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2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 91, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the outcomes after surgical intervention, including external fixation (EF) with the optional addition of K-pins or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a volar locking plate (VLP), in patients with distal radius fracture aged > 80 years. METHODS: We reviewed 69 patients with a distal radius fracture aged > 80 years who treated under surgical intervention from 2011 to 2017 retrospectively. Their demographic data and complications were recorded. Preoperative, postoperative, and last follow-up plain films were analyzed. The functional outcomes of wrist range of motion were also evaluated. RESULTS: 41 patients were treated with EF with the optional addition of K-pins, while 28 patients were treated with ORIF with a VLP. The radiological parameters, including ulnar variance and radial inclination, at the last follow-up were significantly more acceptable in the VLP group (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, respectively). The forearm supination was significantly better in patients treated with VLP (p = 0.002). The overall incidence of complications was lower in the VLP group (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: VLP provides better radiological outcomes, wrist supination and lower complication rates than EF. Therefore, although EF is still widely used because of its acceptable results and easy application, we recommend VLP as a suitable treatment option for distal radius fracture in the geriatric population aged > 80 years.

3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the application of two lactic acid bacteria and dry condensed molasses fermentation solubles (CMS) in the making and preservation of corn silage. Forage corn materials are divided into eight treatment groups as follows: (i) control, (ii) B2 (Lactobacillus plantarum B2, 1 × 109 cfu kg-1 ), (iii) LAS (Lactobacillus buchneri 40788, 3 × 108 cfu kg-1 ), (iv) B2 + LAS, (v) CMS (35 g kg-1 , fresh weight), (vi) B2 + CMS, (vii) LAS + CMS and (viii) B2 + LAS + CMS. The silage composition and aerobic stability are determined after ensiling for 90 days. Furthermore, the digestibility of the silage product and gas production are evaluated using a trotro digestion procedure. RESULTS: The assay results indicate that the CMS supplementation and B2 inoculation significantly increased lactic acid concentration (P < 0.01). However, they also reduced the content of acetic acid and silage pH at the initial fermentation stage. The CMS supplemented with B2 (B2 + CMS) showed an improvement in the quality of silage, but a significant decrease in aerobic stability (P < 0.01). The B2 + LAS + CMS treatment yielded an increase in acetic acid production during the late fermentation period and is able to extend the aerobic stability of corn silage. Furthermore, this study shows that CMS supplementation alone can significantly improve the digestibility of the in vitro dry matter (P < 0.01) and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency (P = 0.01). In addition, the CMS supplementation is beneficial for enhancing the aerobic stability of corn silage. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combination of CMS supplementation and a suitable inoculation lactic acid bacterial strain can be highly promising for enhancing the higher quality and stability of corn silage. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; : e1900095, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Plasma markers that enable diagnosis in the early stage of lung cancer is not discovered. A liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) assay for identifying potential early marker proteins for lung adenocarcinoma is developed. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: LC-MRM-MS assay is used for measuring the level of 35 candidate peptides in plasma from 102 lung adenocarcinoma patients (including n = 50, 16, 24, and 12 in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively.) and 84 healthy controls. Stable isotope labeled standard peptides are synthesized to accurately measure the amount of these proteins. RESULTS: Seven proteins are able to distinguish stage I patients from controls. These proteins are combined in to a protein marker panel which improve the sensitivity to discriminate stage I patients from controls with cross-validated area under the curve = 0.76. Besides, it is found that low expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-I and high expression of lumican show significantly poor prognosis in overall survival (p = 0.012 and 0.0074, respectively), which may be used as prognostic biomarkers for lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Proteins highlighted here may be used for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma or therapeutics development after validation in a larger cohort.

