Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 167
Filtrar
1.
Eur Spine J ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To introduce a novel surgical protocol for safe and accurate placement of C1 lateral mass screws in patients with atlas assimilation, basilar invagination and atlantoaxial instability, and to categorize the screw accuracy and perioperative complications regarding this technique in a large case series. METHODS: Between January 2015 and January 2020, patients who had atlas assimilation, basilar invagination and atlantoaxial instability, and underwent atlantoaxial fixation using C1 lateral mass screws were reviewed. C1 lateral mass screws were placed with a novel surgical protocol following a series key steps, including posterior para-odontoid ligament release, panoramic exposure of the invaginated lateral mass, and diligent protection of the abnormal VA. Screw accuracy and related complications were specifically evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 434 C1 lateral mass screws were placed. Fifteen screws (3.5%) were classified as unacceptable, 54 screws (12.4%) were classified as acceptable, and 365 screws (84.1%) were classified as ideal. Overall, 96.5% of screws were deemed safe. There were no cases of vascular injury or permanent neurological defects. One patient with an unacceptable screw presented with hypoglossal nerve paralysis and recovered after an immediate revision surgery. Thirty-seven patients complained about occipital neuralgia and were successfully managed with medication. CONCLUSION: Placement of C1 lateral mass screws in patients with atlas assimilation, basilar invagination and atlantoaxial instability following this surgical protocol is safe and accurate. Thorough para-odontoid ligamental release, wide exposure of the invaginated lateral mass, and diligent protection of the vertebral artery are critical to maximize the chances of successful screw placement.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occipital condyle (OC) screw is an alternative technique for occipitocervical fixation that is especially suitable for revision surgery in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CMI). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of this technique in patients with CMI. METHODS: The CT data of 73 CMI patients and 73 healthy controls were retrospectively analyzed. The dimensions of OCs, including length, width, height, sagittal angle, and screw length, were measured in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using CT images. The OC available height was measured in the reconstructed oblique parasagittal plane of the trajectory. RESULTS: The mean length, width, and height of OCs in CMI patients were 17.79 ± 2.31 mm, 11.20 ± 1.28 mm, and 5.87 ± 1.29 mm, respectively. All OC dimensions were significantly smaller in CMI patients compared with healthy controls. The mean screw length and sagittal angle were 19.13 ± 1.97 mm and 33.94° ± 5.43°, respectively. The mean OC available height was 6.36 ± 1.59 mm. According to criteria based on OC available height and width, 52.1% (76/146) of OCs in CMI patients could safely accommodate a 3.5-mm-diameter screw. CONCLUSIONS: The OC screw is feasible in approximately half of OCs in CMI patients. Careful morphometric analyses and personalized surgical plans are necessary for the success of this operation in CMI patients.

