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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of a deep learning (DL)-based method for diagnosing pulmonary nodules compared with radiologists' diagnostic approach in computed tomography (CT) of the chest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 pathologically confirmed pulmonary nodules (60% malignant) assessed and reported by radiologists were included. CT images were processed by the proposed DL-based method to generate the probability of malignancy (0-100%), and the nodules were divided into the groups of benign (0-39.9%), indeterminate (40.0-59.9%), and malignant (60.0-100%). Taking the pathological results as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed DL-based method with the radiologists' diagnostic approach using the McNemar-Bowker test. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the diagnosis results of the proposed DL-based method and the radiologists' diagnostic approach (p < 0.001). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of the diagnosis results between the proposed DL-based method and the radiologists' diagnostic approach (all p > 0.05). The difference in diagnostic accuracy between the proposed DL-based method (70%) and radiologists' diagnostic performance (64%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.243). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed DL-based method achieved an accuracy comparable with the radiologists' diagnostic approach in clinical practice. Furthermore, its advantage in improving diagnostic certainty may raise the radiologists' confidence in diagnosing pulmonary nodules and may help clinical management. Therefore, the proposed DL-based method showed great potential in a certain clinical application. KEY POINTS: • Deep learning-based method for diagnosing the pulmonary nodules in computed tomography provides a higher diagnostic certainty.

3.
CRISPR J ; 4(2): 169-177, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876959

RESUMO

Base editors are fusions of a deaminase and CRISPR-Cas ribonucleoprotein that allow programmable installment of transition mutations without double-strand DNA break intermediates. The breadth of potential base editing targets is frequently limited by the requirement of a suitably positioned Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif. To address this, we used structures of Cas9 and TadA to design a set of inlaid base editors (IBEs), in which deaminase domains are internal to Cas9. Several of these IBEs exhibit shifted editing windows and greater editing efficiency, enabling editing of targets outside the canonical editing window with reduced DNA and RNA off-target editing frequency. Finally, we show that IBEs enable conversion of the pathogenic sickle cell hemoglobin allele to the naturally occurring HbG-Makassar variant in patient-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803365

RESUMO

A paucity of public service afforded to migrant workers often begets a wide range of social problems. In China, hundreds of millions of migrant worker parents have to leave children behind in their hometowns. This paper investigated the long-term effects of the childhood experience of being left behind on the mental well-being of late adolescents. Mandatory university personality inventory (UPI) surveys (involving psychosomatic problems such as anxiety, depression, and stress) were conducted at a university in Jiangsu, China, during 2014-2017. The study sample consisted of 15,804 first-year college students aged between 15 and 28 years. The PSM method and the OLS regression model were employed. Controlling for the confounding factors (gender, age, single-child status, hometown location, ethnicity, and economic status), our empirical investigation demonstrated that childhood left-behind experience significantly worsened the mental health of the study sample, increasing the measure of mental ill-being by 0.661 standard deviations (p < 0.01). Moreover, the effects were consistently significant in subsamples divided by gender, single-child status, and hometown location; and the effects were greater for females, single-child students, and urban residents.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Criança Abandonada , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805790

RESUMO

A highly specific and sensitive proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) method has been developed for the quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra herbal commercial prescriptions. At the region of δ 4.0 to 5.0 ppm in the 1H NMR spectrum, the characteristic signals are separated well from each other, and six analogues in total, methylephedrine (ME), ephedrine (EP), norephedrine (NE), norpseudoephedrine (NP), pseudoephedrine (PE), and methylpseudoephedrine (MP) could be identified. The quantities of these compounds are calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known concentrations of the internal standard anthracene. The present method allows for a rapid and simple quantification of ephedrine alkaloid derivatives in Ephedra-related commercial prescriptions without any preliminary purification steps and standard compounds, and accordingly it can be a powerful tool to verify different Ephedra species. In comparison to conventional chromatographic methods, the advantages of this method include the fact that no standard compounds are required, the quantification can be directly performed on the crude extracts, a better selectivity for various ephedrine alkaloid derivatives, and the fact that a very significant time-gain may be achieved.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250491, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901243

