2(DMA)]·DMA (1), [Pb2(pia)2(DMF)]·1.5DMF (2), and [Pb2(pia)2(DMF)]·NEt3 (3). They were rigid rod-spacer and double-walls frameworks, which possess defective dicubane [Pb4O6] based metal-carboxyl chains constructed from both semidirected and holodirected Pb2+ ions. These MOFs exhibited thermal stability up to 370 °C and unprecedented chemical stability in H2O and acidic (pH 2) and alkaline (pH 12) aqueous solutions, found for the first time in Pb-MOFs. A single-phase and rare-earth-free white-emitting phosphor, 1, was screen out, which showed a near-sunlight and human-vision-friendly broadband spectrum covering the full visible region, possessing the close-to-pure-white chromaticity coordinates of (0.332, 0.347), a near-daylight color temperature of 5696 K, and a high color rendering index of 95. The replacement of DMF as apical ligand and guest in 2 resulted in an intrinsic single and narrow emission at 562 nm with yellow color. The convenient yellow-and-blue color-tuning until white for 2 was realized by either solution or solid blending with blue-emissive H2pia, benefited from their highly matched excitation spectra. Using large NEt3 as template guest induced great framework distortion for 3 and led to white emission with chromaticity coordinates of (0.302, 0.294), stemming from nonequivalent dual emission at 450 and 545 nm. In-depth structure analysis revealed intra-/interchain Pb···Pb interactions in the lead(II)-carboxyl chains greatly affected the photochemical output.

5.
Compr Psychiatry ; 95: 152132, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669790

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the gender differences in neurocognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in China. METHODS: A total of 449 Chinese patients with FES (210 males, 239 females) were included in this study. Participants' psychopathology was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed by 10 neuropsychological tests from a battery. Neurocognitive test scores were converted to scale scores and t-scores using normative data from Chinese populations. RESULTS: Males were younger and less likely to be married, had an earlier age of illness onset and a longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and scored higher on the PANSS negative, general and total scales than females. After controlling for potential confounders, females performed better than males in the verbal learning and memory domain (p=0.016). While most neurocognitive domains were correlated with PANSS negative scores for male patients with FES, for female patients with FES, negative associations were found between scores on the PANSS general subscales and neurocognitive domains. We also performed a case-control comparison with a group of patients with clinically stable schizophrenia (CSS) (n=60) who were matched by age, sex and education years with patients with FES (n=58). After controlling for potential confounders, no significant differences were found between patients with FES and patients with CSS in all neurocognitive domains. Female patients still performed better in the verbal learning and memory domain (t=2.14, p=0.034). No interaction effects of gender and disease were found. CONCLUSIONS: Gender was an independent influence factor for the verbal learning and memory domain. Both female patients with first-episode schizophrenia and female patients with clinically stable schizophrenia performed better than male patients.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714196

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and orange-pigmented bacterium, designated 1505T, was isolated from marine sediment that was obtained off the coast of Weihai, PR China. Strain 1505T was found to grow at 10-35 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.5) and in the presence of 1-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Cells were positive for oxidase and catalase activity. The 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain 1505T were Seonamhaeicola algicola Gy8T (97.1 %), Seonamhaeicola marinus B011T (96.3 %) and Seonamhaeicola aphaedonensis KCTC 32578T (95.6 %). Based on phylogenomic analysis, the average nucleotide identity values between strain 1505T and S. algicola Gy8T, S. marinus B011T and S. aphaedonensis KCTC 32578T were 75.9, 76.0 and 77.7 %, respectively; the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values based on the draft genomes between strain 1505T and S. algicola Gy8T, S. marinus B011T and S. aphaedonensis KCTC 32578T were 20.0, 20.7 and 21.4 %, respectively. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was detected as the major respiratory quinone. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain 1505T was 33.3 mol%. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, six aminolipids and four unidentified lipids. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain 1505T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Seonamhaeicola, for which the name Seonamhaeicola maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1505T (=KCTC 72528T=MCCC 1H00389T).