5.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040907

RESUMO

Cancerous microvesicles (MVs), which are heterogeneous membrane-bound nanovesicles shed from the surfaces of cancer cells into the extracellular environment, have been widely recognized as promising "biofingerprints" for various cancers. High-performance identification of cancerous MVs plays a vital role in the early diagnosis of cancer, yet it is still technically challenging. Herein, we report a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-decorated, dual-aptamer modified reduced graphene oxide (RGO) field-effect transistor (AAP-GFET) nanosensor for the label-free, specific, and sensitive quantification of HepG2 cell-derived MVs (HepG2-MVs). After GFET chips were fabricated, AuNPs were then decorated on the RGO surface. For specific capture and detection of HepG2-MVs, both sulfhydrylated HepG2 cell specific TLS11a aptamer (AptTLS11a) and epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer (AptEpCAM) were immobilized on the AuNP surface through an Au-S bond. This developed nanosensor delivered a broad linear dynamic range from 6 × 105 to 6 × 109 particles/mL and achieved a high sensitivity of 84 particles/µL for HepG2-MVs detection. Moreover, this AAP-GFET platform was able to distinguish HepG2-MVs from other liver cancer-related serum proteins (such as AFP and CEA) and MVs derived from human normal cells and other cancer cells of lung, pancreas, and prostate, suggesting its excellent method specificity. Compared with those modified with a single type of aptamer alone (AptTLS11a or AptEpCAM), such an AAP-GFET nanosensor showed greatly enhanced signals, suggesting that the dual-aptamer-based bio-nano interface was uniquely designed and could realize more sensitive quantification of HepG2-MVs. Using this platform to detect HepG2-MVs in clinical blood samples, we found that there were significant differences between healthy controls and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, indicating its great potential in early HCC diagnosis.

6.
FASEB J ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970836

RESUMO

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a family B G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), regulates the insulin secretion following stimulation by ligands. The transmembrane domain (TM) mediates GLP-1R homodimerization, which modulates its ligand binding and signaling. We investigated the possible involvement of the N-terminal extracellular domain (NTD) in dimerization/oligomerization and dimer-associated ligand binding by NanoLuc Binary Technology (NanoBiT). With improved NanoBiT detection using a decreasing substrate concentration, the negative cooperativity of ligand binding to the NTD was confirmed by accelerated dissociation and Scatchard analysis. The dimerization/oligomerization of the isolated NTD was observed by NanoBiT and validated by analytical ultracentrifugation, deriving the comparable dimerization affinity (~105  M-1 ). The NTD was also involved in the dimerization/oligomerization of the full-length GLP-1R with mutated TM4 at the cellular level. In an analysis of the parameters of the NTD binding, the Kd for the probe GLP-1 (7-36, A8G) was similar (6-8 µM) in both the 1:1 binding model and the receptor dimerization model. Compared with GLP-1 and dulaglutide, exenatide showed two-site binding with Ki values of 1.4 pM and 8.7 nM. Our study indicates the involvement of NTD in the GLP-1R dimerization/oligomerization and suggests that further investigations on the role in other family B GPCRs are needed.

7.
ACS Sens ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933360

RESUMO

In this study, we report a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-amplified surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for exosome detection with high sensitivity. The SAW chip was self-assembled with mercapto acetic acid to generate carboxylic groups via the Au-S bond. Anti-CD63 was then anchored onto the chip by pretreatment with 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide,1-hydroxypyrrolidine-2,5-dione (NHS). Due to the existence of a membrane protein, CD63, on the exosome surface, exosomes could be bound onto the antibody-immobilized SAW chip. To amplify the detection signal, both the biotin-conjugated epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody as a secondary antibody and AuNP-labeled streptavidin were applied onto the exosome-bound SAW chip, resulting in AuNP assembly on the chip through biotin-avidin recognition. The sensor was capable of detecting 1.1 × 103 particles/mL exosomes, which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those detected by the strategy without using signal amplification. The sensor also achieved a satisfactory specificity and could detect the low-abundance exosomes directly in blood samples from cancer patients with minimal disturbance. This makes the SAW sensor useful for early diagnosis of cancer.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 344, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941914

RESUMO

Agricultural expansion at the cost of natural or semi-natural habitats is simplifying human-dominated landscapes. As croplands provide a large resource of food to herbivores, pest damage may increase, but such large-scale patterns across regions are little known. Here, we used two years of maize field data from 102 counties (each 1318 km2 on average) across Shandong Province in China to study the spatial distribution of two major co-occurring maize pests: the putative habitat specialist the Asian Corn Borer (Ostrinia furnacalis) (ACB) and the generalist Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) (YPM). We used Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices (SADIE) to assess the spatial distribution patterns of these pests and their relation to landscape factors. In both 2016 and 2017, the aggregation and abundance of the ACB was positively correlated with the proportion of maize on the county level, whereas the YPM exhibited the opposite pattern, i.e., a negative correlation with maize proportion. The ACB abundance was below the economic threshold level when maize was <31% in 2017, whereas the YPM abundance was below the threshold when maize was >27% (in 2016) or 23% (in 2017). Maize plant presence was the main determinant of the abundance of the ACB, while the YPM appeared to benefit from further resources in non-crop habitats. These contrasting distribution patterns suggest that the two pests are driven by their different resource requirements. In more diversified landscapes, pest control may need to focus primarily on the generalist consumer, the YPM, whereas in maize-dominated landscapes, the specialist consumer, the ACB, is dominant and needs attention.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 226, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937822