RESUMO

As the most common type of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be caused mainly by the excessive aggregation of ß-amyloid protein (Aß). However, a growing number of studies have found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the onset and progression of AD. The present study aimed to probe the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency low-intensity pulsed electric field (H-LIPEF) for SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Aß-induced cytotoxicity. By looking in a systematic way into the frequency- and amplitude-dependent neuroprotective effect of pulsed electric field (PEF), the study finds that H-LIPEF at 200 Hz produces the optimal protective effect for SH-SY5Y cells. The underlying mechanisms were confirmed to be due to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and the downstream prosurvival and antioxidant proteins. Because the electric field can be modified to focus on specific area in a non-contact manner, the study suggests that H-LIPEF holds great potential for treating NDDs, whose effect can be further augmented with the administering of drugs or natural compounds at the same time.

7.
Oral Dis ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) attached to different surfaces MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of three groups were evaluated in this study: sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) + HUVECs; mechanically polished (MP) + HUVECs; and plastic cell culture plates + HUVECs. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, surface roughness, and water contact angle were tested for titanium surface characterisation. ZA were added at different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 µM). Cell adhesion, proliferation, viability, apoptosis, and gene expression were evaluated. RESULTS: MP and SLA surfaces showed negative effects on cell adhesion and proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis with 100 µM ZA (P<0.05). The highest expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and angiopoietin-1 was found on SLA surfaces (P<0.01). The lowest expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and ICAM-1 was found on MP surfaces (P<0.05). A significant decrease in von Willebrand factor was detected on MP and SLA surfaces (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ZA has an anti-angiogenic effect on HUVECs attached to titanium implants, while the SLA surface might stimulate HUVECs to express angiogenic and adhesive factor genes despite ZA treatment.

8.
J Virol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910951

RESUMO

Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that can infect humans and other animals. In this study, by integrating transcriptomic and genomic data, we discovered 412 FVs from 6 lineages in amphibians, which significantly increased the known set of FVs in amphibians. Among these lineages, salamander FVs maintained a co-evolutionary pattern with their hosts that could be dated back to the Paleozoic era, while, on the contrary, frog FVs were much more likely acquired from cross-species (class level) transmission in the Cenozoic era. In addition, we found three distinct FV lineages had integrated into the genome of a salamander. Unexpectedly, we identified a lineage of endogenous FV in caecilian expressed all complete major genes, demonstrating the potential existence of exogenous form of FV outside of mammals. Our discovery of rare phenomena in amphibian FVs has significantly increased our understanding of the macroevolution of the complex retrovirus.ImportanceFoamy viruses (FVs) represent, more so than other viruses, the best model of co-evolution between a virus and a host. This study represents so far, the largest investigation of amphibian FVs and revealed 412 FVs of 6 distinct lineages from three major orders of amphibians. Besides co-evolutionary pattern, cross-species and repeated infection were also observed during evolution of amphibian FVs. Remarkably, expressed FVs including a potential exogenous form were discovered, suggesting active FVs could be underestimated in nature. These findings revealed the multiple origin and complex evolution of amphibian FVs started from the Paleozoic era.

9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 183: 113206, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823464

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 RNA is identified as a pivotal player to bolster energizing zones of COVID-19 detection. Herein, we develop a rapid and unamplified nanosensing platform for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in human throat swab specimens. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-decorated graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) sensor was fabricated, after which complementary phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligos (PMO) probe was immobilized on the AuNP surface. This sensor allowed for highly sensitive testing of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp as PMO does not have charges, leading to low background signal. Not only did the method present a low limit of detection in PBS (0.37 fM), throat swab (2.29 fM), and serum (3.99 fM), but also it achieved a rapid response to COVID-19 patients' samples within 2 min. The developed nanosensor was capable of analyzing RNA extracts from 30 real clinical samples. The results show that the sensor could differentiate the healthy people from infected people, which are in high agreement with RT-PCR results (Kappa index = 0.92). Furthermore, a well-defined distinction between SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and SARS-CoV RdRp was also made. Therefore, we believe that this work provides a satisfactory, attractive option for COVID-19 diagnosis.