3.
Metabolism ; 115: 154432, 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortisol has long been considered to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. Cushing's disease (CD) provides an excellent "hyperexpression model" to investigate the chronic effects of cortisol on brain physiology and cognition. Previous studies have shown that cortisol is associated with neurophysiological alterations in animal models, which has also been examined by neural activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in human studies. However, the manner in which cortisol affects the coupling between brain activity and metabolic demand remains largely unknown. METHODS: Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and arterial-spin-labeling imaging to investigate neurophysiological coupling by examining the ratio of CBF and functional connectivity strength (FCS) in 100 participants (47 CD patients and 53 healthy controls). RESULTS: The results showed that CD was associated with lower CBF-FCS coupling predominantly in regions involving cognitive processing, such as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus, as well as greater CBF-FCS coupling in subcortical structures, including the bilateral thalamus, right putamen, and hippocampus (P < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). Moreover, regions with disrupted CBF-FCS coupling were associated with cortisol dosage and cognitive decline in CD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings elucidate the effect of cortisol excess on cerebral microenvironment regulation and associated cognitive disturbances in the human brain.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary spinal pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is an extremely rare low-grade astrocytoma with unclear natural history. The demographic characteristics, imaging features, and long-term surgical outcomes have not been clarified due to low prevalence and limited reports. METHODS: A retrospective review within a single institution between 2004 and 2018 of all patients with pathologically proven PA was conducted. Patient data including demographics, radiographic features, treatment modalities, and long-term outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty consecutive patients were identified, and 16 (80%) were male patients, with a mean age at presentation of 29 ± 13 years. The lesion was primarily located in cervical (n = 10, 50%), thoracic (n = 7, 35%), cervico-thoracic junction (n = 2), and lumbar level (n = 1, 5%). The tumor had a mean extension of 4 ± 2 (1-7) vertebral segments. Most PAs were located eccentrically (n = 16, 80%), with most being heterogeneous in appearance (cystic and solid) or purely cystic (n = 14, 70%), and had unclear margins (n = 16, 80%). Eleven patients (55%) had associated syringomyelia. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 11 (55%) patients, and subtotal resection (STR) in 9 (45%). During a mean follow-up of 104 ± 56 months, 2 patients died and recurrence was found in 4 patients (20%), translating to a mean progression-free survival of 21 ± 11 months. CONCLUSION: Primary spinal PA is a rare entity with acceptable progression-free survival if treated appropriately. Surgical resection may provide reasonable prolongation of survival, and GTR should be achieved if possible. A close follow-up is recommended especially for residual lesions, and a further in-depth investigation of molecular biomarkers is needed to stratify risk and prognostic factors.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925754, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND With infiltration, high-grade glioma easily causes the boundary between tumor tissue and adjacent tissue to become unclear and results in tumor recurrence at or near the resection margin according to the incomplete surgical resection. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique has been demonstrated to be a useful tool that yields a molecular fingerprint and provides rapid, nondestructive, high-throughput and clinically relevant diagnostic information. MATERIAL AND METHODS FTIR was used to investigate the morphological and biochemical properties of human astrocytes (HA), microglia (HM1900), glioma cells (U87), and glioblastoma cells (BT325) cultured in vitro to simulate the infiltration area, with the use of multi-peak fitting and principal component analysis (PCA) of amide I of FTIR spectra and the use of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). RESULTS We found that the secondary structures of the 4 types of cells were significantly different. The contents of a-helix structure in glial cells was significantly higher than in the glioma cells, but the levels of ß-sheet, ß-turn, and random coil structures were lower. The 4 types of cells could be clearly separated with 85% for PC1 and 12.2% for PC2. CONCLUSIONS FTIR can be used to distinguish between human astrocytes, microglia, glioma, and glioblastoma cells in vitro. The protein secondary structure can be used as an indicator to distinguish tumor cells from glial cells. Further tissue-based and in vivo studies are needed to determine whether FTIR can identify cerebral glioma.

6.
Cancer Biol Med ; 17(3): 555-568, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944390

RESUMO

In the interaction between a tumor and the immune system, immune checkpoints play an important role, and in tumor immune escape, co-inhibitory immune checkpoints are important. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can enhance the immune system's killing effect on tumors. To date, impressive progress has been made in a variety of tumor treatments; PD1/PDL1 and CTLA4 inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in some tumors. However, glioblastoma (GBM) still lacks an effective treatment. Recently, a phase III clinical trial using nivolumab to treat recurrent GBM showed no significant improvement in overall survival compared to bevacizumab. Therefore, the use of immune checkpoints in the treatment of GBM still faces many challenges. First, to clarify the mechanism of action, how different immune checkpoints play roles in tumor escape needs to be determined; which biomarkers predict a benefit from ICIs treatment and the therapeutic implications for GBM based on experiences in other tumors also need to be determined. Second, to optimize combination therapies, how different types of immune checkpoints are selected for combined application and whether combinations with targeted agents or other immunotherapies exhibit increased efficacy need to be addressed. All of these concerns require extensive basic research and clinical trials. In this study, we reviewed existing knowledge with respect to the issues mentioned above and the progress made in treatments, summarized the state of ICIs in preclinical studies and clinical trials involving GBM, and speculated on the therapeutic prospects of ICIs in the treatment of GBM.

