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1.
Pharmacol Res ; 137: 34-46, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243842

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), majorly include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which treatment options remain limited. Here we examined the therapeutic effects of an isoquinoline alkaloid, Palmatine (Pal), on mice experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and explored underlying mechanisms. Colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by administering 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Pal (50 and 100 mg kg-1) and the positive drug Sulfasalazine (SASP, 200 mg kg-1) were orally administered for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated on day 8, and colonic tissues were collected for biochemistry analysis. The fecal microbiota was characterized by high-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. And plasma metabolic changes were detected by UPLC-MS. Our results showed that Pal treatment significantly reduced DAI scores and ameliorated colonic injury in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Mucosal integrity was improved and cell apoptosis was inhibited. Moreover, gut microbiota analysis showed that mice received Pal-treatment have higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but reduced amount of Proteobacteria. Moreover, Pal not only suppressed tryptophan catabolism in plasma, but also decreased the protein expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan catabolism) in colon tissue. This is consolidated by molecular docking, which suggested that Pal is a potent IDO-1 inhibitor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Pal ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by mitigating colonic injury, preventing gut microbiota dysbiosis, and regulating tryptophan catabolism, which indicated that Pal has great therapeutic potential for colitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucinas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194069, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538417

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing disease without satisfactory treatments, in which intestinal inflammation and disrupted intestinal epithelial barrier are two main pathogeneses triggering UC. Berberrubine (BB) is deemed as one of the major active metabolite of berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid with appreciable anti-UC effect. This study aimed to comparatively investigate the therapeutic effects of BB and BBR on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model, and explore the potential underlying mechanism. Results revealed that BB (20 mg/kg) produced a comparable therapeutic effect as BBR (50 mg/kg) and positive control sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg) by significantly reducing the disease activity index (DAI) with prolonged colon length and increased bodyweight as compared with the DSS group. BB treatment was shown to significantly ameliorate the DSS-induced colonic pathological alternations and decreased histological scores. In addition, BB markedly attenuated colonic inflammation by alleviating inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10) productions in DSS mice. Furthermore, BB treatment substantially upregulated the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2, claudin-1, occludin) and mRNA expression of mucins (mucin-1 and mucin-2), and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In summary, BB exerted similar effect to its analogue BBR and positive control in attenuating DSS-induced UC with much lower dosage and similar mechanism. The protective effect observed may be intimately associated with maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier and mitigating intestinal inflammation, which were mediated at least partially, via favorable modulation of TJ proteins and mucins and inhibition of inflammatory mediators productions in the colonic tissue. This is the first report to demonstrate that BB possesses pronounced anti-UC effect similar to BBR and sulfasalazine with much smaller dosage. BB might have the potential to be further developed into a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Berberina/análogos & derivados , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 121: 70-82, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456683