RESUMO

The mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum, has become a major pest of many crops and fruit trees since the widespread adoption of Bt cotton in northern China. Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as dinotefuran, applied to control this pest may show sublethal effects, but evidence for such effects is lacking. Here, we investigated the sublethal and transgenerational effects of dinotefuran on biological parameters and feeding behavioural traits of A. lucorum using the age-stage, two-sex life table and electrical penetration graphs (EPGs), respectively. The LC10 and LC30 of dinotefuran against 3rd-instar nymphs of A. lucorum were 14.72 and 62.95 mg L-1, respectively. These two concentrations significantly extended the development duration from 3rd-instar nymph to adult in parent generation (F0). LC30 also increased the oviposition period and male adult longevity and reduced nymphal survival rate in the F0. For offspring generation (F1), the egg duration, preadult duration, and total preoviposition period were significantly lower at LC10 than in the control, and the egg duration, duration of 4th-instar nymphs, preadult duration, oviposition period, and fecundity were also decreased at LC30. However, the four demographic parameters of F1 generation, namely, net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean generation time (T), were not affected by dinotefuran. The significant differences in the number of probes and duration of each of four feeding waveforms failed to be detected when A. lucorum nymphs treated by dinotefuran feed on Bt cotton plants without insecticide exposure. Overall, the dinotefuran concentrations tested here have sublethal, but no transgenerational impacts on A. lucorum.

10.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942048

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Planta ; 251(2): 44, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907626

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In Hordeum vulgare, nine differentially expressed novel miRNAs were induced by colchicine. Five novel miRNA in colchicine solution showed the opposite expression patterns as those in water. Colchicine is a commonly used agent for plant chromosome set doubling. MicroRNA-mediated responses to colchicine treatment in plants have not been characterized. Here, we characterized new microRNAs induced by colchicine treatment in Hordeum vulgare using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that 39 differentially expressed miRNAs were affected by water treatment, including 34 novel miRNAs and 5 known miRNAs; 42 miRNAs, including 37 novel miRNAs and 5 known miRNAs, were synergistically affected by colchicine and water, and 9 differentially expressed novel miRNAs were induced by colchicine. The novel_mir69, novel_mir57, novel_mir75, novel_mir38, and novel_mir56 in colchicine treatment showed the opposite expression patterns as those in water. By analyzing these 9 differentially expressed novel miRNAs and their targets, we found that novel_mir69, novel_mir56 and novel_mir25 co-target the genes involving the DNA repair pathway. Based on our results, microRNA-target regulation network under colchicine treatment was proposed, which involves actin, cell cycle regulation, cell wall synthesis, and the regulation of oxidative stress. Overall, the results demonstrated the critical role of microRNAs mediated responses to colchicine treatment in plants.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 13, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary angiosarcomas of the right atrium are extremely rare, often resulted in missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis with routine examination tools. These malignant cardiac tumors are highly aggressive with generally poor prognosis. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment as it is essentially not responsive to current regimens of chemoradiotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we describe a patient who initially presented with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and was subsequently treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Prior to RFCA, an initial transesophageal echocardiography revealed a local thickening of the intratrial septum. Three months later, she was hospitalized with progressive dyspnea and massive pericardial effusion. A large immobile, non-pedunculated mass, occupying almost half of the right atrium was detected by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram. Multimodality cardiac imaging was useful in further characterizing this mass, which was ultimately diagnosed as an angiosarcoma based upon biopsy results. The growth rate was extremely rapid following RFCA, and patient underwent surgical excision. After discharge, the angiosarcoma recurred and patient survived for 7 months from the first episode of tamponade. CONCLUSIONS: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma of the right atrium can easily be mistaken for structural anomalies in its early stages, losing the opportunity for initiating earlier treatments to improve potential patient outcomes. The correct diagnosis of this rare case relied on the comprehensive utilization of multimodal imaging techniques including biopsy.