7.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many morphometric studies on Chiari malformation type I (CMI) patients, most of which focus on the posterior cranial fossa (PCF). Less attention has been paid to the atlanto-occipital joint. In this study, we aim to evaluate the morphological characteristics of the atlanto-occipital joint in CMI patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cervical CT imaging data of adult patients diagnosed with CMI but without any bony malformation in craniovertebral junction (CVJ) who were treated by the authors between January 2014 and December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The equal number of sex and age-matched healthy individuals were included as the control group. The morphometric analysis was performed by measuring the length and depth of the atlanto-occipital joint, and the depth/length ratio was calculated to evaluate the curvature of the joint. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients (15 males and 32 females) were included. The mean age of patients was 47.49 ± 9.01 years (range 19-62 years). The mean depth/length ratio of the atlanto-occipital joint in CMI patients was 0.141 ± 0.065 (range 0.027 - 0.274), which was smaller than that of control individuals (0.228 ± 0.057, range 0.069 - 0.379). And the difference was statistically significant (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The atlanto-occipital joints in CMI patients are significantly flatter compared with those in healthy controls. This morphological variation could lead to differences of the atlanto-occipital stability between CMI patients and normal population, which may be related to the pathogenesis of CMI.

8.
Epilepsy Res ; 166: 106430, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epileptic seizures often develop in 40-70 % of glioma patients and have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Many biomarkers have been suggested to be associated with glioma-related preoperative seizures (GPS). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation between GPS and clinicopathological factors and a wide range of glioma-associated molecular markers (GMMs). METHODS: First, a retrospective cohort study of 442 patients with glioma was evaluated at the PLA General Hospital. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were used to identify basic factors associated with GPS. Second, 40 pairs of cases who underwent deep sequencing of 68 GMMs were selected from both groups for in-depth analysis. RESULTS: Of the 442 patients examined in this study, 137 (31 %) had GPS. By analyzing the characteristics of these patients, the results showed that patient age (OR: 0.981, p = 0.037, 95 % CI: 0.964-0.999), WHO grade (OR: 0.678, p = 0.008, 95 % CI: 0.509-0.903) and IDH mutations (OR: 1.886, p = 0.013, 95 % CI: 1.143-3.11) in patients were associated with the occurrence of GPS. In our cohort, GPS did not differ by sex, tumor location, histopathological subtype, p53 expression, ARTX loss, MGMT gene promotor methylation, TERT promoter mutation, or 1p/19q co-deletion status. The results of the matching study showed that the paired groups had similar genetic expression profiles, and the mutation of these 68 GMMs was not correlated with the occurrence of GPS. CONCLUSION: The current study updates existing information on GPS and genetic markers in gliomas and explores the correlation of a wide range of GMMs and GPS. These factors may provide insights for developing effective treatment strategies aimed at seizure control.

9.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are a subpopulation of glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are critical for tumor invasion and treatment resistance. However, little is known about the function and mechanism of TRIM24 in GSCs. METHODS: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate TRIM24 and CD133 expression profiles in GBM surgical specimens and GSC tumorspheres. Different TRIM24 expression levels in patients' tumors, as measured by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot, were related to their corresponding MRI data. Wound healing, Matrigel invasion and xenograft immunohistochemistry were conducted to determine GBM cell invasion. RESULTS: We identified that TRIM24 were coexpressed with CD133 and Nestin in GBM tissues and tumorsphere cells. Limiting dilution assays and xenotransplantation experiments illustrated that knockdown of TRIM24 expression reduced GSC self-renewal capacity and invasive growth. TRIM24 expression levels were positively associated with the volumes of peritumoral T2WI abnormality. Rescue experiments indicated TRIM24 participation in GBM infiltrative dissemination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, reporter gene assay, PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TRIM24 activated the expression of pluripotency transcription factor SOX2 to regulate GBM stemness and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the close relationship between TRIM24 and SOX2 was validated by testing samples enrolled in our study and exploring external databases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings uncover essential roles of TRIM24-SOX2 axis in GBM stemness and invasiveness, suggesting TRIM24 as a potential target for effective GBM management.