RESUMO

Despite the increased morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in recent years, available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Pogostemon cablin has been widely applied to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in clinic for centuries, in which patchouli alcohol (PA, C15H26O) has been identified as the major active component. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of PA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. Acute colitis was induced in mice by 3% DSS for 7 days. The mice were then given PA (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (SASP, 200mg/kg) as positive control via oral administration for 7 days. At the end of study, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for pathological and other analysis. In addition, a metabolite profiling and a targeted metabolite analysis, based on the Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach, were performed to characterize the metabolic changes in plasma. The results revealed that PA significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI) and ameliorated the colonic injury of DSS mice. The levels of colonic MPO and cytokines involving TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10 also declined. Furthermore, PA improved the intestinal epithelial barrier by enhancing the level of colonic expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, for instance ZO-1, ZO-2, claudin-1 and occludin, and by elevating the levels of mucin-1 and mucin-2 mRNA. The study also demonstrated that PA inhibited the DSS-induced cell death signaling by modulating the apoptosis related Bax and Bcl-2 proteins and down-regulating the necroptosis related RIP3 and MLKL proteins. By comparison, up-regulation of IDO-1 and TPH-1 protein expression in DSS group was suppressed by PA, which was in line with the declined levels of kynurenine (Kyn) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in plasma. The therapeutic effect of PA was evidently reduced when Kyn was given to mice. In summary, the study successfully demonstrated that PA ameliorated DSS-induced mice acute colitis by suppressing inflammation, maintaining the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, inhibiting cell death signaling, and suppressing tryptophan catabolism. The results provided valuable information and guidance for using PA in treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pogostemon/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 185, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xiao'er Qixingcha (EXQ) has been extensively applied to relieve dyspepsia and constipation in children for hundreds of years in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy remained to be defined. The present study aimed to clarify the possible laxative and immune-regulating effects of EXQ on two models of experimental constipation in mice, which mimicked the pediatric constipation caused by high-heat and high-protein diet (HHPD). METHODS: The two models of constipated mice were induced by HHPD or HHPD + atropine respectively. To investigate the laxative and immune-regulating activities of EXQ, animals were treated with three doses of EXQ (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/kg) for 7 consecutive days. The fecal output parameters (number and weight), weight of intestinal content and, the thymus and spleen indexes were measured. The levels of sIgA, IL-10, TNF-α and LPS in colon and serum were determined by ELISA. Furthermore, the pathological changes of colon tissue were examined after routine H&E staining. RESULTS: Both HHPD and HHPD + atropine treatments obviously inhibited the fecal output and reduced the colonic sIgA, prominently increased the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in colonic tissue and elevated the contents of LPS in serum and colonic tissues. In contrast, oral administration of EXQ significantly improved the feces characters and dose-dependently decreased the intestinal changes in both models. In HHPD model test, EXQ efficaciously boosted the sIgA level in a dose-dependent manner, significantly elicited decreases in TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and evidently decreased the spleen and thymus indexes. In HHPD + atropine model test, EXQ treatment reversed the pathological changes by not only dramatically decreasing the spleen index and the levels of LPS and IL-10, but also markedly elevating the thymus index. Furthermore, microscopic observation revealed that EXQ treatment maintained the integrity of colonic mucosa, and protected the colonic tissues from inflammation in the both models. CONCLUSIONS: EXQ exhibited prominent laxative activity and effectively protected the colonic mucosal barrier in two models of constipated mice, of which the mechanism might be closely associated with its propulsive and immune-regulating properties. The current results not only validated the rationale for the clinical application of EXQ in pediatric constipation related symptoms, but also threw new light on the immune-inflammatory responses accompanied with chronic constipation pathology.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Animais , China , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Intestinos , Masculino , Camundongos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/imunologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424738

RESUMO

Li-Fei-Xiao-Yan prescription (LFXY) has been clinically used in China to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases including inflammatory lung diseases. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of LFXY in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, the mice were orally pretreated with LFXY or dexamethasone (positive drug) before the intratracheal instillation of LPS. Our data indicated that pretreatment with LFXY enhanced the survival rate of ALI mice, reversed pulmonary edema and permeability, improved LPS-induced lung histopathology impairment, suppressed the excessive inflammatory responses via decreasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and chemokine (MIP-2) and inhibiting inflammatory cells migration, and repressed oxidative stress through the inhibition of MPO and MDA contents and the upregulation of antioxidants (SOD and GSH) activities. Mechanistically, treatment with LFXY significantly prevented LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Overall, the present study suggests that LFXY protected mice from acute lung injury induced by LPS via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB p65 activation and upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and it may be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for ALI in the clinical setting.

6.
Exp Gerontol ; 77: 76-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26929999

RESUMO

Pogostone, a chemical constituent of patchouli oil, has been confirmed to possess favorable anti-inflammatory property. In the present study, we investigated the possible anti-photoaging potential of pogostone and the underlying mechanism against UV-induced skin damage in mice. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions were significantly ameliorated by pretreatment of pogostone as compared to the VC group. Furthermore, topical application of pogostone markedly increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and observably decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) level. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines showed obvious down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the pogostone groups. In addition, pogostone pretreatment evidently inhibited the abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3). Taken together, pogostone exhibited prominent photo-protective activity mainly by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, promising it as an effective alternative pharmaceutical therapy for photoaging.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Hiperplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pele/enzimologia , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 26(2): 384-91, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25916678

RESUMO

Andrographolide sodium bisulfite (ASB), a water-soluble sulfonate of andrographolide has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. However, there is no report on the gastroprotective effect of ASB against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Here we investigated the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of ASB and the underlying mechanism against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The ulcer area, histopathological assessment, contents of gastric mucosal glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined. In addition, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and immunohistochemical evaluation of HSP70, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were also investigated. Results indicated that ASB pre-treatment significantly reduced the ulcer areas induced by indomethacin compared with the vehicle group. The gastric levels of GSH, CAT and SOD were markedly increased by ASB while the level of MDA was decreased. In addition, ASB pretreatment significantly promoted the gastric PGE2 levels and up-regulated the COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in comparison with the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed obvious up-regulation of HSP70 and Bcl-2 protein expression while suppression of Bax protein in the gastric tissue of ASB-pretreated group. Taken together, these findings indicated that the gastroprotective effect of ASB might be associated with the improvement of antioxidative status, activation of COX-mediated PGE2 synthesis, down-regulation of Bax proteins and up-regulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. ASB might have the potential for further development as a promising alternative for antiulcer treatment.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Sulfitos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Catalase/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Diterpenos/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Humanos , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Sulfitos/efeitos adversos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Rejuvenation Res ; 18(5): 437-48, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849065