7.
Cancer ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been controversial for decades. In this report, the final results of a prospective randomized trial on the TRT target volume before and after induction chemotherapy are presented. METHODS: After 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin, patients arm were randomized to receive TRT to the postchemotherapy or prechemotherapy tumor volume in a study arm and a control arm. Involved-field radiotherapy was received in both arms. TRT consisted of 1.5 grays (Gy) twice daily in 30 fractions to up to a total dose of 45 Gy. Lymph node regions were contoured, and intentional and incidental radiation doses were recorded. RESULTS: The study was halted early because of slow accrual. Between 2002 and 2017, 159 and 150 patients were randomized to the study arm or the control arm, respectively; and 21.4% and 19.1% of patients, respectively, were staged using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (P = .31). With a median follow-up of 54.1 months (range, 19.9-165.0 months) in survivors, the 3-year local/regional progression-free probability was 58.2% and 65.5% in the study and control arms, respectively (P = .44), and the absolute difference was -7.3% (95% CI, -18.2%, 3.7%). In the study and control arms, the median overall survival was 21.9 months and 26.6 months, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.8% and 28.1%, respectively (P = .26). Grade 3 esophagitis was observed in 5.9% of patients in the study arm versus 15.5% of those in the control arm (P = .01). The isolated out-of-field failure rate was 2.6% in the study arm versus 4.1% in the control arm (P = .46), and all such failures were located in the supraclavicular fossa or contralateral hilum. The regions 7, 3P, 4L, 6, 4R, 5, and 2L received incidental radiation doses >30 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: TRT could be limited to the postchemotherapy tumor volume, and involved-field radiotherapy could be routinely applied for limited-stage SCLC.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 852, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699966

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate tissue development and cell morphology, movement, and differentiation. SPARCL1 is an ECM protein, but its role in mouse cell differentiation has not been widely investigated. The results of western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that SPARCL1 is associated with the repair of muscle damage in mice and that SPARCL1 binds to bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) by regulating BMP/transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß cell signaling. This pathway promotes the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we also showed that SPARCL1 activates BMP/TGF-ß to promote the differentiation of C2C12 cells. BMP7 molecules were found to interact with SPARCL1 by immunoprecipitation analysis. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to verify the effect of BMP7 on C2C12 cell differentiation. Furthermore, SPARCL1 was shown to influence the expression of BMP7 and activity of the BMP/TGF-ß signaling pathway. Finally, SPARCL1 activation was accompanied by BMP7 inhibition in C2C12 cells, which confirmed that SPARCL1 affects BMP7 expression and can promote C2C12 cell differentiation through the BMP/TGF-ß pathway. The ECM is essential for muscle regeneration and damage repair. This study intends to improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of muscle development and provide new treatment ideas for muscle injury diseases.

9.
Int Wound J ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724831

RESUMO

Bacterial infection is a common wound complication that can significantly delay healing. Classical local therapies for infected wounds are expensive and are frequently ineffective. One alternative therapy is photodynamic therapy (PDT). We conducted a systematic review to clarify whether PDT is useful for bacteria-infected wounds in animal models. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles on PDT in infected skin wounds in animals. The language was limited to English. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The overall study methodological quality was moderate, with a low-moderate risk of bias. The animal models were mice and rats. The wounds were excisional, burn, and abrasion wounds. Wound size ranged from 6 mm in diameter to 1.5 × 1.5 cm2 . Most studies inoculated the wounds with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Eleven and 17 studies showed that the PDT of infected wounds significantly decreased wound size and bacterial counts, respectively. Six, four, and two studies examined the effect of PDT on infected wound-cytokine levels, wound-healing time, and body weight, respectively. Most indicated that PDT had beneficial effects on these variables. PDT accelerated bacteria-infected wound healing in animals by promoting wound closure and killing bacteria.

10.
Biochem Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696339

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been widely employed as one tool for the studies of human migration and phylogenetic evolution owing to the characteristics of its lack of recombination and matrilineal inheritance. In this study, we analyze genetic distributions of 60 mtDNA markers in 126 unrelated individuals of Southern Shaanxi Han population and classify their haplogroups. Genetic distribution comparisons between Southern Shaanxi Han and other populations from different continents are conducted based on the same mtDNA markers. The majority of 60 mtDNA markers are polymorphic in Southern Shaanxi Han population. The most common haplogroups observed in Southern Shaanxi Han population are B5, followed by D5, A, D4e, and N9a1'3. Obtained matching probability for these 60 mtDNA markers indicates that the panel could be used as a valuable tool in forensic caseworks. Results of genetic distances (Fst) and multidimensional scaling analysis show that Southern Shaanxi Han population has relatively close genetic relationships with other Han populations in different regions. In conclusion, the panel comprising 60 mtDNA markers could be utilized for forensic applications in Southern Shaanxi Han population.