10.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591875

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformation (ISCM) is a rare vascular disease with unclear natural history and long-term outcomes. We aim to determine the demographics, hemorrhagic risk, and long-term outcomes of this rare entity. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical data and treatment outcomes of pediatric patients treated with ISCM in our institution from 3/2000 to 3/2017 was conducted. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pediatric ISCM. RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive pediatric patients were included, with an average age of 12.9 ± 4.7 years (range: 4-18 years) and 66.7% being male. Locations were equally distributed in cervical and thoracic segments, with mean extension of 1.3 ± 0.7 segments. Clinical manifestation included extremity weakness (n = 15, 83.3%), pain (n = 10, 55.6%), sensory disorders (n = 8, 44.4%), sphincter disturbance (n = 6, 33.3%), muscular atrophy (n = 3, 16.7%), and spinal deformity (n = 1, 5.6%). Most patients presented with acute symptoms (n = 11, 61.1%), and 7 (38.9%) of them had severe neurological deficits. The annual retrospective hemorrhagic risk was 7.7 per patient-year. Two patients received conservative management, with one improved neurologically and the other remained unchanged. Total resection was achieved in 12 (75%) of the 16 surgical cases, with 8 patients (50%) improved their clinical outcomes, 7 patients (43.8%) remained unchanged, and 1 (6.3%) worsened. During follow-up, one patient had relapse of ISCM. CONCLUSION: Pediatric ISCM appears to have higher hemorrhage risk than their adult counterparts, and they can benefit from surgery whether in the acute phase of neurological deterioration or after clinical recuperation.

11.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-7, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors describe a novel "in-out-in" technique as an alternative option for posterior C2 screw fixation in cases that involve narrow C2 isthmus. Here, they report the preliminary radiological and clinical outcomes in 12 patients who had a minimum 12-month follow-up period. METHODS: Twelve patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation underwent atlantoaxial reduction and fixation. All patients had unilateral hypoplasia of the C2 isthmus that prohibited insertion of pedicle screws. A new method, the C2 medial pedicle screw (C2MPS) fixation, was used as an alternative. In this technique, the inner cortex of the narrow C2 isthmus was drilled to obtain space for screw insertion, such that the lateral cortex could be well preserved and the risk of vertebral artery injury could be largely reduced. The C2MPS traveled along the drilled inner cortex into the anterior vertebral body, achieving a 3-column fixation of the axis with multicortical purchase. RESULTS: Satisfactory C2MPS placement and reduction were achieved in all 12 patients. No instance of C2MPS related vertebral artery injury or dural laceration was observed. There were no cases of implant failure, and solid fusion was demonstrated in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: This novel in-out-in technique can provide 3-column rigid fixation of the axis with multicortical purchase. Excellent clinical outcomes with low complication rates were achieved with this technique. When placement of a C2 pedicle screw is not possible due to anatomical constraints, the C2MPS can be considered as an efficient alternative.

12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 25-30, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451215