RESUMO

It is known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation to human skin causes photo-aging, including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. UV radiation induces damage to skin mainly by superfluous reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation, which eventually up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, the super-critical carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén (CISCFE), which has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, was investigated for its photo-protective effect by topical application on the skin of mice. Moreover, CISCFE effectively suppressed the UV-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner, which was correlated with the inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal thickening. Furthermore, we observed that CISCFE could obviously decrease UV-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α), alleviate the abnormal changes of anti-oxidative indicators (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and down-regulate the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The results indicated that CISCFE was a novel photo-protective agent from natural resources against UV irradiation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Chrysanthemum/química , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Elasticidade , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/patologia , Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Exp Gerontol ; 61: 147-55, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25498537

RESUMO

It has been confirmed that repeated exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in cutaneous oxidative stress and inflammation, which act in concert to cause premature skin aging, well known as photoaging. 18ß-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), widely used to treat various tissue inflammations, is the main active component of licorice root, and has also been shown to possess favorable anti-oxidative property and modulating immunity function. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of GA on UV-induced skin photoaging in a mouse model. During the experimental period of ten consecutive weeks, the dorsal depilated skin of mice was treated with topical GA for 2 hours prior to UV irradiation. The results showed that GA pretreatment significantly alleviated the macroscopic and histopathological damages in mice skin caused by UV. Meanwhile, the data also indicated that GA markedly up-regulated the activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px), and increased the content of skin collagen, while obviously decreased malonaldehyde level and inhibited high expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -3 (MMP-3), as well as down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. Taken together, these findings amply demonstrate that GA observably attenuates UV-induced skin photoaging mainly by virtue of its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as regulating the abnormal expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3.


Assuntos
Ácido Glicirretínico/análogos & derivados , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Elasticidade , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Malondialdeído/análise , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 63: 113-23, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25033712

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) excessively and elicit inflammatory response, is a potent inducer for skin photoaging. Overproduction of ROS in conjunction with the resulting inflammation stimulate the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which in turn causes degradation of extracellular matrix, leading finally to coarse wrinkling, dryness, and laxity of the skin. In this study, patchouli alcohol (PA, C15H26O), an active chemical ingredient reputed for free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, was investigated for its anti-photoaging action using a mouse model whose dorsal skin was depilated. The dorsal skin areas of six-week-old mice were smeared with PA solution or vehicle, followed by UV irradiation for nine consecutive weeks. Protective effects of PA were evaluated macroscopically and histologically, as well as by assaying the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px) activities, the contents of inflammatory factors (IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α), and the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Our findings amply demonstrated that PA significantly accelerated the recovery of the UV-induced skin lesions, evidently through anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action, as well as down-regulation of the MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Administração Tópica , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Testes Cutâneos
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 154(2): 408-18, 2014 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24747030

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pogostemon cablin has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including skin disorders. In the skin beauty and care prescriptions, Pogostemon cablin is one of the top ten frequently used traditional Chinese medicines. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli oil, PO) against UV-induced skin photoaging in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To ensure the quality of PO, the chemical compositions of PO were identified, and the content of its chemical marker patchouli alcohol was determined, which was around 28.2% (g/g) in PO. During the experiment period, the dorsal depilated skin of mice was treated with PO for two hours prior to UV irradiation. Then the protective effects of PO on UV-induced skin photoaging were determined by macroscopic and histological evaluations, skin elastic test, collagen content determination and biochemical assays of malondiaidehyde (MDA) content, activities of anti-oxidative indicators including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT). RESULTS: Compared to UV exposure groups, present results showed that topical administration of PO, especially at dose of 6mg/mouse and 9mg/mouse, significantly inhibited the increase in skin wrinkle formation, alleviated the reduction in skin elasticity and increased the collagen content by about 21.9% and 26.3%, respectively. We also found that application of 6-9mg/mouse PO could not only decrease the epidermal thickness by about 32.6%, but also prevent the UV-induced disruption of collagen fibers and elastic fibers. Furthermore, the content of MDA was decreased by almost 26.5% and activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were significantly up-regulated after the treatment of PO. CONCLUSION: Results of present study revealed that PO was capable of maintaining skin structural integrity caused by UV irradiation and it was useful in preventing photoaging. These protective effects of PO were possibly due to its anti-oxidative property. Therefore, we suggested that PO should be viewed as a potential therapeutic agent for preventing photoaging.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química
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