10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 78, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micro/nano-textured hierarchical titanium topography is more bioactive and biomimetic than smooth, micro-textured or nano-textured titanium topographies. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and exosomes derived from BMSCs play important roles in the osseointegration of titanium implants, but the effects and mechanisms of titanium topography on BMSCs-derived exosome secretion are still unclear. This study determined whether the secretion behavior of exosomes derived from BMSCs is differently affected by different titanium topographies both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We found that both micro/nanonet-textured hierarchical titanium topography and micro/nanotube-textured hierarchical titanium topography showed favorable roughness and hydrophilicity. These two micro/nano-textured hierarchical titanium topographies enhanced the spreading areas of BMSCs on the titanium surface with stronger promotion of BMSCs proliferation in vitro. Compared to micro-textured titanium topography, micro/nano-textured hierarchical titanium topography significantly enhanced osseointegration in vivo and promoted BMSCs to synthesize and transport exosomes and then release these exosomes into the extracellular environment both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, micro/nanonet-textured hierarchical titanium topography promoted exosome secretion by upregulating RAB27B and SMPD3 gene expression and micro/nanotube-textured hierarchical titanium topography promoted exosome secretion due to the strongest enhancement in cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that micro/nano-textured hierarchical titanium topography promotes exosome biogenesis and extracellular secretion for enhanced osseointegration. Our findings also highlight that the optimized titanium topography can increase exosome secretion from BMSCs, which may promote osseointegration of titanium implants.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786715

RESUMO

Besides the normal hearing pathway known as air conduction (AC), sound can also transmit to the cochlea through the skull, known as bone conduction (BC). During BC stimulation, the cochlear walls demonstrate rigid body motion (RBM) and compressional motion (CPM), both inducing the basilar membrane traveling wave (TW). Despite numerous measuring and modeling efforts for the TW phenomenon, the mechanism remains unclear, especially in the case of BC. This paper proposes a 3D finite element cochlea model mimicking the TW under BC. The model uses a traditional "box model" form, but in a spiral shape, with two fluid chambers separated by the long and flexible BM. The cochlear fluid was enclosed by bony walls, the oval and round window membranes. Contingent boundary conditions and stimulations are introduced according to the physical basis of AC and BC. Particularly for BC, both RBM and CPM of the cochlea walls are simulated. Harmonic numerical solutions are obtained at multiple frequencies among the hearing range. The BM vibration amplitude ([Formula: see text]) and its relation with volume displacement difference between the oval and round windows [Formula: see text], as well as the pressure difference at the base of the cochlea ([Formula: see text]), are analyzed. The simulated BM response at 12 mm from the base is peaked at about 3 k Hz, which is consistent with published experimental data. The TW properties under AC and BC are the same and have a common mechanism. (1) [Formula: see text] is proportional to [Formula: see text] at low frequencies. (2) [Formula: see text] is also proportional to [Formula: see text], within 5 dB error at high frequencies such as 16 k Hz. This study partly reveals the common quantitative relations between the TW and related factors under AC and BC hearing.