RESUMO

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is an extremely rare vascular entity that is usually misdiagnosed. We sought to determine the long-term clinical outcomes of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment for delayed diagnosis of spinal dAVF. This retrospective study identified patients with delayed diagnosed spinal dAVF at our institution from 2009 to 2018. Patients' data, including demographics, imaging, and follow-up data, were evaluated. This cohort included 65 consecutive patients with 68 dAVFs and a male-to-female ratio of 4:1 and a mean age of 53.5 ± 13.7 years. The presenting symptoms consisted of limb weakness (n = 42, 64.6%), paraparesis (n = 34, 52.3%), sphincter disturbances (n = 8, 12.3%), and pain (n = 13, 20.0%). The proportion of patients with each symptom significantly increased and patients experienced increased disability when the diagnosis was finalized. The mean length of delay of diagnosis was 20.7 ± 30.0 months. Surgery resulted in complete occlusion of the fistula on the first attempt in all patients. Three patients developed recurrent fistulas, and three died in the follow-up period. Improved motor function was achieved in 38 patients (59.5%). Other symptoms, such as sensory disorders, sphincter dysfunction, and pain, improved by 37.3%, 32.3%, and 66.7%, respectively. Patients with spinal dAVF usually exhibit progressive ascending myelopathy and often remain misdiagnosed for months to years. Some patients' increased disability cannot be reversed through surgery.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Tardio/tendências , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor/cirurgia , Paraparesia/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraparesia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
World Neurosurg ; 140: e212-e218, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomechanical effect of C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screw-rod (C1LM-C2PS) fixation with and without transverse connectors (TC) in an atlantoaxial instability (AAI) model. METHODS: Ten freshly frozen cadaveric specimens were tested using an industrial robot under the following conditions: intact model, AAI model, C1-C2 model, C1-C2 with one TC model, and C1-C2 with two TCs model. Three types of motion, flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR), were applied (1.5 Nm) to the specimens. The range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) between C1 and C2 in all directions were measured. RESULTS: Compared with those of the intact and AAI models, the C1-C2 ROM and NZ of all instrumented groups were decreased significantly in each direction of loading motion (P < 0.05). The mean FE ROM in the no TC, 1 TC, and 2 TC groups was 2.12° ± 0.41°, 2.29° ± 0.42°, and 2.04° ± 0.69°, respectively (P = 0.840, 0.981, 0.628, respectively); the mean LB ROM in the 3 intervention groups was 1.26° ± 0.67°, 1.02° ± 0.51° and 1.03° ± 0.57°, respectively (P = 0.489, 0.501, 1.000, respectively). During AR, the ROM and NZ of the no TC group (3.19° ± 0.89° and 1.51° ± 0.42°) were significantly reduced by more than 60% compared with those in the 1 (0.98° ± 0.28° and 0.40° ± 0.11°) and 2 TC groups (1.17° ± 1.69° and 0.42° ± 0.61°) (P < 0.001). Two TCs were equivalent for all loading motions to 1 TC (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adding TCs to C1LM-C2PS can effectively decrease the axial rotation ROM and enhance the stability of C1-C2 segment. Therefore, it is necessary to use TC-strengthened C1 lateral mass -C2 pedicle screw-rod fixation in patients with instability of C1-C2.

14.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(7): 1691-1699, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioma invading the corpus callosum (CC) accounts for approximately 14% of gliomas and is thought to be more aggressive. However, there is still a lack of studies on the pathogenesis and molecular features of this condition. Here, we examined the occurrence association of CC invasion with respect to patients' clinical, pathological, and genetic characteristics. METHODS: First, a cohort of 331 patients was included, with 86 cases (26%) that were diagnosed with invasion glioma. They were all analyzed for basic clinical and pathological characteristics and four routinely tested glioma molecular markers. Second, 29 pairs of patients who underwent deep sequencing of 68 glioma molecular alterations were selected from both groups for in-depth analysis. RESULTS: The results of the first part showed that there was no difference between the two groups in terms of the basic factors in univariate analysis, while in multivariate logistic analysis, WHO grade was the risk factor for CC invasion (p = 0.001). The results of the second part showed that the paired groups had different genetic expression profiles, which highlighted glioma invading the CC as a distinct biological entity. PDGFRA mutation (PDGFRAmut) was present in 9 patients with invasive gliomas (31%), but only in one case (3.4%) in the control group (OR 17.331; 95% CI 1.987-151.156). CONCLUSION: Our data revealed the clinical, pathological, and genetic characteristics of glioma invading the CC and showed that it may be associated with glioma WHO grade and PDGFRAmut, but not other factors. Thus, the risk signaling pathway may offer potential therapeutic targets for this disease.