12.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697212

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore the cellular morphological characteristics and changes in corneal endotheliitis among different viruses by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM).Methods: Corneal confocal images of 44 eyes of 44 patients with HSV, VZV, CMV and EBV corneal endotheliitis were studied retrospectively. Corneal confocal images of 44 normal eyes were used as controls.Results: The pathogens included cytomegalovirus (n = 20), herpes simplex virus (n = 8), varicella zoster virus (n = 10), and Epstein Barr virus (n = 6). There were no differences in the evaluated structures among the different viruses except for the lengths of the subbasal nerves and Langerhans cell densities. Deviations in endothelial cell layers were not significant among different viruses except for owl's eye morphology.Conclusion: ICVM can assist in diagnosing endotheliitis. The results demonstrate that changes in the cornea were not different among the various viruses except for owl's eye morphology, the lengths of the subbasal nerves and Langerhans cell densities.

13.
Biomolecules ; 9(11)2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690058

RESUMO

In the current study, corn steep liquor (CSL) is evaluated as an ideal raw agro-material for efficient lipid and docosahexaenoic acid DHA production by Aurantiochytrium sp. Low CSL level in medium (nitrogen deficiency) stimulated the biosynthesis of lipids and DHA while inhibiting cellular growth. The transcriptomic profiles of the Aurantiochytrium sp. cells are analyzed and compared when cultured under high (H group), normal (N group), and low (L group) levels of CSL in the medium. The discriminated transcriptomic profiles from the three groups indicates that changes in CSL level in medium result in a global change in transcriptome of Aurantiochytrium sp. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 61,163 unigenes, and 18,129 of them were annotated in at least one database. A total of 5105 differently expressed (DE) genes were found in the N group versus the H group, with 2218 downregulated and 2887 upregulated. A total of 3625 DE genes were found in the N group versus the L group, with 1904 downregulated and 1721 upregulated. The analysis and categorization of the DE genes indicates that the regulation mechanism of CSL involved in the perception and transduction of the limited nitrogen signal, the interactions between the transcription factors (TFs) and multiple downstream genes, and the variations in downstream genes and metabolites, in sequence, are illuminated for the first time in the current study.

14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734373

RESUMO

Immunosuppression refers to the suppression of the immune response. The immune function of immunocompromised people is not enough to resist bacterial, viral, fungal and other infections, leading to a series of diseases. A large number of experimental data show that polysaccharide compounds are immune modulators, which can enhance the body immunity with little toxic. Meanwhile, it can reduce the side effects of commonly used immunosuppressants, such as cytotoxicity, decreased ability of the body to fight infection, and inhibition of the reproduction of bone marrow hematopoietic cells. It can be used as oral or injectable drugs. In this study, a purified polysaccharide was primarily extracted from the flowers of Apios americana Medik (AAM), which can improve the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX). The immunoenhancement effect of AFP was evaluated by measuring the body weight, immune organ index, cytokine secretion and antibody generated levels of CTX-induced mice. Our results showed that AFP could significantly improve the above immune indexes, which indicated AFP could alleviate immunosuppression induced by CTX. The study provided a theoretical basis for the promotion, development and application of AAM as a newly introduced food material.

15.
Mol Oncol ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758671

RESUMO

The current study aimed to explore the role of the circular RNA circ-TCF4.85 and its downstream target miR-486-5p in HCC development. circ-TCF4.85 was detected to be highly expressed in HCC tissues. Next, we found that silencing of circ-TCF4.85 repressed HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, while enhancing apoptosis. In addition, biotin-coupled probe pull-down and miRNA capture assays, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, confirmed that circ-TCF4.85 could bind to miR-486-5p. In rescue experiments, miR-486-5p had the potential to eliminate the tumor-suppressive effects of circ-TCF4.85 knockdown in HCC. Moreover, miR-486-5p was shown to target ABCF2 gene, which was positively regulated by circ-TCF4.85. Finally, nude mice subcutaneously injected with si-circ-TCF4.85-transfected HCC cells presented with inhibited xenograft tumor formation in vivo. Taken together, our results reveal that silencing of circ-TCF4.85 suppresses HCC progression via miR-486-5p-targeted inhibition of ABCF2.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109615, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707343