14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dry eye symptoms after cataract surgery in MGD patients and their relationships METHODS: The study included 115 patients (115 eyes) with age-related cataract that underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery, and the patients were divided into two groups according to the MGD diagnostic criteria: group A (MGD group) and group B (control group). Schirmer I test (ST-I), tear breakup time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) were performed preoperatively and at 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days postoperatively. We also measured eyelid meibomian gland morphology, meibomian gland expression, and meibum character scores before and after the cataract surgery. RESULTS: Postoperatively, in group A, TBUT decreased and CFS scores increased significantly. ST-I increased in the early postoperative course but decreased later. The eyelid margin morphology scores and meibomian gland expression scores of group A significantly increased after the cataract operation. Thus, patients with MGD may have a greater chance of developing the dry eye disease after cataract surgery. Cataract surgery may aggravate the signs of MGD, and the severity of MGD may positively correlate with TBUT, CFS, and corneal lesions after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of dry eye after cataract surgery in patients with MGD are different from common cataract patients, changes in the early postoperative phase to the ocular surface were caused by surgical factors, and the damages to epithelial function in the later postoperative phase were mainly associated with the inflammation of the meibomian gland and eyelid.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0222126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995555

RESUMO

Most existing cancer treatments involve high-cost chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with major side effects, prompting effort to develop alternative treatment modalities. It was reported that the combination of thermal-cycling hyperthermia (TC-HT) and phenolic compound exhibited a moderate cytotoxic effect against human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of triple combination in PANC-1 cancer cells by adopting low-intensity pulsed electric field (LIPEF) to couple with TC-HT and CGA (chlorogenic acid). The study finds that this triple combination can significantly impede the proliferation of PANC-1 cells, with only about 20% viable cells left after 24h, whereas being non-toxic to normal cells. The synergistic activity against the PANC-1 cells was achieved by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, which were associated with up-regulation of p53 and coupled with increased expression of downstream proteins p21 and Bax. Further mechanism investigations revealed that the cytotoxic activity could be related to mitochondrial apoptosis, characterized by the reduced level of Bcl-2, mitochondrial dysfunction, and sequential activation of caspase-9 and PARP. Also, we found that the triple treatment led to the increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Notably, the triple treatment-induced cytotoxic effects and the elevated expression of p53 and p21 proteins as well as the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, all could be alleviated by the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). These findings indicate that the combination of CGA, TC-HT, and LIPEF may be a promising modality for cancer treatment, as it can induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through accumulation of ROS in PANC-1 cells.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903677

RESUMO

Heterocycles, a class of molecules that includes oxazoles, constitute one of the most common building blocks in current pharmaceuticals and are common in medicinally important natural products. The antitumor natural product nataxazole is a model for a large class of benzoxazole-containing molecules that are made by a pathway that is not characterized. We report structural, biochemical, and chemical evidence that benzoxazole biosynthesis proceeds through an ester generated by an ATP-dependent adenylating enzyme. The ester rearranges via a tetrahedral hemiorthoamide to yield an amide, which is a shunt product and not, as previously thought, an intermediate in the pathway. A second zinc-dependent enzyme catalyzes the formation of hemiorthoamide from the ester but, by shuttling protons, the enzyme eliminates water, a reverse hydrolysis reaction, to yield the benzoxazole and avoids the amide. These insights have allowed us to harness the pathway to synthesize a series of novel halogenated benzoxazoles.

17.
Prostate ; 80(5): 367-375, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are first-line choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have shown that they exhibit antitumor properties in some tumors. We previously found that a GLP-1 analog, exendin-4 (Ex-4), inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells through suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is activated in response to enzalutamide treatment and reported to be closely related to resistance to enzalutamide. So we speculated that exendin-4 may enhance the sensitivity of prostate cancer to enzalutamide through inhibiting Akt activation. METHODS: LNCap and CWR22RV1 cell lines, as well as mice bearing xenografts formed from the two cells, were used. RESULTS: Exendin-4 in combination with enzalutamide dramatically suppressed tumor growth of prostate cancer cells compared to enzalutamide alone; exendin-4 is capable of antagonizing enzalutamide-induced invasion and migration of both prostate cancer cells (P < .05). Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly reduced Akt and mTOR levels that were triggered by enzalutamide administration, caused a further decrease in nuclear AR localization compared with the enzalutamide as a monotherapy (P < .5), though exendin-4 treatment alone showed no effect on nuclear AR. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that exendin-4 alleviated resistance to enzalutamide, and suggested that exendin-4 combined with enzalutamide may be a more efficacious treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer.