12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 932-940, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742889

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is easily enriched in rice, resulting in an excessive Cd content in the grain, which seriously threatens human health. Manganese (Mn) is an essential element of plants. In a field experiment on Cd-contaminated acid soils, we investigated the effectiveness and mechanism of Mn in minimizing Cd accumulation in rice via foliar spraying using 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% nano-MnO2 solutions at an early stage of heading. Compared with a control treatment, foliar spraying effectively reduced the Cd content of rice leaves, husks, and brown rice; increased the Mn content of all rice organs; but had no effect on rice yield. Foliar application of nano-MnO2 alleviated the plant stress induced by Cd by improving leaf photosynthesis, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and increasing the content of the oxidative stress protein kinase. In addition, foliar application of nano-MnO2 limited the absorption of Cd by roots by increasing the content of iron-manganese plaque on the surfaces of rice roots and strengthening its adsorption/co-precipitation of Cd. Therefore, foliar application of nano-MnO2 during the early stages of rice heading is an effective measure to increase the Mn content and reduce the Cd content of brown rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
13.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705269

RESUMO

Based on the monitoring data of atmospheric pollutants and the meteorological data in Harbin in 2017, the temporal spatial distribution characteristics of PM2.5 pollution and the relationships between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological factors in this region were analyzed. The PM2.5 concentration data and the meteorological data in 2017 were comprehensively analyzed by using ArcGIS and R. The results show that spatially, the PM2.5 concentration in the central districts of Harbin are high in the southeast and low in the northwest; temporally, PM2.5 pollution is most serious in autumn and winter, with multiple spells of heavy pollution and an obvious "weekend effect", while the air quality is better in spring and summer; overall, relative humidity is positively correlated to PM2.5 concentration, while temperature, wind direction, and wind speed are negatively correlated to PM2.5 mass concentration, and low wind speed and high relative humidity are major contributors to increase of PM2.5 concentration.Implications: Highlight: The use of big data to deal with the data of air pollution and meteorology.Key points: The air pollution data of Harbin in autumn and winter is more serious than that in spring and summer, and is closely related to meteorological factors. Attraction: Big data is used to process air pollution data and meteorological data, and R language is used to describe the relationship between them.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662513

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pioneering empirical studies show that people bereaved due to COVID-19 experience elevated acute grief, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptom levels, which relate to functional impairment. However, studies focused on Western samples and multivariate analyses of relations between potential risk factors and mental health in this population are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the mental health of Chinese adults bereaved due to COVID-19. To elucidate the associations of demographic and loss-related characteristics with mental health after COVID-19 bereavement. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-two Chinese adults (56% male; Mean age: 32.73 years) recently bereaved due to COVID-19 completed an online survey. Demographic and loss-related characteristics and prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Clinically relevant prolonged grief (49%, n = 207), posttraumatic stress (22%, n = 92), depressive (70%; n = 294), and anxiety symptoms (65%; n = 272) were reported by a substantial group of participants. In four multiple regressions predicting each mental health indicator, Fs(15,406) = 5.08-7.74, Ps < 0.001, loss-characteristics (i.e., a shorter time since loss, ßs =  -.12-.11, loss of a first-degree relative, ßs =  .18-.37) and subjective loss experiences (i.e., feeling traumatized by the loss, ßs =  .13-.18, or a close and/or conflictual relation with the deceased, ßs =  .12-.23) related most consistently to mental health problems. CONCLUSION: Many Chinese adults bereaved due to COVID-19 experience severe mental health problems. The recent loss of first-degree relatives, feeling traumatized by the loss, and having a close and/or conflictual relationship with the deceased may elevate risk for these mental health problems, which could require indicated psychological treatment.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671508

RESUMO

Cabin crews being first responders, passengers' health assurance is also one of their main responsibilities. This study explored the association among first aid affect, work-related hardiness and self-efficacy of first aid, as well as the mediation role of work-related hardiness in airline cabin crews. Three self-reporting instruments were applied in this study: one was the first aid affect questionnaire, the second was a work-related hardiness questionnaire, the third was self-efficacy of the first aid questionnaire. Data were collected from 525 cabin crew members across five airlines in Taiwan (480 females and 45 males). The results showed that both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that three instruments had satisfactory validity and reliability. Positive significant relationships were found among cabin crews' first aid affect, work-related hardiness and self-efficacy of first aid. Cabin crews' commitment dimension of work-related hardiness turned out to be positively related to self-efficacy of first aid. In addition, the results of the study also revealed that cabin crews' work commitment plays a mediating role between their first aid affect and self-efficacy of first aid. To enhance the self-efficacy of first aid, it is necessary for the airlines to strengthen cabin crews' work commitment. Furthermore, fostering cabin crews' first aid affect is also one an important training goal.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Autoeficácia , Aeronaves , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
16.
Cell Rep ; 34(10): 108828, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691106