15.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(11): 2915-2921, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pure spinal epidural cavernous malformation (CM) is a rare hypervascular disease that is easily misinterpreted as other imaging-similar epidural lesions. The demographic characteristics, therapeutic strategies, and surgical outcomes associated with this vascular entity remains unclear. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with pathologically proven, pure epidural CM from 2001 to 2018 was conducted. All data that included clinical manifestations, radiographic features, and treatment modalities were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-three consecutive patients with an average age of 51.5 ± 8.4 years old (range 38-70 years old) were included; of these, 52.2% were female patients. Clinical manifestation included chronic progressive nerve root disturbance syndrome in 7 patients (30.4%) and myelopathy in 16 patients (69.6%). The CM level was predominately thoracic (n = 14, 60.9%) or lumbar (n = 6, 26.1%), with the dorsal epidural space (n = 14, 60.9%) the most common site. The initial clinical diagnoses were schwannoma (n = 11, 52.2%), meningioma (n = 5, 21.7%), angioma (n = 3, 13.1%), recurrent CMs (n = 2, 8.7%), and metastatic tumor (n = 1, 4.3%). Fifteen lesions (65.2%) were isointense on T1-weighted images, and all lesions were hyperintense on T2-weighted images, with homogenously strong enhancement observed in 17 lesions (73.9%). Total resection was achieved in 18 patients (78.3%) and usually resulted in excellent clinical outcomes (n = 21, 91.3%). No patients experienced recurrence of symptoms, and lesion relapse during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Total surgical removal of epidural CM can usually achieve satisfactory outcomes in patients with a chronic clinical course and should be recommended. Subtotal removal of tumors can also benefit patients, and guaranteed a long recurrent free time after surgery. A good preoperative neurological condition usually leads to good outcomes.

16.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 194: 105793, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the technical nuances and clinical outcomes of posterior atlantoaxial facet joint reduction, fixation and fusion (AFRF) technique as a revision procedure for BI and AAD patients with failed suboccipital decompression and large occipital bone defect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 32 patients with BI and AAD who were misdiagnosed as a simple Chiari malformation and received a suboccipital decompression surgery before admission. All patients underwent AFRF as a revision surgery. The separating, fusing, opacifying and false-coloring-volume rendering (SFOF-VR) technique was used to identify the course of the VA. Clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed after revision surgeries. RESULTS: Clinical symptoms improved in all patients. The postoperative atlantodens interval, Wackenheim line and clivus-canal angle significantly improved (all P < 0.01). Intraoperative dural tear and cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred in 3 patients and were managed by suture repair and lumbar drain. Abnormal VA was identified in 7 patients and no VA injury occurred with the aid of SFOF-VR technique. The average follow-up was 19.1 months and atlantoaxial bone fusion was confirmed in 31 patients. CONCLUSION: For BI and AAD patients with failed suboccipital decompression, revision surgery is challenging. Occipitocervical fixation and posterior midline bone grafting are rather difficult due to the large occipital bone defect. The current study demonstrated that the posterior AFRF is a simple, safe and highly effective technique in revision surgery for such cases. For VA variations, the SFOF-VR technique is an effective tool to delineate the course VA.

17.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 192: 105720, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Primary cervical dystonia (CD) is characterized by abnormal contractions of neck muscles. Globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is recognized as an effective therapy for patients with refractory CD, but the prognostic factors need further research. Our study investigated the predictive factors of clinical outcomes in CD patients who underwent GPi-DBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 23) who underwent GPi-DBS at Chinese PLA General Hospital from March 2012 to April 2018 were included in our analysis. Their scores of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) and Tsui were acquired at baseline and at the last follow-up visit. Percent improvement in these scores were compared between the categorical variables. Correlations between outcomes and continuous demographic and clinical variables were calculated. RESULTS: Patients showed significant improvement in TWSTRS total (55.71 %), severity (48.75 %), disability (57.05 %), pain (63.67 %) scores and total Tsui score (46.07 %, all P ﹤0.001). Follow-up duration was positively correlated with percent improvement in TWSTRS total (rho = 0.594, P = 0.003), severity (rho = 0.581, P = 0.004) and disability (rho = 0.470, P = 0.023) scores. No significant differences in the outcomes were found between any pair of the categorical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-up duration was the only independent factor correlated to the outcomes of GPi-DBS for CD patients. However, follow-up duration is an indefinite factor prior to surgery, thus further studies are needed before the final conclusions of prognostic factors are established.