RESUMO

Psoriasis is considered an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder that affects the quality of life of nearly four percent of the world population. Considering the side effects of existing therapeutic drugs and the urgent need for new drug development, we screened more than 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds to identify drugs that significantly reduced the viability of human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-related model cell line. Convallatoxin (CNT) was found to be a highly effective inhibitor of HaCaT cell viability. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that CNT induced HaCaT cell death by necroptosis rather than by apoptosis. CNT destroyed the membrane integrity of HaCaT cells, as detected by nuclear propidium iodide (PI) staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Additionally, the intercellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were lower in HaCaT cells treated with CNT than in control HaCaT cells, and typical necroptosis-associated characteristics were observed by electron microscopy in cells treated with CNT. Furthermore, compared with control HaCaT cells, CNT-treated HaCaT cells produced more reactive oxygen species (ROS), but this effect was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), and apocynin and the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1. In addition, antioxidant treatment attenuated necroptotic cell death, suggesting that CNT-induced HaCaT necroptosis is mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, CNT ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation in imiquimod (IMQ)- and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced psoriasis-like mouse models. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CNT is cytotoxic against HaCaT cells in vitro and exerts antipsoriatic activities in two mouse models of psoriasis in vivo, making CNT a potential promising candidate drug for future research.

17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 305, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740657

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BPD) is often confused with major depression, and current diagnostic questionnaires are subjective and time intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a new Bipolar Diagnosis Checklist in Chinese (BDCC) by using machine learning to shorten the Affective Disorder Evaluation scale (ADE) based on an analysis of registered Chinese multisite cohort data. In order to evaluate the importance of each item of the ADE, a case-control study of 360 bipolar disorder (BPD) patients, 255 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients and 228 healthy (no psychiatric diagnosis) controls (HCs) was conducted, spanning 9 Chinese health facilities participating in the Comprehensive Assessment and Follow-up Descriptive Study on Bipolar Disorder (CAFÉ-BD). The BDCC was formed by selected items from the ADE according to their importance as calculated by a random forest machine learning algorithm. Five classical machine learning algorithms, namely, a random forest algorithm, support vector regression (SVR), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression, were used to retrospectively analyze the aforementioned cohort data to shorten the ADE. Regarding the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), the BDCC had high AUCs of 0.948, 0.921, and 0.923 for the diagnosis of MDD, BPD, and HC, respectively, despite containing only 15% (17/113) of the items from the ADE. Traditional scales can be shortened using machine learning analysis. By shortening the ADE using a random forest algorithm, we generated the BDCC, which can be more easily applied in clinical practice to effectively enhance both BPD and MDD diagnosis.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(95): 14371-14374, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720596

RESUMO

A facile template-engaged strategy is developed to synthesize hollow NiFe mixed metal oxyphosphide spheres using different Fe ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+) as modulators. Benefiting from the optimized compositional and structural features, the as-obtained hollow spheres show excellent performance for the oxygen evolution reaction.

19.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740837

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with approximately 1% lifetime risk globally. Large-scale schizophrenia genetic studies have reported primarily on European ancestry samples, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we report the largest study to date of East Asian participants (22,778 schizophrenia cases and 35,362 controls), identifying 21 genome-wide-significant associations in 19 genetic loci. Common genetic variants that confer risk for schizophrenia have highly similar effects between East Asian and European ancestries (genetic correlation = 0.98 ± 0.03), indicating that the genetic basis of schizophrenia and its biology are broadly shared across populations. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals from East Asian and European ancestries identified 208 significant associations in 176 genetic loci (53 novel). Trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the sets of candidate causal variants in 44 loci. Polygenic risk scores had reduced performance when transferred across ancestries, highlighting the importance of including sufficient samples of major ancestral groups to ensure their generalizability across populations.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5239, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748553

RESUMO

Extensive in vivo imaging studies investigate the hippocampal neural network function, mainly focusing on the dorsal CA1 region given its optical accessibility. Multi-modality fMRI with simultaneous hippocampal electrophysiological recording reveal broad cortical correlation patterns, but the detailed spatial hippocampal functional map remains lacking given the limited fMRI resolution. In particular, hemodynamic responses linked to specific neural activity are unclear at the single-vessel level across hippocampal vasculature, which hinders the deciphering of the hippocampal malfunction in animal models and the translation to critical neurovascular coupling (NVC) patterns for human fMRI. We simultaneously acquired optogenetically-driven neuronal Ca2+ signals with single-vessel blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-fMRI from individual venules and arterioles. Distinct spatiotemporal patterns of hippocampal hemodynamic responses were correlated to optogenetically evoked and spreading depression-like calcium events. The calcium event-related single-vessel hemodynamic modeling revealed significantly reduced NVC efficiency upon spreading depression-like (SDL) events, providing a direct measure of the NVC function at various hippocampal states.

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