RESUMO

Synapses exhibit multiple forms of short-term plasticities, which have been attributed to the heterogeneity of neurotransmitter release probability. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differential release states remain to be fully elucidated. The Unc-13 proteins appear to have key roles in synaptic function through multiple regulatory domains. Here, we report that deleting the M domain in Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-13MR leads to a significant increase in release probability, revealing an inhibitory function of this domain. The inhibitory effect of this domain is eliminated when the C1 and C2B domains are absent or activated, suggesting that the M domain inhibits release probability by suppressing the activity of C1 and C2B domains. When fused directly to the MUNC2C fragment of UNC-13, the M domain greatly enhances release probability. Thus, our findings reveal a mechanism by which the UNC-13 M domain regulates synaptic transmission and provides molecular insights into the regulation of release probability.

17.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This meta-analysis compared the clinical outcome of three-dimensional (3D) printing combined with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) to traditional ORIF in the treatment of acetabular fractures. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, VIP database, CNKI, and Wanfang database with keywords "acetabular fracture", "3D printing", "three-dimensional printing", "open reduction and internal fixation", "Acetabulum", "Acetabula" from January 2000 to March 2020. Two reviewers independently selected articles, extracted data, assessed the quality evidence and risk bias of included trials using the Cochrane Collaboration' s tools and/or Newcastle-Ottawa scale. When the two analysts had different opinions, they would ask the third analyst for their opinion. Randomized controlled trials or retrospective comparative studies of 3D printing combined with ORIF (3D printing group) versus traditional ORIF (conventional group) in the treatment of acetabular fractures were selected. The data of operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy times, incidence of complications, excellent and good rate of Matta score for reduction, and excellent and good rate of hip function score were extracted. Stata14.0 statistical software was used for analysis. RESULTS: Altogether 9 articles were selected, including 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 retrospective studies. In total of 467 patients, 250 in the conventional group, and 217 in the 3D printing group. The operation time in the 3D printing group was less than that in the conventional group and the difference was statistically significant (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -1.19, 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.82, p < 0.05). The intraoperative bleeding volume of the 3D printing group was significantly lower than that of the conventional group (SMD = -1.08, 95% CI: -1.65 to -0.51, p < 0.05). The fluoroscopy times were less in the 3D printing group than in the conventional group and the difference was statistically significant (SMD = -1.64, 95% CI: -2.35 to -0.93, p < 0.05). The total incidence of complications in the 3D printing group was significantly lower than that in the conventional group (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.24-0.79, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the excellent and good rate of Matta score for reduction between the two groups (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.34-1.06, p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the excellent and good rate of hip function score at the end of postoperative follow-up between the two groups (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.46-1.56, p > 0.05), but the follow-up time varies from 6 months to 40 months. CONCLUSION: Compared with traditional ORIF, 3D printing combined with ORIF has certain advantages in terms that 3D printing not only helps surgeons to understand acetabular fractures more intuitively, but also effectively reduces operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy times, and postoperative complications. However, there were no significant difference in the excellent and good rate of Matta score for reduction and the excellent and good rate of hip function score at the end of follow-up.