18.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(3): 325-332, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) was revised to include molecular biomarkers as diagnostic criteria. However, conventional biopsies of gliomas were spatially and temporally limited. This study aimed to determine whether circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could provide more comprehensive diagnostic information to gliomas. METHODS: Combined with clinical data, we analyzed gene alterations from CSF and tumor tissues of newly diagnosed patients, and detected mutations of ctDNA in recurrent patients. We simultaneously analyzed mutations of ctDNA in different glioma subtypes, and in lower-grade gliomas (LrGG) versus glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RESULTS: CSF ctDNA mutations had high concordance rates with tumor DNA (tDNA). CSF ctDNA mutations of PTEN and TP53 were commonly detected in recurrent gliomas patients. IDH mutation was detected in most of CSF ctDNA derived from IDH-mutant diffuse astrocytomas, while CSF ctDNA mutations of RB1 and EGFR were found in IDH-wild-type GBM. IDH mutation was detected in LrGG, whereas Rb1 mutation was more commonly detected in GBM. CONCLUSIONS: CSF ctDNA detection can be an alternative method as liquid biopsy in gliomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glioma/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Glioma/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
19.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a study to investigate the biomechanical feasibility and stability of C1 lateral mass-C2 bicortical translaminar screw (C1LM-C2TL) fixation, C1 lateral mass-C2/3 transarticular screw (C1LM-C2/3TA) fixation, and C1LM-C2/3TA fixation with transverse cross-links (C1LM-C2/3TACL) as alternative techniques to the Goel-Harms technique (C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screw [C1LM-C2PS] fixation) for atlantoaxial fixation. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-C7) were tested using an industrial robot. Pure moments that were a maximum of 1.5 Nm were applied in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). The specimens were first tested in the intact state and followed by destabilization (a type II odontoid fracture) and fixation as follows: C1LM-C2PS, C1LM-C2TL, C1LM-C2/3TA, and C1LM-C2/3TACL. For each condition, the authors evaluated the range of motion and neutral zone across C1 and C2 in all directions. RESULTS: Compared with the intact spine, each instrumented spine significantly increased in stability at the C1-2 segment. C1LM-C2TL fixation demonstrated similar stability in FE and LB and greater stability in AR than C1LM-C2PS fixation. C1LM-C2/3TA fixation was equivalent in LB and superior in FE to those of C1LM-C2PS and C1LM-C2TL fixation. During AR, the C1LM-C2/3TA-instrumented spine failed to maintain segmental stability. After adding a cross-link, the rotational stability was significantly increased in the C1LM-C2/3TACL-instrumented spine compared with the C1LM-C2/3TA-instrumented spine. Although inferior to C1LM-C2TL fixation, the C1LM-C2/3TACL-instrumented spine showed equivalent rotational stability to the C1LM-C2PS-instrumented spine. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our biomechanical study, C1LM-C2TL and C1LM-C2/3TACL fixation resulted in satisfactory atlantoaxial stabilization compared with C1LM-C2PS. Therefore, the authors believe that the C1LM-C2TL and C1LM-C2/3TACL fixation may serve as alternative procedures when the Goel-Harms technique (C1LM-C2PS) is not feasible due to anatomical constraints.

20.
Neurol Sci ; 41(5): 1063-1074, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating and comparing the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: An exhaustive literature retrieval was performed on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science until October 2019. The primary outcome was the relative changes in BPSD severity scores immediately after NIBS and at the last follow-up visit. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Changes in the severity scores after NIBS were also analyzed with restriction to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESULTS: Ten studies with 324 patients were included, out of which 7 studies involved patients with AD. The analysis results indicated that NIBS significantly improved the BPSD outcome immediately after stimulation (SMD, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.52; P = 0.005), but not at the last follow-up visit (0.15; - 0.11-0.41; 0.25). Our subgroup analyses suggested that the favorable effects of rTMS remained significant at the last follow-up visit (0.57; 0.18-0.96; 0.004). This discrepancy maybe caused by the continuously insignificant outcomes of tDCS on the whole data. The results for AD patients immediately after stimulation (0.37; 0.12-0.61; 0.003) and at the last follow-up visit (0.29; - 0.19-0.76; 0.24) were both largely similar to those in the whole patient group with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: rTMS, rather than tDCS, was capable of persistently improving the BPSD at an early stage after treatment. More trials are warranted to confirm our results before the establishment of final conclusions.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...