18.
Environ Res ; 181: 108946, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer ambulance response time (ART) delaying treatment would worsen conditions of seriously ill or injured patients, but limited evidence is available on the effects of weather factors on ART. This study aims to assess precipitation- and temperature-ART associations and their potential lagged effects using a novel modeling strategy. METHODS: Based on 779,156 emergency records during 2010-2016 from the whole population in Shenzhen, China, we creatively combined quantile regression with distributed-lag nonlinear models to examine the non-linear and lagged effects of hourly precipitation and temperature on ART at the 50th and 90th percentiles. RESULTS: A linear precipitation-ART association with a delay of 9.01 (95%CI, 7.82-10.20) seconds at median ART for a 1 mm increase in hourly precipitation, and the effects lasted for 5 h with the greatest effect at the current hour. A two linear thresholds temperature-ART association revealed 1 °C decrease below 19 °C caused 1.68 (95%CI, 0.92-2.44) seconds delay in total ART over lag 0-7 h, and 1 °C increase above 24 °C caused 2.44 (95%CI, 1.55-3.33) seconds delay. The hourly call volumes exceeding 54 calls caused 8.79 (95%CI, 8.71-8.86) seconds delay in total ART for 1 more call, but not affected the effects of weather factors. The internal ART suffered more from the hourly call volumes, while the external ART suffered more from precipitation and temperature. The effects were apparently greater on ART at the 90th percentile than median. CONCLUSIONS: Precipitation and temperature are independent risk factors for ambulance services performance, and their lagged effects are notable. The external ART and patients with long ART are vulnerable. More attention should be paid to weather and ART, and these findings may have implications for effective policies to reduce ART to protect public health.

19.
Chemistry ; 26(3): 721-728, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633255

RESUMO

Dehydration of (S,S)-1,2-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol (H4 L) to (Z)-1,2-bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethenol) (H3 L') was found to be metal-assisted, occurs under solvothermal conditions (H2 O/CH3 OH), and leads to [MnII 4 (H3 L)4 Cl2 ]Cl2 ⋅5 H2 O⋅5 CH3 OH (Mn4 L4 ) and [MnII 4 (H2 L')6 (µ3 -OH)]Cl⋅4 CH3 OH⋅H2 O (Mn4 L'6 ), respectively. Their structures were determined by single-crystal XRD. Extensive ESI-MS studies on solutions and solids of the reaction led to the proposal consisting of an initial stepwise assembly of Mn4 L4 from the reactants via [MnL] and [Mn2 L2 ] below 80 °C, and then disassembly to [MnL] and [MnL2 ] followed by ligand modification before reassembly to Mn4 L'6 via [MnL'], [MnL'2 ], and [Mn2 L'3 ] with increasing solvothermal temperature up to 140 °C. Identification of intermediates [Mn4 Lx L'6-x ] (x=5, 4, 3, 2, 1) in the process further suggested an assembly/disassembly/in situ reaction/reassembly transformation mechanism. These results not only reveal that multiple phase transformations are possible even though they were not realized in the crystalline state, but also help to better understand the complex transformation process between coordination clusters during "black-box" reactions.

20.
Plant Physiol ; 182(1): 332-344, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591151

RESUMO

N 6 -methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Although m6A has been demonstrated to affect almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, its global contribution to the post-transcriptional balancing of translational efficiency remains elusive in plants. In this study, we performed a parallel analysis of the transcriptome-wide mRNA m6A distribution and polysome profiling in two maize (Zea mays) inbred lines to assess the global correlation of m6A modification with translational status. m6A sites are widely distributed in thousands of protein-coding genes, confined to a consensus motif and primarily enriched in the 3' untranslated regions, and highly coordinated with alternative polyadenylation usage, suggesting a role of m6A modification in regulating alternative polyadenylation site choice. More importantly, we identified that the m6A modification shows multifaceted correlations with the translational status depending on its strength and genic location. Moreover, we observed a substantial intraspecies variation in m6A modification, and this natural variation was shown to be partly driven by gene-specific expression and alternative splicing. Together, these findings provide an invaluable resource for ascertaining transcripts that are subject to m6A modification in maize and pave the way to a better understanding of natural m6A variation in mediating gene expression regulation.

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