18.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(7): 783-791, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, but its burden is not uniform. GLOBOCAN 2020 has newly updated the estimates of cancer burden. This study summarizes the most recent changing profiles of cancer burden worldwide and in China and compares the cancer data of China with those of other regions. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive secondary analysis of the GLOBOCAN 2020 data. To depict the changing global profile of the leading cancer types in 2020 compared with 2018, we extracted the numbers of cases and deaths in 2018 from GLOBOCAN 2018. We also obtained cancer incidence and mortality from the 2015 National Cancer Registry Report in China when sorting the leading cancer types by new cases and deaths. For the leading cancer types according to sex in China, we summarized the estimated numbers of incidence and mortality, and calculated China's percentage of the global new cases and deaths. RESULTS: Breast cancer displaced lung cancer to become the most leading diagnosed cancer worldwide in 2020. Lung, liver, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were the top five leading causes of cancer-related death, among which liver cancer changed from the third-highest cancer mortality in 2018 to the second-highest in 2020. China accounted for 24% of newly diagnosed cases and 30% of the cancer-related deaths worldwide in 2020. Among the 185 countries included in the database, China's age-standardized incidence rate (204.8 per 100,000) ranked 65th and the age-standardized mortality rate (129.4 per 100,000) ranked 13th. The two rates were above the global average. Lung cancer remained the most common cancer type and the leading cause of cancer death in China. However, breast cancer became the most frequent cancer type among women if the incidence was stratified by sex. Incidences of colorectal cancer and breast cancer increased rapidly. The leading causes of cancer death varied minimally in ranking from 2015 to 2020 in China. Gastrointestinal cancers, including stomach, colorectal, liver, and esophageal cancers, contributed to a massive burden of cancer for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of breast cancer is increasing globally. China is undergoing cancer transition with an increasing burden of lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, and breast cancers. The mortality rate of cancer in China is high. Comprehensive strategies are urgently needed to target China's changing profiles of the cancer burden.

19.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 88(4): 251-260, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694202

RESUMO

In our earlier study, we showed that the expression of microRNA-221-3p (miR-221-3p) was significantly lower in women of advanced age with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) compared with young women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to explore how miR-221-3p regulates apoptosis of granulosa cells and the pathogenesis of DOR. Bioinformatics prediction and dual-luciferase reporter assay were conducted to identify the target gene of miR-221-3p. miR-221-3p expression was manipulated by transfecting KGN cells with miR-221-3p mimics, inhibitor, and negative control. Following transfection, apoptosis of granulosa cells was determined by flow cytometry, and the expression of the target gene was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis (WB). In addition, the expression of the target gene in granulosa cells of DOR patients and NOR patients was measured. miR-221-3p were found to directly bind the 3' untranslated region of Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Transfection with miR-221-3p mimics significantly decreased the apoptosis rate of KGN cells compared with transfection with miR-221-3p inhibitors. The expression level of miR-221-3p was negatively correlated with the messenger RNA and protein levels of the FOXO1 gene. Besides, FOXO1 expression was upregulated in DOR patients. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that downregulation of miR-221-3p expression promotes apoptosis of granulosa cells by upregulating FOXO1 expression, thus serving an important role in DOR pathogenesis.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(14): 4331-4341, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787240

RESUMO

The current approaches remain insufficient for measuring chicken egg spoilage or present analytical limitations. This study aimed to complement the existing analyses and identify novel markers using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry-based foodomics strategies. In the discovery set, comparative untargeted metabolomics was utilized to identify marker candidates in microbially inoculated chicken eggs. Markers were annotated by spectral matching with authentic standards, experimental libraries, or in silico fragmentation. In the validation set, targeted metabolomics was employed to verify the markers in stored chicken eggs from five farms. Statistical differences at a p-value < 0.001 revealed increases in lactic and 3-hydroxybutyric acids and decreases in phosphocholine, LPE(O-18:1), LPC(16:0), and LPC(18:0) in stored eggs. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the six combined markers yielded an AUC of 0.956 and a sensitivity and specificity of ∼90%. Four phospholipids were highlighted as a novel class of spoilage markers. Our findings may contribute to further industrial implementation, benefiting the quality assurance and food safety of poultry egg production.

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